↑Hennig, Jean-Luc (1995). 《The rear view: A brief and elegant history of bottoms through the ages》. London: Souvenir. ISBN 0-285-63303-1
↑"Police.", 22 March 1894 작성. ""Mr. Curtis Bennett deprecated caning on the hands and boxing the ears, and said they were exceedingly dangerous forms of punishment. Nature provided a special place for boys to be punished upon and it should be used."