↑(영어) Oberlies, Thomas (《Die Religion des Rgveda》, Wien, 1998, p. 155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. Estimates for a "terminus post quem" of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100
↑ 가나다라(영어) Bloomfield, M. 《The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana》, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. 《A history of Indian literature》: I.1 Vedic literature (Samhitas and Brahmanas); I.2 The Ritual Sutras. Wiesbaden 1975, 1977
↑(영어) Michael Witzel, 《Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes》 ed. Caillat, Paris, 1989, 97–265.
↑(영어) Sharma, Shubhra (1985), 《Life in the Upanishads》, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 9788170172024, pp. 17–19.
↑(영어) "Hinduism" (2009). 《Encyclopædia Britannica》. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
↑(영어) Narayan, R.K. 《The Ramayana. Penguin Group, 2006, page xxiii: "The Indian epic, the Ramayana, dates back to 1500 BC according to certain early scholars. Recent studies have brought it down to about the fourth century BC."
↑For composition between 200 BCE and 200 CE see: Avari 2007, 142쪽. For dating of composition "between the second century BCE and third century CE" see: Flood 1996, 56쪽. For dating of Manu Smriti in "final form" to the 2nd century CE, see: Keay, p. 103. For dating as completed some time between 200 BCE and 100 CE see: Hopkins 1971, 74쪽. For probable origination during the second or 3rd centuries AD, see: Kulke, Hermann & Rothermund, Dietmar 1986, 85쪽. For the text as preserved dated to around the 1st century BCE. see: 《Encyclopedia Britannica Concise》, retrieved 2007-06-24