요구르트

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요구르트

요구르트(Yoghurt, 또는 Yogurt, 문화어: 젖산유) 또는 요거트는 유목민들이 동물의 발효시켜 만든 고대의 건강식으로서 우유산양젖(면양유, 緬羊乳) 등을 살균하여 반쯤 농축시키고, 이에 유산균을 번식시켜 발효, 응고시킨 음료를 가리킨다. 액체일 때도 있고, 고체일 때도 있으며, 그에 따라 마시기도 하고 숟가락으로 떠서 먹기도 한다. 장수의 비결이라고 여겨지는 건강식으로 잘 알려져 있다.

요구르트는 인도-이란 문화권에서 첫 기록이 발견되는데 요구르트에 꿀을 더한 음식을 신들의 음식이라고 하였다. 고대 페르시아인들과 아랍 유목민들은 요구르트를 동물 젖의 우수한 양분을 보존하는 방법으로 여겼다. 발효 과정에서 생산되는 유산균은 젖이 부패하지 않도록 도와주었다.

러시아의 세균학자 메치니코프가 요구르트를 다량 포함하고 있는 식사를 하는 불가리아의 농민들이 평균 87세까지 산다고 발표했을 때, 많은 사람들은 이 음식에 더 많은 관심을 가지게 되었다.

미국의 하우저는 요구르트의 중요성으로 ① 젖산균이 장내에서 각종 비타민B를 만든다. ② 칼슘이 젖산에 녹아 흡수가 쉬워진다. ③ 탈지우유로 만든 것은 동물성지방이 없으므로 비만해지지 않는다. ④ 장내에 가스를 발생하지 않는다는 것을 주장함으로써 한층 더 널리 보급되었다. 장수를 촉진한다는 주장에 더하여, 몇몇 연구원[누가?]들은 요구르트가 소화기 질병, 고콜레스테롤 수치, 심지어 암과 같은 종양에 대한 치료약이라고 주장하고 있다.

요구르트에 있는 유산균 발효는 단백질 발효가 아닌 탄수화물 발효(유당 발효)이다. 유당이 유산균에 의해 소화, 분해되는 단당류형태이기 때문에 유당불내증 환자에게 우유 대신 섭취할 수 있는 영양식이 되기도 한다.

오늘날 플레인, 과일 혼합, 칼슘 강화 등의 형태로 생산되며, 특히 맛을 가미하지 않은 요구르트는 저열량 식품으로 인기가 있다. 또한 건강식 셰이크를 만드는 데 사용되거나 아이스크림처럼 얼려 먹기도 한다.

요구르트의 탄수화물 함량은 7~16%로 우유(약 5%)에 비해 높고, 지방 함량은 우유에 비해 낮다. 요구르트에 탄수화물 함량이 높은 이유는 발효 식품 특유의 신맛을 줄이기 위해 제조 과정에서 당분을 인위적으로 첨가하기 때문이다. 그러므로 비만, 고혈압, 동맥경화 등 성인병이 있거나 우려되는 사람, 당뇨병 환자의 경우 요구르트를 선택할 때 저(低)지방 또는 무(無)지방 제품을 먹는 것이 좋다. [1]

집에서 요구르트를 만드는 방법은 우유 한팩에 약국에서 구입할 수 있는 지중해 유산균 종균이나 유산균 발효유 한 병, 이전에 만들어놓은 요구르트의 한 두 스푼 정도 넣고 잘 섞은 후 따뜻한 온도에서 일정 시간 정도 두면 요구르트가 완성 된다. 우유는 고칼슘 우유 같은 기능성 우유보다는 일반 우유를 사용하는 것이 좋다. 기능성 우유에 첨가된 성분으로 인해 이상 발효가 일어나는 경우가 있다.

어원과 발음[편집]

단어 "요구르트"는 "요우르트"(터키어: yoğurt)라는 터키어 단어에서 비롯되었으며,[2] "응고하다" 또는 "걸쭉해지다"라는 뜻을 가진 터키어 동사인 "요우르마크"(터키어: yoğurmak)나 접두사 "유우르-", 접미사 "-t"와도 관련되어 있다.[3][4]요구르트의 어원이 된 단어 "yoğurt"는 "요구르트"라는 발음이 아닌 "요우르트"라는 발음이 나는데 이는 1928년 이전의 음역에 따라 낱자 ğ는 영어의 "gh" 발음이 나기 때문이다.[5] In older Turkish, the letter denoted a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, but this sound is elided between back vowels in modern Turkish, in which the word is pronounced 틀:IPA-tr, or 틀:IPA-tr.

In English, there are several variations of the spelling of the word, including yogurt, yoghurt and to a lesser extent yoghourt, yogourt, yaghourt, yahourth, yoghurd, joghourt, and jogourt.[6][7][8] In the United Kingdom and Australia, yogurt and yoghurt are both current, yogurt being used by the Australian and British dairy councils,[9][10] and yoghourt is an uncommon alternative.[11] In the United States, yogurt is the usual spelling and yoghurt a minor variant.[11] In New Zealand, yoghurt is preferred by the New Zealand Oxford Dictionary.[12] In Canada, yogurt is most common among English speakers although "yoghurt" is also used,[11] but many brands use yogourt,[13] since it is an acceptable spelling in both English and French, the official languages of Canada.

Historically there have also been cases of yogurt being spelt with a "J" instead of a "Y" (e.g. jogurt and joghurt) due to alternative transliteration methods. However, there has been a decline in these variations in English speaking countries, but in certain European countries it is still commonly spelt with a "J". Most people tend to spell in the manner shown on the packaging of the major brands in their country.

Whatever the spelling, the word is usually pronounced with a short o /ˈjɒɡət/ in England and Wales, with a long o /ˈjɡərt/ in Scotland, North America, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and South Africa.

History[편집]

By most accounts yogurt was created by Central Asian people in the Neolithic.[14] Analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus genome indicates that the bacterium may have originated on the surface of a plant.[15] Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally infected through contact with plants, or bacteria may have been transferred via the udder of domestic milk-producing animals.[16]

In ancient Indian records, the combination of yogurt and honey is called "the food of the gods".[17] Persian traditions hold that "Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt".[18]

The oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder, who remarked that certain "barbarous nations" knew how "to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity".[19] The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Diwan Lughat al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century.[20][21] Both texts mention the word "yogurt" in different sections and describe its use by nomadic Turks.[20][21] The earliest yogurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags.[22]

Some accounts suggest that Indian emperor Akbar's cooks would use mustard seeds and cinnamon in yogurt to add flavor to it.[23] Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who allegedly cured the patient with yogurt.[23][24] Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food which had cured him.

Until the 1900s, yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire (and especially Central Asia and the Caucasus), Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, and India. Stamen Grigorov (1878–1945), a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva, first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt. In 1905, he described it as consisting of a spherical and a rod-like lactic acid bacteria. In 1907, the rod-like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus (now Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus). The Russian Nobel laureate and biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (also seen as Élie Metchnikoff), from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants. Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe.

Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt. In 1919, Carasso, who was from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yogurt business in Barcelona, Spain, and named the business Danone ("little Daniel") after his son. The brand later expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name: Dannon.

Yogurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlická Mlékárna dairy in Prague.[25]

Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, influenced by Élie Metchnikoff's The Prolongation of Life; Optimistic Studies (1908); it was available in tablet form for those with digestive intolerance and for home culturing.[26] It was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, where it was used both orally and in enemas,[27] and later by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started "Colombo and Sons Creamery" in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929.[28][29] Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon inscribed with the Armenian word "madzoon" which was later changed to "yogurt", the Turkish name of the product, as Turkish was the lingua franca between immigrants of the various Near Eastern ethnicities who were the main consumers at that time. Yogurt's popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was presented as a health food. By the late 20th century, yogurt had become a common American food item and Colombo Yogurt was sold in 1993 to General Mills, which discontinued the brand in 2010.[30]

There is an ongoing effort by Byron-Bergen Elementary School to make Yogurt the official snack food of New York State.[31][32]

Nutritional value[편집]

Unstirred Turkish Süzme Yoğurt (strained yogurt), with a 10% fat content

Yogurt is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12.[33][34] It has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk. Lactose-intolerant individuals may tolerate yogurt better than other dairy products due to the conversion of lactose to the sugars glucose and galactose, and due to the fermentation of lactose to lactic acid carried out by the bacteria present in the yogurt.[35] Yogurt contains varying amounts of fat. For example, some cows'-milk yogurts contain no fat; others of low fat content have 2% fat, whole-milk yogurt may have 4% fat; some yogurts sold as "Greek-style" may have about 10% fat.[36][37]

Health effects[편집]

Yogurt has been claimed to have many health benefits.[38] There is moderate-quality evidence to support the idea that consumption of dairy products, including yogurt, may reduce the risk of high blood pressure.[39] However, the precise mechanism for this effect is not fully understood.[39]

Varieties and presentation[편집]

Tzatziki is a side dish made with yogurt, popular in Greek cuisine, and similar yet thicker than the Turkish Cacik and close to the traditional Bulgarian Milk salad.
Cacık, a Turkish cold appetizer made from yogurt
Tarator is a cold soup made of yogurt, cucumber, dill, garlic and sunflower oil (walnuts are sometimes added) and is popular in Bulgaria.
Raita is a condiment made with yogurt and popular in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Dadiah sold in Bukittinggi Market

Da-hi is a yogurt of the Indian subcontinent, known for its characteristic taste and consistency. The word da-hi seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word dadhi, one of the five elixirs, or panchamrita, often used in Hindu ritual. Dahi also holds cultural symbolism in many homes in the Mithila region of Nepal and Bihar<reference?>. Yogurt balances the palate across regional cuisines throughout India. In the hot and humid south, yogurt and foods made of yogurt are a staple in order to cool down - yogurt rice is always the last dish of the meal. Also, the primarily vegetarian population of India derives some protein from yogurt (other than lentil and beans). Sweet yogurt (meesti doi or meethi dahi) is common in eastern parts of India, made by fermenting sweetened milk. While cows' milk is considered sacred and is currently the primary ingredient for yogurt, goat and buffalo milk were widely used in the past, and valued for the fat content (see buffalo curd). Butter and cream were made by churning the yogurt/milk.

In India and Pakistan, it is often used in cosmetics mixed with turmeric and honey. Sour yogurt, is also used as a hair conditioner by women in many parts of India and Pakistan.[40] Dahi is also known as Mosaru (Kannada), Thayir (Tamil), Thayiru (Malayalam), doi (Assamese, Bengali), dohi (Oriya), perugu (Telugu), Qәzana a pәәner (Pashto) and Dhahi or Dhaunro (Sindhi ڏهي، ڌونرو)

Raita is a yogurt-based South Asian/Indian condiment, used as a side dish. The yogurt is seasoned with cilantro (coriander), cumin, mint, cayenne pepper, and other herbs and spices. Vegetables such as cucumber and onions are mixed in, and the mixture is served chilled. Raita has a cooling effect on the palate which makes it a good foil for spicy Indian and Pakistani dishes. Raita is sometimes also referred to as dahi.

Dadiah or Dadih is a traditional West Sumatran yogurt made from water buffalo milk, fermented in bamboo tubes.[41]

Yogurt is popular in Nepal, where it is served as both an appetizer and dessert. Locally called dahi (दही), it is a part of the Nepali culture, used in local festivals, marriage ceremonies, parties, religious occasions, family gatherings, and so on. The most famous type of Nepalese yogurt is called juju dhau, originating from the city of Bhaktapur. In Tibet, yak milk (technically dri milk, as the word yak refers to the male animal) is made into yogurt (and butter and cheese) and consumed.

In Northern Iran, Mâst Chekide is a variety of kefir yogurt with a distinct sour taste. It is usually mixed with a pesto-like water and fresh herb purée called delal. Yogurt is a side dish to all Iranian meals. The most popular appetizers are spinach or eggplant borani, Mâst-o-Khiâr with cucumber, spring onions and herbs, and Mâst-Musir with wild shallots. In the summertime, yogurt and ice cubes are mixed together with cucumbers, raisins, salt, pepper and onions and topped with some croutons made of Persian traditional bread and served as a cold soup. Ashe-Mâst is a warm yogurt soup with fresh herbs, spinach and lentils. Even the leftover water extracted when straining yogurt is cooked to make a sour cream sauce called kashk, which is usually used as a topping on soups and stews.

Matsoni is a Georgian yogurt popular in the Caucasus and Russia. It is used in a wide variety of Georgian dishes and is believed to have contributed to the high life expectancy and longevity in the country. Dannon used this theory in their 1978 TV advertisement called In Soviet Georgia where shots of elderly Georgian farmers were interspersed with an off-camera announcer intoning, "In Soviet Georgia, where they eat a lot of yogurt, a lot of people live past 100."[42] Matsoni is also popular in Japan under the name Caspian Sea Yogurt (カスピ海ヨーグルト).

Tarator and Cacık are popular cold soups made from yogurt, popular during summertime in Albania, Azerbaijan (known as Dogramac), Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey. They are made with ayran, cucumbers, dill, salt, olive oil, and optionally garlic and ground walnuts. Tzatziki[43] in Greece and milk salad in Bulgaria are thick yogurt-based salads similar to tarator.

Khyar w Laban (cucumber and yogurt salad) is a popular dish in Lebanon and Syria. Also, a wide variety of local Lebanese and Syrian dishes are cooked with yogurt like "Kibbi bi Laban", etc.

Rahmjoghurt, a creamy yogurt with much higher fat content (10%) than many yogurts offered in English-speaking countries (Rahm is German for "cream"), is available in Germany and other countries.

Dovga, a yogurt soup cooked with a variety of herbs and rice is popular in Azerbaijan, often served warm in winter or refreshingly cold in summer.

Cream-top yogurt is yogurt made with unhomogenized milk. A layer of cream rises to the top, forming a rich yogurt cream. Cream-top yogurt was first made commercially popular in the United States by Brown Cow of Newfield, New York, bucking the trend toward low- and non-fat yogurts.

Jameed is yogurt which is salted and dried to preserve it. It is popular in Jordan.

Zabadi is the type of yogurt made in Egypt, usually from the milk of the Egyptian water buffalo. It is particularly associated with Ramadan fasting, as it is thought to prevent thirst during all-day fasting.[44]

Sweetened and flavored yogurt[편집]

To offset its natural sourness, yogurt is also sold sweetened, flavored or in containers with fruit or fruit jam on the bottom.[45] The two styles of yogurt commonly found in the grocery store are set type yogurt and Swiss style yogurt. Set type yogurt is when the yogurt is packaged with the fruit on the bottom of the cup and the yogurt on top. Swiss style yogurt is when the fruit is blended into the yogurt prior to packaging.[46]

Lassi and Moru are common beverages in India. Lassi is milk that is sweetened with sugar commonly, less commonly honey and often combined with fruit pulp to create flavored lassi. Mango lassi is a western favorite, as is coconut lassi. Consistency can vary widely, with urban and commercial lassis being of uniform texture through being processed, whereas rural and rustic lassi has curds in it, and sometimes has malai (cream) added or removed. Moru is a popular South Indian summer drink, meant to keep drinkers hydrated through the hot and humid summers of the South. It is prepared by considerably thinning down yogurt with water, adding salt (for electrolyte balance) and spices, usually green chilli peppers, asafoetida, curry leaves and mustard.

Large amounts of sugar – or other sweeteners for low-calorie yogurts – are often used in commercial yogurt. Some yogurts contain added starch, pectin (found naturally in fruit), and/or gelatin to create thickness and creaminess artificially at lower cost. This type of yogurt is also marketed under the name Swiss-style, although it is unrelated to the way yogurt is eaten in Switzerland. Some yogurts, often called "cream line," are made with whole milk which has not been homogenized so the cream rises to the top. Fruit jam is used instead of raw fruit pieces in fruit yogurts to allow storage for weeks.[출처 필요]

In the UK, Ireland, France and USA, sweetened, flavored yogurt is the most popular type, typically sold in single-serving plastic cups. Common flavors include vanilla, honey, and toffee, and fruit such as strawberry, cherry, blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, mango and peach. In the early twenty-first century yogurt flavors inspired by desserts, such as chocolate or cheesecake, have been available.

Strained yogurt[편집]

Use coffee filter to strain yogurt in a home refrigerator.

Strained yogurt is yogurt which has been strained through a paper or cloth filter, traditionally made of muslin.[출처 필요], to remove the whey, giving a much thicker consistency and a distinctive, slightly tangy taste. Strained yogurt is becoming more popular with those who make yogurt at home, especially if using skim milk which results in a thinner consistency. Once yogurt is made and refrigerated overnight, it is poured in a muslin or cheesecloth bag and hung in the coolest place in the house, with a tub placed underneath to collect the dripping whey. In cold weather a single day (or night) of straining is sufficient. In higher ambient temperatures yogurt will spoil rapidly, therefore it had best be actively squeezed or strained until about a third or more of its initial weight has run off. The remainder is now strained and is refrigerated again.

Labneh is a strained yogurt used for sandwiches popular in Arab countries. Olive oil, cucumber slices, olives, and various green herbs may be added. It can be thickened further and rolled into balls, preserved in olive oil, and fermented for a few more weeks. It is sometimes used with onions, meat, and nuts as a stuffing for a variety of pies or kebbeh (كبة) balls.

Some types of strained yogurts are boiled in open vats first, so that the liquid content is reduced. The popular East Indian dessert, a variation of traditional dahi called mishti dahi, offers a thicker, more custard-like consistency, and is usually sweeter than western yogurts.

Strained yogurt is also enjoyed in Greece and is the main component of tzatziki (from Turkish "cacık"), a well-known accompaniment to gyros and souvlaki pita sandwiches: it is a yogurt sauce or dip made with the addition of grated cucumber, olive oil, salt and, optionally, mashed garlic.

Srikhand, a popular dessert in India, is made from strained yogurt, saffron, cardamom, nutmeg and sugar and sometimes fruits such as mango or pineapple.

In North America and Britain, strained yogurt is commonly called "Greek yogurt".

Beverages[편집]

PCC Dairy Yogurt Milk, with live cultures, made from water buffalo's cream milk Philippine Carabao Center.
Ayran. One of the popular beverages in Turkish cuisine.

Dugh ("dawghe" in Neo-Aramaic), ayran or dhallë is a yogurt-based, salty drink popular in Iran, Kurdistan Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Macedonia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It is made by mixing yogurt with water and (sometimes) salt. The same drink is known as doogh in Iran and in some parts of Kurdistan; tan in Armenia; laban ayran in Syria and Lebanon; shenina in Iraq and Jordan; laban arbil in Iraq; majjiga (Telugu), majjige (Kannada), and moru (Tamil and Malayalam) in South India; namkeen lassi in Punjab and all over Pakistan. A similar drink, doogh, is popular in the Middle East between Lebanon, Iran, and Iraq; it differs from ayran by the addition of herbs, usually mint, and is sometimes carbonated, commonly with carbonated water.

Borhani (or Burhani) is a spicy yogurt drink popular in Bangladesh and parts of Bengal. It is usually served with kacchi biryani at weddings and special feasts. Key ingredients are yogurt blended with mint leaves (mentha), mustard seeds and black rock salt (Kala Namak). Ground roasted cumin, ground white pepper, green chili pepper paste and sugar are often added.

Lassi (Hindi: लस्सी, Urdu: لسی) is a yogurt-based beverage originally from the Indian subcontinent that is usually slightly salty or sweet. Lassi is a staple in Punjab. In some parts of the subcontinent, the sweet version may be commercially flavored with rosewater, mango or other fruit juice to create a very different drink. Salty lassi is usually flavored with ground, roasted cumin and red chilies; this salty variation may also use buttermilk, and in India is interchangeably called ghol (Bengal), mattha (North India), "majjige" (Karnataka), majjiga (Telangana & Andhra Pradesh), moru (Tamil Nadu and Kerala), Dahi paani Chalha (Odisha), tak (Maharashtra), or chaas (Gujarat). Lassi is very widely drunk in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Mango Lassi is a popular drink at Indian restaurants in US.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia, an unsweetened and unsalted yogurt drink usually called simply jogurt is a popular accompaniment to burek and other bakery products.

Sweetened yogurt drinks are the usual form in Europe (including the UK) and the US, containing fruit and added sweeteners. These are typically called "drinking / drinkable yogurt", such as Yop and BioBest Smoothie.

Also available are "yogurt smoothies", which contain a higher proportion of fruit and are more like smoothies. In Ecuador, yogurt smoothies flavored with native fruit are served with pan de yuca as a common type of fast food.

Also in Turkey, yogurt-soup or Yayla Çorbası is a popular way of consuming yogurt. The soup is a mix of yogurt, rice, flour and dried mint.

Making yogurt at home[편집]

Yogurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture), usually Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, into milk. After inoculation, the milk is incubated at 40 to 46 °C (105 to 115 °F) until firm; the milk is coagulated by bacteria-produced lactic acid.

The milk used to make yogurt contains a higher concentration of solids than normal milk. By increasing the solids content of the milk, a firm, rather than soft, end product results. Addition of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) is the easiest at-home method for doing this.[47] Another method is using scalded milk: heating milk near boiling, then letting it cool down to 60 °C (110 °F). The process denaturates whey proteins, which makes yogurt thicker.[48]

The yogurt making process provides two significant barriers to pathogen growth: (a) heat and (b) acidity (low pH). Both are necessary to ensure a safe product. Acidity alone has been questioned by recent outbreaks of food poisoning by E. coli O157:H7 that is acid-tolerant. E. coli O157:H7 is easily destroyed by pasteurization (heating). Therefore, pasteurized milk is used for making yogurt.[49]

This initial process is the first step in making strained yogurt as mentioned above by eliminating some of the liquid whey. Koji (Aspergillus oryzae) starter kits and kefir grains are also used in the home for making a wide variety of fermented dairy, soy and wheat products.[50][51]

Non-dairy yogurt substitutes[편집]

Various manufacturers have endeavored to produce plant-based substitutes for yogurt, using soy milk, rice milk, nut milks such as almond milk, and coconut milk, for consumers who are unable to tolerate dairy products in any form.[출처 필요] Although Lactobacillus strains exist that can produce lactic acid from plant-derived feed stock (e.g. sauerkraut), since plants do not produce lactose, it is not possible to produce genuine yogurt from plant sources with the same bacteria cultures used to convert milk into yogurt.[출처 필요]

See also[편집]

Other fermented dairy products[편집]

주석[편집]

  1. 《파워푸드 슈퍼푸드》. 푸른행복.  이름 목록에서 |이름1=이(가) 있지만 |성1=이(가) 없음 (도움말)
  2. Yogurt entry. Merriam-Webster Online
  3. Kélékian, Diran (1911) Dictionnaire Turc-Français, Imprimerie Mihran, Constantinople
  4. Hasan Eren (1999), Türk Dilinin Etimolojik Sözlüğü, Ankara, p. 455-456
  5. A brief history of Yogurt: Haven't we misspelled "yoghurt"? - 웨이백 머신 (archived 1월 17, 2012) freskoyogurtbar.gr.
  6. 《Collins English Dictionary: 3rd Edition》. Glasgow GN4 0NB: Harper Collins. 1991. 1781쪽. ISBN 0-00-433286-5. 
  7. 《The Chambers Dictionary: 11th Edition》. Edinburgh EH7 4AY: Chambers Harrap. 2008. 1822쪽. ISBN 0550102892. 
  8. 《Oxford Dictionary of English: 2nd Edition》. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2044쪽. ISBN 978-0-19-861057-1. 
  9. Yogurt. Dairy Australia. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
  10. British Dairy Council – Production of yogurt. Milk.co.uk. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
  11. Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 587–588, ISBN 052162181X.
  12. Deverson, Tony (2004) "yoghurt n." in The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  13. Fee, Margery and McAlpine, Janice (2007). Guide to Canadian English Usage (2nd ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. p. 625, ISBN 0195426029.
  14. http://www.dairygoodness.ca/yogurt/the-history-of-yogurt
  15. “The sequence of the lactobacillus genome in yogurt unveiled”. 16 June 2006. 16 January 2012에 확인함. 
  16. “Yogurt Culture Evolves”. livescience.com. 9 June 2006. 16 January 2012에 확인함. 
  17. Batmanglij, Najmieh (2007). 《A Taste of Persia: An Introduction to Persian Cooking》. I.B.Tauris. 170쪽. ISBN 978-1-84511-437-4. 
  18. Farnworth, Edward R. (2008). 《Handbook of fermented functional foods》. Taylor and Francis. 114쪽. ISBN 978-1-4200-5326-5. 
  19. The Natural History of Pliny, tr. John Bostock, Henry Thomas Riley, London: Bell, 1856–93, Volume 3, p. 84: "It is a remarkable circumstance, that the barbarous nations which subsist on milk have been for so many ages either ignorant of the merits of cheese, or else have totally disregarded it; and yet they understand how to thicken milk and form therefrom an acrid kind of milk with a pleasant flavour".
  20. Toygar, Kamil (1993). 《Türk Mutfak Kültürü Üzerine Araştırmalar》. Türk Halk Kültürünü Araştırma ve Tanıtma Vakfı. 29쪽. 11 August 2009에 확인함. 
  21. Ögel, Bahaeddin (1978). 《Türk Kültür Tarihine Giriş: Türklerde Yemek Kültürü》. Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları. 35쪽. 11 August 2009에 확인함. 
  22. Antonello Biancalana. “Yogurt – Aquavitae”. DiWineTaste. 21 February 2012에 확인함. 
  23. Coyle, L. Patrick (1982). 《The World Encyclopedia of Food》. Facts On File Inc. 763쪽. ISBN 978-0-87196-417-5. 11 August 2009에 확인함. 
  24. Rosenthal, Sylvia Dworsky (1978). 《Fresh Food》. Bookthrift Co. 157쪽. ISBN 978-0-87690-276-9. 11 August 2009에 확인함. 
  25. “První ovocný jogurt se narodil u Vltavy” (Czech). ekonomika.idnes.cz. 23 July 2002. 27 April 2009에 확인함. 
  26. Annual report of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin (보고서). Volumes 25–26. 1907–09. 205–06, 29, 197쪽. 
  27. "Dr. John Harvey Kellogg." museumofquackery.com, 20 April 2010, Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  28. “Object of the Month”. 《The Massachusetts Historical Society》. June 2004. 
  29. “Colombo Yogurt – First U.S. Yogurt Brand – Celebrates 75 Years”. 《Business Wire》. 13 May 2004. 
  30. “General Mills to discontinue producing Colombo Yogurt”. 《Eagle-Tribune》. 29 January 2010. 29 April 2010에 확인함. 
  31. Beck, Joanne (15 March 2014). “B-B class dishes for yogurt to become state snack”. 《The Daily News》 (Batavia, NY). 
  32. “Bills”. Assembly.state.ny.us. 30 March 2014에 확인함. 
  33. Holden JM, Lemar LE, Exler J (April 2008). “Vitamin D in foods: development of the US Department of Agriculture database”. 《Am J Clin Nutr》 87 (4): 1092S–6S. PMID 18400740. 
  34. Yale-New Haven Hospital nutrition advisor – Understanding yogurt - 웨이백 머신 (archived 5월 29, 2008). ynhh.com. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
  35. doi 10.1056/NEJM198401053100101
    현재 이 인용은 내용이 불완전합니다. 영어판의 문서에서 복사하여 완성할 수 있습니다.
  36. “Ingredients – Yogurt”. DrGourmet.com. 27 July 2011에 확인함. 
  37. A Greek-style yoghurt with 9.2% fat
  38. Magee, Elaine. “The Benefits of Yogurt: What's tasty, easy, and has lots of health benefits? Yogurt!”. 《webmd.com》. 
  39. Park KM, Cifelli CJ (March 2013). “Dairy and blood pressure: a fresh look at the evidence”. 《Nutr Rev》 71 (3): 149–57. doi:10.1111/nure.12017. PMID 23452282. 
  40. “How To Make Natural Hair Conditioner At Home”. 《lifestyle.iloveindia.com》. 
  41. Surono IS. “In vitro probiotic properties of indigenous dadih lactic acid bacteria”. 《Asian Aus J Anim Sci》 16: 726–31. 
  42. doi 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2006.00409.x
    현재 이 인용은 내용이 불완전합니다. 영어판의 문서에서 복사하여 완성할 수 있습니다.
  43. Greek Tzatziki recipe accessed by iGreekYoghurt on 9 October 2014
  44. Acidified milk in different countries. Fao.org. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
  45. “Faq "Live Cultures In Yogurt". Askdrsears.Com. May 2006. 30 June 2006에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 24 September 2009에 확인함. 
  46. “Yogurt Production”. 《milkfacts.info》. 
  47. Hutkins, Robert. “Making Yogurt at Home”. 《Univ. of Nebraska》. 23 August 2006에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 8 January 2013에 확인함. 
  48. doi 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80706-8
    현재 이 인용은 내용이 불완전합니다. 영어판의 문서에서 복사하여 완성할 수 있습니다.
  49. Nummer, Brian A. “Fermenting Yogurt at Home”. National Center for Home Food Preservation. 8 January 2013에 확인함. 
  50. “How-To Make Kefir and Recipes”. 24 April 2013에 확인함. 
  51. “GEM Cultures”. 24 April 2013에 확인함. 

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