|이 문서는 영어 위키백과의 Euphoria 문서를 번역하여 문서의 내용을 확장할 필요가 있습니다.|
행복감(幸福感)은 생활에서 충분한 만족과 기쁨을 느끼는 마음, 또는 그런 느낌을 말한다.
행복감 (Euphoria / juːˈfɔːriə /)은 쾌락이나 흥분의 경험 (또는 영향)과 행복에 대한 강렬한 감정이다. 유산소 운동, 웃음, 음악 듣기, 음악 만들기, 춤과 같은 특정한 자연적인 보상과 사회적 활동은 행복감을 유발할 수 있다. 행복감은 또한 조증과 같은 특정 심리학적 또는 신경정신학적 장애의 증상을 진단하는 임상적 조건의 하나이기도 할 수 있다. 낭만적인 사랑과 인간의 성적 반응주기의 구성 요소는 또한 행복감의 유도와 관련이 있다. 대부분 중독성이 있는 특정 약물은 행복감을 유발할 수 있으며, 또한 행복감은 적어도 부분적으로는 레크리에이션 사용에 동기를 부여한다.
다행감(多幸感, 영어: Euphoria)은 일반적으로 짧은 시간 동안 계속 매우 강한 행복감과 그에 따른 흥분을 말한다. 행복감은 특정 약물의 부작용으로 발생할 수 있다.
- Bearn J, O'Brien M (2015). 《"Addicted to Euphoria": The History, Clinical Presentation, and Management of Party Drug Misuse》. 《Int. Rev. Neurobiol.》. International Review of Neurobiology 120. 205–33쪽. doi:10.1016/bs.irn.2015.02.005. ISBN 9780128029787. PMID 26070759.
Eating, drinking, sexual activity, and parenting invoke pleasure, an emotion that promotes repetition of these behaviors, are essential for survival. Euphoria, a feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness, is an amplification of pleasure, aspired to one's essential biological needs that are satisfied. People use party drugs as a shortcut to euphoria. Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological and physiological actions.
- Alcaro A, Panksepp J (2011). “The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression”. 《Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews》 35 (9): 1805–1820. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.03.002. PMID 21396397.
Recent human data have demonstrated that the SEEKING brain circuitry, as predicted, is involved in the emergence of a characteristic appetitive affective state, which may be described as “enthusiastic positive excitement” or “euphoria” (Drevets et al., 2001; Volkow and Swanson, 2003) and that do not resemble any kind of sensory pleasure (Heath, 1996; Panksepp et al., 1985) ... However, in our view, cognitive processes, are only one “slice of the pie”, and gamma oscillations may be more globally viewed as the overall emotional–motivational neurodynamics through which the SEEKING disposition is expressed, accompanied by a feeling of excitement/eurphoria (not ‘pleasure’) that is evolutionarily designed to achieve a diversity of useful outcomes
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This heightened effect from synchronized activity may explain the sense of euphoria experienced during other social activities (such as laughter, music-making and dancing) that are involved in social bonding in humans and possibly other vertebrates.
- Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Sydor A, Brown RY, 편집. 《Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience》 2판. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 191, 350–351, 367–368, 371–375쪽. ISBN 9780071481274.
Changes in appetite and energy may reflect abnormalities in various hypothalamic nuclei. Depressed mood and anhedonia (lack of interest in pleasurable activities) in depressed individuals, and euphoria and increased involvement in goal-directed activities in patients, who experience mania, may reflect opposing abnormalities in the nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, or other structures. ... Although short-term administration of glucocorticoids often produces euphoria and increased energy, the impact of long-lasting increases in endogenous glucocorticoids produced during depression can involve complex adaptations such as those that occur in Cushing syndrome (Chapter 10). ... Exposure to addictive chemicals not only produces extreme euphoric states that may initially motivate drug use, but also causes equally extreme adaptations in reinforcement mechanisms and motivated behavior that eventually lead to compulsive use. Accordingly, the evolutionary design of human and animal brains that has helped to promote our survival also has made us vulnerable to addiction.
- Georgiadis JR, Kringelbach ML (July 2012). “The human sexual response cycle: brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures” (PDF). 《Prog. Neurobiol.》 98 (1): 49–81. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.05.004. PMID 22609047. 2016년 8월 13일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서. 2016년 11월 13일에 확인함 – Hedonia 경유.
Strong feelings of pleasure and euphoria, as well as marked alterations in cognitive processing, self-referential thought, and physiological arousal are defining features of sexual consummation, especially during orgasm (Mah and Binik, 2001).
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Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. ... Under normal conditions, it is not surprising that sexual activity is physiologically regulated by the reward circuitry of the brain, specifically by dopaminergic pathways (see Figure 1). Moreover, the early stages of a new, romantic relationship can be a powerful and absorbing experience. Individuals in new romantic relationships report feeling euphoric and energetic. They also become emotionally dependent on, desire closeness with, and have highly focused attention on their partner (Reynaud et al. 2010; Young 2009). Human neuroimaging studies have shown that feelings experienced during the early stages of a romantic relationship are associated with neural activations in several reward-system and affect-processing regions of the brain (Young 2009; Aron et al. 2005; Bartels & Zeki 2000; Mashek, Aron & Fisher 2000).
- Jankowiak, William; Paladino, Thomas (2013). 〈Chapter 1. Desiring Sex, Longing for Love: A Tripartite Conundrum〉. Jankowiak, William R. 《Intimacies: Love and Sex Across Cultures》 (영어). Columbia University Press. 13쪽. ISBN 9780231508766 – Google Books 경유.
These emotional states may also be manifested behaviorally as "labile psychophysical responses to the loved person, including exhilaration, euphoria, buoyancy, spiritual feelings, increased energy, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, shyness, awkwardness ... in the presence of the loved person" (Fisher 1998:32). The presence of similar neurological mechanisms and brain patterns may account for the ability to readily identify when someone is romantically involved or erotically excited (Fisher 1998:32; Fisher 1995).
- Roache JD (2010). 〈Role of the Human Laboratory in the Development of Medications for Alcohol and Drug Dependence〉. Johnson BA. 《Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice》 (영어). Springer Science & Business Media. 133쪽. ISBN 9781441903389 – Google Books 경유.
It has been observed that drugs of abuse as diverse as alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, and psychomotor stimulants all share a profile of psychoactive effects characterized as euphoria. It is generally accepted that euphoria is at least a partial explanation why these drugs are abused.