인체 골격근 목록

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
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일반적인 인간에게는 대략 640개의 골격근이 있고, 대부분의 근육이 좌우대칭의 양측성 근육이므로 대략 320쌍의 근육을 이 문서에서 보여주고 있다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 정확한 숫자를 정하는 건 어려운데 왜냐하면 특정 근육을 단일 근육의 다른 부분으로 정의할지, 각각의 근육으로 정의할지 등의 문제가 있기 때문이다. 그래서 640개에서 850개로 근육의 숫자를 다르게 셀 수 있다.[1]

인체의 근육들은 머리(head and neck)의 근육, 몸통(torso or trunk)의 근육, (upper limbs)의 근육과 다리(lower limbs)의 근육을 포함한 많은 분류로 나뉠 수 있다.

표의 "동작"(action)은 해부학적 위치의 각각의 근육의 동작을 의미한다.


이 근육들은 해부학 용어(anatomical terminology)를 사용하여 설명된다. 한국어, 한자어, 영어 용어가 섞여서 쓰이는 대한민국 의학계의 현실을 감안하여 한국어, 한자어, 영어 명칭을 모두 표기하였다. 여기에 사용된 한국어 명칭들은 대한해부학회 사이트에서 배포하는 용어집을 따랐다. 또한 아직도 임상의학 의사들이 많이 쓰는 한자어로 된 명칭은 KMLE 의학 검색 엔진일본어 위키백과 등을 참고하였다.

인체 해부학에서의 골격근의 목록은 아래 표와 같다. 아래 표를 보기 전에 인체 뼈 목록, 위치에 대한 해부학 용어, 운동에 대한 해부학 용어, 근육에 대한 해부학 용어 문서를 읽으면 이해가 좀 더 쉬울 것이다.

목차

머리[편집]

두피/눈꺼풀[편집]

근육 이는곳(Origin) 닿는곳(Insertion) 동맥 신경 동작 대항근
뒤통수이마근(후두전두근, occipitofrontalis muscle) 뒤통수뼈뒤통수힘살(occipital belly) 2개와 이마뼈이마힘살(frontal belly) 2개 머리덮개널힘줄(Epicranial aponeurosis) 얼굴신경(facial nerve) 눈썹 들기
     뒤통수힘살(후두근, Occipitali belly) 뒤통수뼈위목덜미선(superior nuchal line), 관자뼈(temporal bone) 바위부분(petrous part)의 꼭지돌기(mastoid process) 머리덮개널힘줄(Epicranial aponeurosis) 뒤통수동맥(occipital artery) 뒤귓바퀴신경(posterior auricular nerve, 얼굴신경(facial nerve))
     이마힘살(전두근, Frontalis muscle) 머리덮개널힘줄(Epicranial aponeurosis) 이마 부분의 피부(skin of frontal region) 눈동맥(안동맥, ophthalmic artery) 얼굴신경(facial nerve) 눈썹 찡그리기
눈둘레근(안륜근, Orbicularis oculi muscle) 이마뼈; 안쪽눈꺼풀인대(medial palpebral ligament); 눈물뼈(lacrimal bone) 가쪽눈꺼풀연결(외측안검봉선, Lateral palpebral commissure) 눈동맥(안동맥, ophthalmic artery), 광대눈확동맥(협골안와동맥, zygomaticoorbital artery), 눈구석동맥(Angular artery) 얼굴신경(facial nerve, 귀밑샘신경얼기)의 광대가지(zygomatic branch) 눈꺼풀 닫기 눈꺼풀올림근(상안검거근, levator palpebrae superioris muscle)
눈썹주름근(추미근, Corrugator supercilii muscle) 눈썹활(안와상융기, superciliary arch) 눈썹 근처의 이마 피부 얼굴신경(facial nerve) 이마 찡그리기
눈썹내림근(미모하제근, Depressor supercilii muscle) 안쪽눈확가장자리(내측안와연, medial orbital rim) 눈확 안쪽(안와 안쪽, medial aspect of bony orbit) 얼굴신경(facial nerve) 눈썹내림

안구근육(외안근, Extraocular muscles)[편집]

근육 이는곳(Origin) Insertion Artery Nerve 동작 대항근
눈꺼풀올림근(Levator palpebrae superioris muscle) 나비뼈(sphenoid bone) 눈꺼풀판(tarsus, tarsal plate), 위눈꺼풀(upper eyelid) ophthalmic artery oculomotor nerve 눈꺼풀의 들임올림 눈둘레근(orbicularis oculi muscle)
위눈꺼풀판근(superior tarsal muscle) 눈꺼풀올림근(levator palpebrae superioris muscle)의 아랫면 superior tarsal plate of the eyelid sympathetic nervous system 눈꺼풀 들기
눈둘레근(orbicularis oculi muscle) 이마뼈, 안쪽눈꺼풀인대(medial palpebral ligament), 그리고 눈물뼈(lacrimal bone) lateral palpebral raphe ophthalmic artery, zygomatico-orbital artery, angular artery facial nerve 눈꺼풀 닫기 눈꺼풀올림근(levator palpebrae superioris muscle)
곧은근(Rectus muscles)
     위곧은근(Superior rectus muscle) 눈확끝(orbital apex)의 온힘줄고리(Common tendinous ring) 7.5 mm superior to the corneal limbus oculomotor nerve (eye)의 들기, 모음, 안쪽돌림
     아래곧은근(Inferior rectus muscle) 6.5 mm inferior to the corneal limbus inferior branch of oculomotor nerve 내림모음
     안쪽곧은근(Medial rectus muscle) 5.5 mm medial to the corneal limbus inferior division of the oculomotor nerve 안구(eyeball)의 모음
     가쪽곧은근(Lateral rectus muscle) 7 mm temporal to the corneal limbus abducens nerve 안구(eyeball)의 벌림
빗근(Oblique muscles)
     위빗근(Superior oblique muscle) 눈확끝(orbital apex)과 시각신경관(optic canal) 안쪽(medial)의 온힘줄고리(Common tendinous ring) outer posterior quadrant of the eyeball lateral muscular branch of the ophthalmic artery trochlear nerve 주: 안쪽돌림(intorsion).
부: 안구(eyeball)의 벌림(가쪽돌림)과 내림
     아래빗근(Inferior oblique muscle) 위턱뼈(maxilla)의 눈확(orbital) 표면, 눈물고랑(누구, lacrimal groove)의 가쪽(lateral) laterally onto the eyeball, deep to the lateral rectus, by a short flat tendon oculomotor nerve 두눈바깥회선(extorsion), 올림, 벌림

내안근(Intraocular muscles)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
섬모체근(ciliary muscle) long posterior ciliary arteries oculomotor nerve (parasympathetics) accommodation
동공확대근(Dilator pupillae muscle) superior cervical ganglion (sympathetics) pupil dilation 동공조임근(Sphincter pupillae muscle)
동공조임근(Sphincter pupillae muscle) short ciliary nerves constricts pupil 동공확대근(Dilator pupillae muscle)

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근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
귓바퀴근육(Auricular muscles, Auriculares muscles) galeal aponeurosis front of the helix, cranial surface of the pinna facial nerve (Wiggle ears)
관자마루근(temporoparietalis muscle) auriculares muscles galea aponeurotica
등자근(stapedius) neck of stapes facial nerve control the amplitude of sound waves to the inner ear
고막긴장근(tensor tympani) Eustachian tube handle of the malleus superior tympanic artery medial pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve tensing the tympanic membrane

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근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
눈살근(Procerus muscle) from fascia over the lower of the nasal bone skin of the lower part of the forehead between the eyebrows buccal branch of the facial nerve Draws down the medial angle of the eyebrow, giving expressions of frowning
코근(Nasalis muscle) 위턱뼈(maxilla) nasal bone Compresses bridge, depresses tip of nose, elevates corners of nostrils
비공개대근(dilator naris muscle) margin of the nasal notch of the maxilla, greater and lesser alar cartilages skin near the margin of the nostril dilation of nostrils
코중격내림근(Depressor septi nasi muscle) incisive fossa of the maxilla nasal septum and back part of the alar part of nasalis muscle depression of nasal septum
위입술콧방울올림근(Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle) 위턱뼈(maxilla) nostril and upper lip superior labial artery dilates the nostril; elevates the upper lip and wing of the nose

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근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
입꼬리올림근(levator anguli oris)
(caninus)
위턱뼈(maxilla) modiolus of mouth facial artery facial nerve smile (elevates angle of mouth)
입꼬리내림근(Depressor anguli oris muscle)
(triangularis)
tubercle of mandible modiolus of mouth facial artery mandibular branch of facial nerve depresses angle of mouth
위입술올림근(levator labii superioris muscle) medial infra-orbital margin skin and muscle of the upper lip (labii superioris) superior labial artery buccal branch of the facial nerve Elevates the upper lip
아래입술내림근(Depressor labii inferioris muscle) oblique line of the mandible, between the symphysis and the mental foramen integument of the lower lip, orbicularis oris fibers, its fellow of the opposite side inferior labial artery facial nerve Depresses the lower lip
턱끝근(mentalis muscle) 아래턱뼈(mandible) 앞쪽(anterior) Inferior labial branch of facial artery mandibular branch of facial nerve elevates and wrinkles skin of chin, protrudes lower lip
볼근(Buccinator muscle) alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible, pterygomandibular raphe in the fibres of the orbicularis oris buccal artery buccal branch of the facial nerve compress the cheeks against the teeth (blowing), mastication.
입둘레근(Orbicularis oris muscle) 위턱뼈(maxilla)와 아래턱뼈(mandible) skin around the lips pucker the lips
입꼬리당김근(risorius muscle) parotid fascia modiolus facial artery draw back angle of mouth
광대근(Zygomatic muscles)
     큰광대근(Zygomaticus major muscle) anterior of zygomatic bone modiolus of mouth facial artery buccal branch of the facial nerve draws angle of mouth upward and laterally
     작은광대근(Zygomaticus minor muscle) zygomatic bone skin of the upper lip facial nerve, buccal branch elevates upper lip

씹기[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
깨물근(masseter muscle) 광대활(zygomatic arch)과 위턱뼈(maxilla) coronoid process and ramus of mandible masseteric artery masseteric nerve (V3) elevation (as in closing of the mouth) and retraction of mandible 넓은목근(platysma)
관자근(Temporalis) temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull coronoid process of the mandible deep temporal third branch (mandibular nerve) of the trigeminal nerve elevation and retraction of mandible
날개근(Pterygoid muscles)
     가쪽날개근(Lateral pterygoid muscle) great wing of sphenoid and pterygoid plate condyle of mandible pterygoid branches of maxillary artery external pterygoid nerve from the mandibular nerve depresses mandible
     안쪽날개근(Medial pterygoid muscle) deep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate behind the upper teeth
superficial head: pyramidal process of palatine bone and maxillary tuberosity
medial angle of the mandible mandibular nerve via nerve to medial pterygoid elevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoids in moving the jaw from side to side

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바깥기원근육(외인근육, 외재근, Extrinsic muscles)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
턱끝혀근(genioglossus muscle) Superior part of mental spine of mandible (symphysis menti) Dorsum of tongue and body of hyoid Lingual artery hypoglossal nerve Complex – Inferior fibers protrude the tongue, middle fibers depress the tongue, and its superior fibers draw the tip back and down
목뿔혀근(hyoglossus muscle) 목뿔뼈(hyoid bone) side of the tongue hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue
작은뿔혀근(chondroglossus muscle) lesser cornu and body of the hyoid bone intrinsic muscular fibers of the tongue hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue (some consider this muscle to be part of hyoglossus)
붓혀근(styloglossus muscle) Styloid process of temporal bone tongue Hypoglossal nerve elevates and retracts tongue 턱끝혀근(genioglossus)의 아래와 중간 섬유
입천장혀근(Palatoglossus muscle) palatine aponeurosis tongue vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve raising the back part of the tongue

자체기원근육(내인근육, 내재근, Intrinsic muscles)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
혀위세로근(superior longitudinal muscle) close to the epiglottis, from the median fibrous septum edges of the tongue hypoglossal nerve shortens, turns tip upward, turns lateral margins upward
혀가로근(transverse muscle) median fibrous septum sides of the tongue hypoglossal nerve narrows and elongates
혀아래세로근(inferior longitudinal muscle) root of the tongue apex of the tongue Hypoglossal nerve shortens, retracts, pulls tip downward
혀수직근(vertical muscle) dorsum of tongue inferior surface borders of tongue hypoglossal nerve flattens

물렁입천장(연구개, Soft palate)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
입천장올림근(levator veli palatini muscle) temporal bone, Eustachian tube palatine aponeurosis facial artery vagus nerve Aids in swallowing by elevating the soft palate
입천장긴장근(tensor veli palatini muscle) medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone medial pterygoid of mandibular nerve Aids in swallowing by controlling the tension of the soft palate
목젖근(musculus uvulae) hard palate pharyngeal plexus Moves and changes shape of the uvula
입천장혀근(Palatoglossus muscle) palatine aponeurosis tongue vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve Aids in respiration by raising the back part of the tongue
입천장인두근(palatopharyngeus muscle) palatine aponeurosis and hard palate upper border of thyroid cartilage (blends with constrictor fibers) facial artery vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve Aids in respiration by pulling the pharynx and larynx

인두(Pharynx)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
붓인두근(stylopharyngeus muscle) temporal styloid process thyroid cartilage (pharynx) pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery glossopharyngeal nerve elevate the larynx, elevate the pharynx, swallowing
귀관인두근(salpingopharyngeus muscle) cartilage of the Eustachian tube posterior fasciculus of the pharyngopalatinus muscle vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve raise the nasopharynx
인두근(Pharyngeal muscles)
     아래인두수축근(inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle]] cricoid and thyroid cartilage pharyngeal raphe pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery external laryngeal branch of the vagus Swallowing
     중간인두수축근(middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle) hyoid bone pharyngeal raphe vagus nerve Swallowing
     위인두수축근(superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle) medial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphé, alveolar process pharyngeal raphe, pharyngeal tubercle vagus nerve Swallowing

후두(Larynx)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
반지방패근(cricothyroid muscle) anterior and lateral cricoid cartilage inferior cornu and lamina of the thyroid cartilage external laryngeal branch of the vagus tension and elongation of the vocal folds (has minor adductory effect)
모뿔근(arytenoid muscle) arytenoid cartilage on one side arytenoid cartilage on opposite side recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus approximate the arytenoid cartilages (close rima glottidis)
방패모뿔근(thyroarytenoid muscle) inner surface of the thyroid cartilage (anterior aspect) anterior surface of arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus thickens the vocal folds and decreases length; also helps to adduct the vocal folds during speech
반지모뿔근(Cricoarytenoid muscles)
     뒤반지모뿔근(posterior cricoarytenoid muscle) posterior part of the cricoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus abducts and laterally rotates the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments away from the midline and forward and so opening the rima glottidis lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
     가쪽반지모뿔근(lateral cricoarytenoid muscle) lateral part of the arch of the cricoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus adduct and medially rotate the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments towards the midline and backwards and so closing off the rima glottidis

부위[편집]

빗장뼈 부위(Clavicular)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
넓은목근(Platysma) inferior 빗장뼈(clavicle) and fascia of chest 아래턱뼈(mandible) branches of the submental artery and suprascapular artery cervical branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) Draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and widens it (as in expressions of sadness and fright). Also draws the skin of the neck superiorly when teeth are clenched 깨물근(Masseter muscle), 관자근(Temporalis muscle)
목빗근(Sternocleidomastoid muscle) manubrium sterni, medial portion of the 빗장뼈(clavicle) mastoid process of the temporal bone, superior nuchal line occipital artery and the superior thyroid artery motor: accessory nerve
sensory: cervical plexus
Acting alone, tilts head to its own side and rotates it so the face is turned towards the opposite side. Acting together, flexes the neck, raises the sternum and assists in forced inspiration.

목뿔위근육(설골상근, Suprahyoid muscles)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
턱두힘살근(Digastric muscle) anterior belly – digastric fossa (mandible); posterior belly - mastoid process of temporal bone Intermediate tendon (hyoid bone) anterior belly - mandibular division of the trigeminal (CN V) via the mylohyoid nerve; posterior belly - facial nerve (CN VII) Opens the jaw when the masseter and the temporalis are relaxed.
붓목뿔근(Stylohyoid muscle) styloid process (temporal) greater cornu of hyoid bone facial nerve (CN VII) Elevate the hyoid during swallowing
턱목뿔근(Mylohyoid muscle) Mylohyoid line (mandible) Median raphé mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3] Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, depresses mandible
턱끝목뿔근(Geniohyoid muscle) Symphysis menti hyoid bone C1 via hypoglossal nerve carry hyoid bone and the tongue upward during deglutition

목뿔아래근육(설골하근, Infrahyoid muscle)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
복장목뿔근(Sternohyoid muscle) manubrium of sternum hyoid bone ansa cervicalis depress hyoid bone
복장방패근(Sternothyroid muscle) manubrium thyroid cartilage Ansa cervicalis Depresses larynx, may slightly depress hyoid bone.
방패목뿔근(Thyrohyoid muscle) thyroid cartilage hyoid bone first cervical nerve depress hyoid bone
어깨목뿔근(Omohyoid muscle) Upper border of the scapula Hyoid bone Ansa cervicalis Depresses the larynx and hyoid bone. Carries hyoid bone backward and to the side

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목 앞[편집]

Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
목긴근(Longus colli muscle) Transverse processes of C-3 - C-6 Anterior arch of atlas C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 Flexes the neck and head
머리긴근(Longus capitis muscle) anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae basilar part of the occipital bone C1, C2, C3/C4 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint
앞머리곧은근(Rectus capitis anterior muscle) atlas occipital bone C1 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint
가쪽머리곧은근(Rectus capitis lateralis muscle) upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone C1 Sidebend at atlanto-occipital joint

목 옆[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
목갈비근(scalene muscles) cervical vertebrae first and second ribs ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) cervical nerves (C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 elevation of ribs I&II
     앞목갈비근(Scalenus anterior muscle) C3-C6 first rib ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) ventral ramus of C5, C6 When the neck is fixed, elevates the first rib to aid in breathing or when the rib is fixed, bends the neck forward and sideways and rotates it to the opposite side
     중간목갈비근(Scalenus medius muscle) C2-C6 first rib ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) ventral rami of the third to eighth cervical spinal nerves Elevate 1st rib, rotate the neck to the opposite side
     뒤목갈비근(Scalenus posterior muscle) transverse processes of C4 - C6 2nd rib ascending cervical artery, superficial cervical artery C6, C7, C8 Elevate 2nd rib, tilt the neck to the same side
어깨올림근(levator scapulae muscle) Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 Superior part of medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) Elevates 어깨뼈(scapula) and tilts its 접시오목(glenoid cavity) inferiorly by rotating scapula
가쪽머리곧은근(Rectus capitis lateralis muscle) upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas (C1) under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone C1
위머리빗근(Obliquus capitis superior muscle) lateral mass of atlas lateral half of the inferior nuchal line suboccipital nerve
아래머리빗근(Obliquus capitis inferior muscle) spinous process of the axis lateral mass of atlas suboccipital nerve

목 뒤[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
작은뒤머리곧은근(Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle) the tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) the medial part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface between it and the foramen magnum a branch of the dorsal primary division of the suboccipital nerve extends the head at the neck, but is now considered to be more of a sensory organ than a muscle
큰뒤머리곧은근(Rectus capitis posterior major muscle) spinous process of the axis (C2) inferior nucheal line of the occipital bone Dorsal ramus of C1 (suboccipital nerve)
머리반가시근(semispinalis capitis muscle) articular processes of C4-C6; transverse processes of C7 and T1-T7 occipital bone between the superior and inferior nuchal lines greater occipital nerve Extension of the head
머리가장긴근(longissimus capitis muscle) articular processes of C4-C7; transverse processes of T1-T5 posterior margin of the mastoid process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve Laterally: Flex the head and neck to the same side. Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column.
머리널판근(Splenius capitis muscle) ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T6 Mastoid process C3, C4 Extend, rotate, and laterally flex the head
위머리빗근(Obliquus capitis superior muscle) lateral mass of atlas lateral half of the inferior nuchal line suboccipital nerve
아래머리빗근(Obliquus capitis inferior muscle) spinous process of the axis lateral mass of atlas suboccipital nerve

몸통(torso)[편집]

등(back)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
척주세움근(erector spinae muscle) on the spines of the last four thoracic vertebrae both the spines of the most cranial thoracic vertebrae and the cervical vertebrae lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve extends the vertebral column 배곧은근(rectus abdominis muscle)
     엉덩갈비근(iliocostalis muscle) lateral sacral artery
     가장긴근(longissimus muscle) transverse process transverse process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve 배곧은근(rectus abdominis muscle)
     가시근(spinalis muscle) spinous process spinous process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve 배곧은근(rectus abdominis muscle)
넓은등근(광배근, 활배근, Latissimus dorsi muscle) spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of the 위팔뼈(humerus) subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally 어깨세모근(삼각근, Deltoid muscle), 등세모근(승모근, Trapezius muscle)
가로돌기가시근육(Transversospinales muscles) transverse process spinous process posterior branches
     등반가시근(semispinalis thoracis muscle) transverse processes of the sixth to the tenth thoracic vertebrae spinous processes of the upper four thoracic and lower two cervical vertebrae
     목반가시근(semispinalis cervicis muscle) transverse processes of the upper five or six thoracic vertebræ cervical spinous processes, from the axis to the fifth
     머리반가시근(semispinalis capitis muscle) transversal process of lower cervical and higher thoracal columna area between superior and inferior nuchal line greater occipital nerve Extends the head
     뭇갈래근(multifidus muscle) 엉치뼈(sacrum), erector spinae aponeurosis, PSIS, and iliac crest spinous process posterior branch of spinal nerve Stabilizes vertebrae in local movements of vertebral column
     돌림근(Rotatores muscle) transverse process spinous process posterior branch
가시사이근육(Interspinales muscle) spinous process spinous process posterior rami of spinal nerves Extension, flexion and rotation of vertebral column.
가로돌기사이근육(Intertransversarii muscle) transverse process transverse process above anterior rami of spinal nerves Lateral flexion of trunk
널판근(Splenius muscles)
     머리널판근(Splenius capitis muscle) ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7-T6 Mastoid process of temporal and occipital bone C3, C4 Extend, rotate, and laterally flex the head
     목널판근(Splenius cervicis muscle) spinous processes of T3-T6 transverse processes of C1, C2, C3 C5, C6

가슴(chest)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
갈비사이근(Intercostal muscles) ribs 1-11 ribs 2-12 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves
     바깥갈비사이근(External intercostal muscles) intercostal arteries intercostal nerves Inhalation 속갈비사이근(Internal intercostal muscles)
     속갈비사이근(Internal intercostal muscles) rib - inferior border rib - superior border intercostal arteries intercostal nerves hold ribs steady 바깥갈비사이근(External intercostal muscles)
     맨속갈비사이근(Innermost intercostal muscle) intercostal arteries intercostal nerves Elevate ribs
갈비밑근(Subcostales muscle) inner surface of one rib inner surface of the second or third rib above, near its angle intercostal nerves
가슴가로근(Transversus thoracis muscle) costal cartilages of last 3-4 ribs, body of sternum, xiphoid process ribs/costal cartilages 2-6 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depresses ribs
갈비올림근(Levatores costarum muscle) transverse processes of C7 to T12 vertebrae superior surfaces of the ribs immediately inferior to the preceding vertebrae dorsal rami - C8, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11 Assists in elevation of the thoracic rib cage
뒤톱니근(Serratus posterior muscles)
     아래뒤톱니근(Serratus posterior inferior muscle) vertebrae T11 - L3 the inferior borders of the 9th through 12th ribs intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depress the lower ribs, aiding in expiration
     위뒤톱니근(Serratus posterior superior muscle) nuchal ligament (or ligamentum nuchae) and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7 through T3 the upper borders of the 2nd through 5th ribs intercostal arteries 2nd through 5th intercostal nerves elevate the ribs which aids in inspiration
가로막(횡격막Diaphragm) pericardiacophrenic artery, musculophrenic artery, inferior phrenic arteries phrenic and lower intercostal nerves respiration

(abdomen)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
배가로근(Transversus abdominis muscle) ribs and the iliac crest inserts into the pubic tubercle via the conjoint tendon, also known as the falx inguinalis intercostal nerves T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, genitofemoral nerve compress the ribs and viscera, providing thoracic and pelvic stability
배곧은근(Rectus abdominis muscle) pubis costal cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process of sternum inferior epigastric artery segmentally by thoraco-abdominal nerves (T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12) flexion of trunk/lumbar vertebrae 척주세움근(erector spinae muscle)
배세모근(Pyramidalis muscle) pubic symphysis and pubic crest linea alba subcostal nerve (T12) tensing the linea alba
고환올림근(Cremaster muscle) inguinal ligament cremasteric artery genital branch of genitofemoral nerve raise and lower the scrotum
허리네모근(Quadratus lumborum muscle) iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament last rib and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery anterior branches of T12, L1, L2, L3, L4 Alone, lateral flexion of vertebral column; Together, depression of thoracic rib cage
빗근(Oblique muscles)
     배바깥빗근(External abdominal oblique muscle) Lower 8 costae Crista iliaca, ligamentum inguinale intercostal nerves T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12) Rotates torso
     배속빗근(Internal abdominal oblique muscle) inguinal ligament, iliac crest and the lumbodorsal fascia linea alba, xiphoid process and the inferior ribs. intercostal nerves T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve Compresses abdomen and rotates vertebral column.

골반(pelvis)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
꼬리근(Coccygeus muscle) sacrospinous ligament sacral nerves: S4, S5 or S3-S4 closing in the back part of the outlet of the pelvis
항문올림근(Levator ani muscle)
     엉덩꼬리근(iliococcygeus muscle) ischial spine and from the posterior part of the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia 꼬리뼈(coccyx) and anococcygeal raphe supports the viscera in pelvic cavity
     두덩꼬리근(Pubococcygeus muscle) back of the pubis and from the anterior part of the obturator fascia 꼬리뼈(coccyx) and 엉치뼈(sacrum) controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm
     두덩곧창자근(Puborectalis muscle) lower part of the pubic symphysis S3, S4. levator ani nerve inhibit defecation

회음(perineum)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
항문조임근(Anal sphincter muscles)
     바깥항문조임근(External anal sphincter muscle) S4 and twigs from inferior anal nerves of pudendal nerve keep the anal canal and anus closed, aids in the expulsion of the feces
     속항문조임근(Internal anal sphincter muscle) pudendal nerve keep the anal canal and anus closed, aids in the expulsion of the feces
얕은샅공간(Superficial perineal pouch)
     얕은샅가로근(Superficial transverse perineal muscle) anterior part of ischial tuberosity central point of perineum pudendal nerve
     망울해면체근(Bulbospongiosus muscle) median raphé perineal artery pudendal nerve in males, empties the urethra; in females, clenches the vagina
     궁둥해면체근(Ischiocavernosus muscle) perineal artery pudendal nerve assists the bulbospongiosus muscle
깊은샅공간(Deep perineal pouch)
     깊은샅가로근(Deep transverse perineal muscle) inferior rami of the 궁둥뼈(ischium) its fellow of the opposite side pudendal nerve
     바깥요도조임근(External urethral sphincter muscle) junction of the inferior rami of the pubis and 궁둥뼈(ischium) to the extent of 1.25–2 cm., and from the neighboring fasciæ its fellow of the opposite side perineal branch of the pudendal nerve (S2, S3, S4) Constricts urethra, maintain urinary continence

(상지, Upper limb)[편집]

척추[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
등세모근(승모근, Trapezius muscle) down the midline, from the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the medial part of the superior nuchal line, and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7-T12 at the shoulders, into the lateral third of the 빗장뼈(clavicle), the acromion process and into the spine of the scapula transverse cervical artery major nerve supply is the cranial nerve XI. cervical nerves C3 and C4 receive information about pain in this muscle retraction and elevation of 어깨뼈(scapula). 앞톱니근(전거근, Serratus anterior muscle)
넓은등근(광배근, 활배근, Latissimus dorsi muscle) spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of the 위팔뼈(humerus) subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally 어깨세모근(삼각근, Deltoid muscle), 등세모근(승모근, Trapezius muscle)
마름근(rhomboid muscle) nuchal ligaments, spinous processes of C7-T5 vertebrae medial border of the scapula dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the 어깨뼈(scapula) and rotates it to depress the 접시오목(glenoid cavity). fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. 앞톱니근(전거근, Serratus anterior muscle)
     큰마름근(rhomboid major muscle) spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae medial border of the scapula, inferior to the insertion of rhomboid minor muscle dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the 어깨뼈(scapula) and rotates it to depress the 접시오목(glenoid cavity). It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. 앞톱니근(전거근, Serratus anterior muscle)
     작은마름근(rhomboid minor muscle) nuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7- to T1 vertebrae medial border of the scapula, superior to the insertion of rhomboid major muscle dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the 어깨뼈(scapula) and rotates it to depress the 접시오목(glenoid cavity). It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. 앞톱니근(전거근, Serratus anterior muscle)
어깨올림근(levator scapulae muscle) posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae superior part of medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) Elevates 어깨뼈(scapula) and tilts its 접시오목(glenoid cavity) inferiorly by rotating scapula

흉벽(Thoracic walls)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
큰가슴근(대흉근, pectoralis major muscle) anterior surface of the medial half of the 빗장뼈(clavicle).
Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages
intertubercular groove of the 위팔뼈(humerus) pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk lateral pectoral nerve and medial pectoral nerve
Clavicular head: C5 and C6
Sternocostal head: C7, C8 and T1
Clavicular head: flexes the 위팔뼈(humerus)
Sternocostal head: extends the humerus
As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the 위팔뼈(humerus). It also draws the 어깨뼈(scapula) anteriorly and inferiorly.
작은가슴근(소흉근, pectoralis minor muscle) 3rd to 5th ribs, near their costal cartilages medial border and superior surface of the 어깨뼈(scapula)의 부리돌기(오훼돌기, coracoid process) Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk Medial pectoral nerves (C8, T1) stabilizes the 어깨뼈(scapula) by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall
빗장밑근(subclavius muscle) first rib subclavian groove of 빗장뼈(clavicle) thoracoacromial artery, clavicular branch nerve to subclavius Depresses the 빗장뼈(clavicle)
앞톱니근(전거근, Serratus anterior muscle) fleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs costal aspect of medial margin of the scapula lateral thoracic artery (upper part), thoracodorsal artery (lower part) long thoracic nerve (from roots of brachial plexus C5, C6, C7) protract and stabilize 어깨뼈(scapula), assists in upward rotation 큰마름근(Rhomboid major muscle), 작은마름근(Rhomboid minor muscle), 등세모근(승모근, Trapezius muscle)

어깨[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
어깨세모근(삼각근, Deltoid muscle) 빗장뼈(clavicle), acromion, spine of the scapula deltoid tuberosity of 위팔뼈(humerus) primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery Axillary nerve shoulder abduction, flexion and extension 넓은등근(광배근, 활배근, Latissimus dorsi muscle)
큰원근(teres major muscle) posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the 어깨뼈(scapula) medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the 위팔뼈(humerus) Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries Lower subscapular nerve (segmental levels C5 and C6) Internal rotation of the 위팔뼈(humerus)
돌림근띠(Rotator cuff)
가시위근(supraspinatus muscle) supraspinous fossa of 어깨뼈(scapula) superior facet of greater tubercle of 위팔뼈(humerus) suprascapular artery suprascapular nerve abduction of arm and stabilizes 위팔뼈(humerus) 가시아래근(infraspinatus muscle), 작은원근(teres minor muscle), 큰가슴근(대흉근, pectoralis major muscle), 그리고 넓은등근(latissimus dorsi muscle)
가시아래근(infraspinatus muscle) infraspinous fossa of the 어깨뼈(scapula) middle facet of greater tubercle of the 위팔뼈(humerus) suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries suprascapular nerve Lateral rotation of arm & Adduction of arm and stabilizes 위팔뼈(humerus) 어깨밑근(subscapularis muscle), 큰가슴근(대흉근, pectoralis major muscle), 그리고 넓은등근(광배근, 활배근, Latissimus dorsi muscle)
작은원근(teres minor muscle) lateral border of the 어깨뼈(scapula) inferior facet of greater tubercle of the 위팔뼈(humerus) posterior circumflex humeral artery and the circumflex scapular artery axillary nerve laterally rotates and adducts the arm 어깨밑근)subscapularis muscle), 큰가슴근(대흉근, pectoralis major muscle), 그리고 넓은등근(광배근, 활배근, Latissimus dorsi muscle)
어깨밑근(subscapularis muscle) subscapular fossa lesser tubercle of 위팔뼈(humerus) subscapular artery upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6) rotates medially 위팔뼈(humerus); stabilizes shoulder 가시아래근(infraspinatus muscle)와 작은원근(teres minor muscle)

위팔(상완, arm)[편집]

위팔 앞면[편집]

근육 이는곳(Origin) 닿는곳(Insertion) 동맥 신경 동작 대항근
부리위팔근(coracobrachialis muscle) 어깨뼈(scapula)의 부리돌기(오훼돌기, coracoid process) 위팔뼈(humerus) 중간(medial) 위팔동맥(brachial artery) 근육피부신경(musculocutaneous nerve) 어깨관절(shoulder joint)에서의 구부리기(flexion)
위팔두갈래근(상완이두근, biceps brachii muscle) 짧은갈래(short head): 어깨뼈(scapula)의 부리돌기(오훼돌기, coracoid process).
긴갈래(long head): 오목위결절(supraglenoid tubercle)
노뼈거친면(radial tuberosity) 위팔동맥(brachial artery) 근육피부신경(Musculocutaneous nerve)의 가쪽다발(Lateral cord): 다섯째 목신경(cervical spinal nerve 5, C5), 여섯째 목신경(cervical spinal nerve 6, C6), 일곱째 목신경(cervical spinal nerve 7, C7)) 팔꿈치관절(Elbow-joint)을 구부리고(flex), 아래팔(forearm)을 뒤친다.(supinate) 위팔세갈래근(Triceps brachii muscle)
위팔근(brachialis muscle) 위팔뼈(humerus)의 앞쪽면, 부분적으로는 이 뼈의 먼 반쪽(distal half) 자뼈(ulna)의 갈고리돌기(coronoid process)와 자뼈거친면(tuberosity of the ulna) 노쪽되돌이동맥(radial recurrent artery) 근육피부신경(musculocutaneous nerve) 팔꿈치관절(elbow joint)에서의 구부리기(flexion)

위팔 뒷면[편집]

근육 이는곳(Origin) 닿는곳(Insertion) 동맥 신경 Action 대항근
위팔세갈래근(상완삼두근, triceps brachii muscle) 긴갈래(long head):어깨뼈(scapula)의 오목아래결절(Infraglenoid tubercle)
가쪽갈래(lateral head): 위팔뼈 뒤쪽 - 노신경고랑(요골신경구, radial groove) 위
안쪽갈래(medial head): 위팔뼈 뒤-노신경고랑(radial groove) 아래
자뼈(ulna)의 팔꿈치머리(olecranon) 돌기(process) 깊은위팔동맥(Deep brachial artery, Profunda brachii artery) 노신경(radial nerve) 아래팔(forearm) 펴기(extension), 긴갈래(long head; caput longum)의 어깨(shoulder) 모으기(adduct) 위팔두갈래근(Biceps brachii muscle)
팔꿈치근(anconeus muscle) 위팔뼈의 가쪽위관절융기(Lateral epicondyle of the humerus) 팔꿈치머리(olecranon) 돌기의 가쪽과 자뼈(ulna) 뒷면의 위쪽 깊은위팔동맥(Deep brachial artery, Profunda brachii artery), 되돌이뼈사이동맥(recurrent interosseous artery) 노신경(radial nerve: 일곱째 목신경(cervical spinal nerve 7, C7), 여덟째 목신경(cervical spinal nerve 8, C8), 첫째 가슴신경(thoracic spinal nerve 1, T1)) partly blended in with the 위팔세갈래근(triceps), which it assists in extension of the forearm. Stabilises the elbow and abducts the ulna during pronation.

아래팔(전완, forearm)[편집]

아래팔 앞면[편집]

아래팔 앞 표면[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
원엎침근(pronator teres muscle) humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
ulnar head: coronoid process of the ulna
노뼈(radius) pronator tuberosity ulnar artery and radial artery median nerve pronation of forearm, flexes elbow 손뒤침근(Supinator muscle)
노쪽손목굽힘근(flexor carpi radialis muscle) medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) Bases of second and third metacarpal bones ulnar artery median nerve Flexion and abduction at wrist 짧은노쪽손목폄근(Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle), 긴노쪽손목폄근(Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle)
긴손바닥근(palmaris longus muscle) medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) palmar aponeurosis ulnar artery median nerve wrist flexor 짧은노쪽손목폄근(Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle), 긴노쪽손목폄근(Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle), 자쪽손목폄근(Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle)
자쪽손목굽힘근(flexor carpi ulnaris muscle) medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon) pisiform ulnar artery muscular branches of ulnar nerve flexion and adduction of wrist 자쪽손목폄근(Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle)
얕은손가락굽힘근(flexor digitorum superficialis muscle) medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon), as well as parts of the 노뼈(radius) and 자뼈(ulna). phalanges II-V ulnar artery median nerve flexor of fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints) 손가락폄근(Extensor digitorum muscle)
아래팔 앞 속[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
네모엎침근(pronator quadratus muscle) medial, anterior surface of the ulna lateral, anterior surface of the radius anterior interosseous artery median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve) pronates the forearm 손뒤침근(Supinator muscle)
깊은손가락굽힘근(flexor digitorum profundus muscle) 자뼈(ulna) distal phalanges anterior interosseous artery median (anterior interosseous), muscular branches of ulnar flex hand, interphalangeal joints 손가락폄근(Extensor digitorum muscle)
긴엄지굽힘근(flexor pollicis longus muscle) The middle 2/4 of the Volar surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane. (Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the 자뼈(ulna).) The base of the distal phalanx of the thumb Anterior interosseous artery Anterior interosseous nerve (branch of median nerve) (C8, T1) Flexion of the thumb 긴엄지폄근(Extensor pollicis longus muscle), 짧은엄지폄근(Extensor pollicis brevis muscle)

아래팔 뒷면[편집]

아래팔 뒷 표면[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
손가락폄근(extensor digitorum muscle) lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon) 2nd-5th phalange posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of hand and fingers 얕은손가락굽힘근(Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle), 깊은손가락굽힘근(Flexor digitorum profundus muscle)
새끼폄근(extensor digiti minimi muscle) the anterior portion of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (common extensor tendon) extensor expansion, located at the base of the proximal phalanx of the finger on the dorsal side posterior interosseous artery which originates from the common interosseous artery and more proximally, the ulnar artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends the little finger at all joints 짧은새끼굽힘근(Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle)
자쪽손목폄근(extensor carpi ulnaris muscle) Common extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle), 자뼈(ulna) 5th metacarpal ulnar artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends and adducts the wrist 자쪽손목굽힘근(Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle)
유동뭉치(Mobile wad)
     위팔노근(brachioradialis) Lateral supracondylar ridge of the 위팔뼈(humerus) Distal radius (Radial styloid process) radial recurrent artery 노신경(radial nerve) Flexion of forearm
     긴노쪽손목폄근(extensor carpi radialis longus muscle) lateral supracondylar ridge 2nd metacarpal radial artery 노신경(radial nerve) extensor at the wrist joint, abducts the hand at the wrist 노쪽손목굽힘근(Flexor carpi radialis muscle)
     짧은노쪽손목폄근(extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle) 위팔뼈(humerus) at the anterior of lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon) base of the 3rd metacarpal radial artery posterior interosseus nerve extensor and abductor of the hand at the wrist joint 노쪽손목굽힘근(Flexor carpi radialis muscle)
아래팔 뒷 속[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
손뒤침근(supinator muscle) Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, supinator crest of 자뼈(ulna), radial collateral ligament, annular ligament Lateral proximal radial shaft radial recurrent artery posterior interosseus nerve (C7, C8) supinates forearm 원엎침근(Pronator teres muscle), 네모엎침근(Pronator quadratus muscle]]
집게폄근(extensor indicis muscle) 자뼈(ulna) index finger (extensor hood) posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends index finger, wrist
해부코담배갑(Anatomical snuffbox)
          긴엄지벌림근(abductor pollicis longus muscle) 자뼈(ulna), radial styloid process first metacarpal posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) abduction, extension of thumb 엄지모음근(Adductor pollicis muscle)
짧은엄지폄근(extensor pollicis brevis muscle) 노뼈(radius) thumb, proximal phalanx posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint 긴엄지굽힘근(Flexor pollicis longus muscle), 짧은엄지굽힘근(Flexor pollicis brevis muscle)
     긴엄지폄근(extensor pollicis longus muscle) 자뼈(ulna) thumb, distal phalanx posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of the thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal) 긴엄지굽힘근(Flexor pollicis longus muscle), 짧은엄지굽힘근(Flexor pollicis brevis muscle)

[편집]

가쪽 손바닥(Lateral palmar)[편집]

엄지두덩(Thenar eminence)[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
엄지맞섬근(opponens pollicis muscle) 큰마름뼈(Trapezium)과 굽힘근지지띠(flexor retinaculum) metacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial side superficial palmar arch median nerve Opposition of the thumb
짧은엄지굽힘근(flexor pollicis brevis muscle) trapezoid, flexor retinaculum thumb, proximal phalanx superficial palmar arch median nerve, deep branch of ulnar nerve (medial head) Flexes the thumb 긴엄지폄근(Extensor pollicis longus muscle), 짧은엄지폄근(Extensor pollicis brevis muscle)
짧은엄지벌림근abductor pollicis brevis muscle) Transverse carpal ligament, the scaphoid and trapezium Radial base of proximal phalanx of thumb and the thumb extensors superficial palmar arch Median nerve Abducts the thumb 엄지모음근(Adductor pollicis muscle)
엄지모음근(adductor pollicis muscle) Transverse head: anterior body of the third metacarpal
Oblique head: bases of the second and the third metacarpals and the adjacent trapezoid and capitate bones
medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the ulnar sesamoid deep palmar arch deep branch of ulnar nerve (T1) adducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint 긴엄지벌림근(Abductor pollicis longus muscle), 짧은엄지벌림근(Abductor pollicis brevis muscle)

안쪽 손바닥(Medial palmar)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
짧은손바닥근(palmaris brevis muscle) flexor retinaculum (medial), palmar aponeurosis palm superficial branch of ulnar nerve wrinkle skin of palm
새끼두덩(Hypothenar eminence)
     새끼벌림근(Abductor digiti minimi muscle) pisiform base of the proximal phalanx of the 5th digit on the ulnar or medial side ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve Abduction of little finger
     짧은새끼굽힘근(Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle) hamate bone little finger ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve flexes little finger 새끼폄근(extensor digiti minimi muscle)
     새끼맞섬근(opponens digiti minimi muscle) Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum Medial border of 5th metacarpal ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb

중간(Intermediate)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
벌레근(Lumbrical muscles) flexor digitorum profundus extensor expansion superficial palmar arch, common palmar digital arteries, deep palmar arch, dorsal digital artery deep branch of ulnar nerve, median nerve flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
등쪽뼈사이근(Dorsal interossei muscle) metacarpals proximal phalanges Dorsal metacarpal artery and palmar metacarpal artery deep branch of ulnar nerve abduct finger 바닥쪽뼈사이근(Palmar interossei muscles)
바닥쪽뼈사이근(palmar interossei muscles) metacarpals proximal phalange deep branch of ulnar nerve adduction

다리(하지, Lower limb)[편집]

엉덩뼈 부위[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
엉덩허리근(iliopsoas muscle) iliac fossa (iliacus), 엉치뼈(sacrum) (iliacus), spine (T12, L1, lumbar vertebrapsoas major, psoas minor) [2] 넙다리뼈(femur)—lesser trochanter (psoas major/minor), shaft below lesser trochanter (iliacus), tendon of psoas major & femur (iliacus) [2] medial femoral circumflex artery, iliolumbar artery femoral nerve, Lumbar nerves L1, L2 flexion of hip (psoas major/minor, iliacus), spine rotation (psoas major/minor) 큰볼기근(Gluteus maximus muscle), 넓적다리의 뒷부분(posterior compartment of thigh)
     큰허리근(Psoas major muscle) transverse processes, bodies and discs of T12-L5 in the lesser trochanter of the 넙다리뼈(femur) Iliolumbar artery Lumbar plexus via anterior branches of L1, L2, L3[3] flexes and rotates laterally thigh 큰볼기근(Gluteus maximus muscle)
     작은허리근(Psoas minor muscle) Side of T12+L1 and IV Disc between Pectineal line and iliopectineal eminence L1 Weak trunk flexor 큰볼기근(Gluteus maximus muscle)
     엉덩근(iliacus muscle) 엉덩뼈오목(iliac fossa) lesser trochanter of 넙다리뼈(femur) medial femoral circumflex artery, Iliolumbar artery femoral nerve (L2, L3[3]) flexes hip[4] 큰볼기뼈(Gluteus maximus muscle)

볼기 부위(Gluteal)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
넙다리근막긴장근(tensor fasciae latae muscle) iliac crest iliotibial tract primarily lateral circumflex femoral artery, Superior gluteal artery Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5) Thigh - flexion, medial rotation. Trunk stabilization.
볼기근(Gluteal muscles)
     큰볼기근(gluteus maximus muscle) Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, 엉치뼈(sacrum), sacrotuberous ligament Gluteal tuberosity of the 넙다리뼈(femur), iliotibial tract superior and inferior gluteal arteries inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2 nerve roots) external rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting 엉덩근(Iliacus muscle), 큰허리근(Psoas major muscle), 작은허리근(Psoas minor muscle)
     중간볼기근(gluteus medius muscle) Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus maximus Greater trochanter of the 넙다리뼈(femur) superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh. 가쪽돌림근집단(lateral rotator group)
     작은볼기근(gluteus minimus muscle) Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus medius. Greater trochanter of the 넙다리뼈(femur) superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) Works in concert with gluteus medius: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh. 가쪽돌림근집단(lateral rotator group)
가쪽돌림근집단(lateral rotator group) at or below the acetabulum of the ilium on or near the greater trochanter of the 넙다리뼈(femur) Inferior gluteal artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery Obturator nerve, nerve to the Piriformis, nerve to quadratus femoris lateral rotation of hip 작은볼기근(Gluteus minimus muscle), 중간볼기근(Gluteus medius muscle)
     궁둥구멍근(piriformis muscle) 엉치뼈(sacrum) greater trochanter Inferior gluteal artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery nerve to the Piriformis (S1 and S2 nerve roots) [5] laterally rotate (outward) the thigh
     바깥폐쇄근(obturator externus muscle) obturator foramen and obturatory membrane medial aspect of greater trochanter of 넙다리뼈(femur) obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (L3, L4) adduct thigh, rotate laterally thigh
     속폐쇄근(obturator internus muscle) Ischiopubic ramus & obturator membrane medial aspect of the Greater trochanter Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2) Abducts & rotates laterally thigh, and stabiliser of the hip during walking
     아래쌍동근(inferior gemellus muscle) Ischial tuberosity Obturator internus tendon Nerve to Quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1) Rotates laterally thigh
위쌍동근(superior gemellus muscle) spine of the ischium Obturator internus tendon Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2) Rotates laterally thigh
     넙다리네모근(대퇴사두근, quadratus femoris muscle) ischial tuberosity intertrochanteric crest inferior gluteal artery nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, -S1) lateral rotation of thigh

넓적다리(윗다리, thigh)[편집]

넓적다리 앞부분[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
무릎관절근(articularis genus muscle) 넙다리뼈(femur) suprapatellar bursa femoral artery femoral nerve Pulling the suprapatellar bursa during extension of the knee.
넙다리빗근(sartorius muscle) superior to the anterior superior iliac spine medial side of the upper 정강뼈(tibia) in the pes anserinus femoral artery femoral nerve flexion, lateral rotation and abduction of thigh; flexion and medial rotation of leg
넙다리네모근(대퇴사두근, quadriceps femoris muscle) 넙다리곧은근(rectus femoris)과 넓은근(vastus muscles)이 함께 무릎뼈(patella)와 정강뼈거친면(Tibial tuberosity)이 무릎인대(Patellar ligament)를 통하여 넙다리동맥(femoral artery) 넙다리신경(Femoral nerve) 무릎 펴기(Extension); 볼기(Hip) 굽히기(flexion) (R.Fem.만) 넙다리뒤근육(Hamstring)
     넙다리곧은근(rectus femoris muscle) anterior inferior iliac spine and the exterior surface of the bony ridge which forms the iliac portion of the acetabulum 무릎뼈(patella) and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve knee extension; hip flexion 넙다리뒤근육(Hamstring)
     가쪽넓은근(vastus lateralis muscle) Greater trochanter, Intertrochanteric line, and Linea aspera of the 넙다리뼈(femur) 무릎뼈(patella) and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve Extends and stabilizes knee 넙다리뒤근육(Hamstring)
     중간넓은근(vastus intermedius muscle) antero/ lateral 넙다리뼈(femur) 무릎뼈(patella) and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve extends knee 넙다리뒤근육(Hamstring)
     안쪽넓은근(vastus medialis muscle) 넙다리뼈(femur) 무릎뼈(patella) and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve extends knee 넙다리뒤근육(Hamstring)

넓적다리 뒷부분/넙다리뒤근육(hamstring, 슬와근, 오금)[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
넙다리두갈래근(대퇴이두근, biceps femoris muscle) 긴갈래(long head): 궁둥뼈결절(Ischial tuberosity, tuberosity of the ischium), 짧은갈래(short head): 넙다리뼈(femur)의 거친선(linea aspera)[6] 정강뼈의 가쪽관절융기(Lateral condyle of tibia)의 뒷면과 관절로 연결된 종아리뼈머리(head of the fibula)[6] 아래볼기동맥(inferior gluteal artery), 관통동맥(perforating arteries), 오금동맥(popliteal artery) 긴갈래(long head): 궁둥신경(sciatic nerve)의 안쪽(정강뼈쪽) 부분, 짧은갈래(short head): 궁둥신경(sciatic nerve)의 가쪽(종아리뼈쪽(common fibular)) 부분([6] 무릎관절(knee joint) 구부리기(flexion), 무릎이 구부러져 있을 때 무릎의 다리를 바깥쪽으로 회전하기(lateral rotation), 엉덩관절(hip joint) 펴기(Extension)(긴갈래만)[6] 넙다리네모근(대퇴사두근, Quadriceps femoris muscle)
반힘줄근(semitendinosus muscle) tuberosity of the ischium[6] pes anserinus inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries sciatic[6] (tibial, L5, S1, S2) flexes knee, extends hip joint, medially rotates leg at knee[6] 넙다리네모근(Quadriceps femoris muscle)
반막근(semimembranosus muscle) tuberosity of the ischium[6] Medial surface of 정강뼈(tibia)[6] profunda femoris, gluteal artery sciatic nerve[6] flexes knee, extends hip joint, medially rotates leg at knee[6] 넙다리네모근(Quadriceps femoris muscle)

넓적다리 안쪽 부분[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
엉덩이의 모음근(Adductor muscles of the hip) pubis 넙다리뼈(femur), 정강뼈(tibia) obturator nerve adduction of hip
     두덩정강근(gracilis muscle) inferior pubic ramus[7] 정강뼈(tibia) (pes anserinus) obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve[7] adduction of hip, flexion of hip, medial rotation of knee[7]
     두덩근(pectineus muscle) superior pubic ramus[7] lesser trochanter, linea aspera Obturator artery femoral nerve, sometimes obturator nerve[7] flexion & adduction of hip[7]
     짧은모음근(adductor brevis muscle) anterior surface of the inferior pubic ramus[7] the lesser trochanter and linea aspera of the 넙다리뼈(femur) obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve[7] adduction of hip[7]
     긴모음근(adductor longus muscle) pubic body just below the pubic crest middle third of linea aspera obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve[7] adduction & medial rotation of hip[7]
     큰모음근(adductor magnus muscle) tuberosity of the ischium[7] 넙다리뼈(femur) and adductor tubercle of femur obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (adductor) and tibial part of sciatic nerve[7][8] adduction of hip[7]

종아리(아랫다리, leg)[편집]

종아리 앞면[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
앞정강근(tibialis anterior muscle) body of tibia medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve dorsiflex and invert the foot Fibularis longus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, 뒤정강근(Tibialis posterior muscle)
긴엄지폄근(extensor hallucis longus muscle) middle portion of the 종아리뼈(fibula) on the anterior surface and the interosseous membrane dorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the Hallux anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve Extends the big toe and assists in dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle. Also is a weak invertor 긴엄지굽힘근(Flexor hallucis longus muscle), 짧은엄지굽힘근(Flexor hallucis brevis muscle)
긴발가락폄근(extensor digitorum longus muscle) Lateral Condyle of tibia and superior ¾ of interosseous membrane Middle and Distal phalanges of lateral four digits anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve extension of toes and ankle 긴발가락굽힘근(Flexor digitorum longus muscle), 짧은발가락굽힘근(Flexor digitorum brevis muscle)
셋째종아리근(Peroneus tertius muscle) distal anterior surface of the 종아리뼈(fibula) dorsal surface of metatarsal 5 anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve dorsi flexes and everts foot

종아리 뒷면[편집]

종아리 뒷 표면[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
장딴지세갈래근(하퇴삼두근, triceps surae muscle) 발꿈치힘줄(Calcaneal tendon, Achilles tendon), 발꿈치뼈(calcaneus) 뒤정강동맥(posterior tibial artery) 정강신경(tibial nerve) 발을 곧게 펴기(plantarflexion)
     장딴지근(gastrocnemius muscle) medial and Lateral condyle of the femur calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve from the sciatic, specifically, nerve roots S1, S2 plantarflexion, flexion of knee (minor) 앞정강근(Tibialis anterior muscle)
     가자미근(soleus muscle) 종아리뼈(fibula), medial border of 정강뼈(tibia) (soleal line) tendo calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5–S2 plantarflexion 앞정강근(tibialis anterior muscle)
장딴지빗근(plantaris muscle) lateral supracondylar ridge of 넙다리뼈(femur) above lateral head of gastrocnemius tendo calcaneus (medial side, deep to gastrocnemius tendon) sural arteries tibial nerve Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee 앞정강근(Tibialis anterior muscle)
종아리 뒷 속[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
오금근(popliteus muscle) middle facet of the lateral surface of the lateral femoral condyle posterior 정강뼈(tibia) under the tibial condyles popliteal artery tibial nerve Medial rotation and flexion of knee
발목굴(tarsal tunnel)
     flexor hallucis longus 종아리뼈(fibula), posterior aspect of upper 1/3 base of distal phalanx of hallux Peroneal artery (peroneal branch of the posterior tibial artery tibial nerve, S1, S2 nerve roots flexes all joints of the Hallux, plantar flexion of the ankle joint Extensor hallucis longus muscle
     긴발가락굽힘근(flexor digitorum longus muscle) medial 정강뼈(tibia) distal phalanges of lateral four digits posterior tibial artery Tibial nerve Primary action is Flex digits 긴발가락폄근(Extensor digitorum longus muscle), 짧은발가락폄근(Extensor digitorum brevis muscle)
     [뒤정강근]]([tibialis posterior muscle) 정강뼈(tibia), 종아리뼈(fibula) navicular, medial cuneiform posterior tibial artery tibial nerve inversion of the foot, plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle 앞정강근(Tibialis anterior muscle)

종아리 옆면[편집]

종아리근(fibularis muscles):

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
긴종아리근(fibularis longus muscle) 종아리뼈(fibula) first metatarsal, medial cuneiform fibular (peroneal) artery superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve plantarflexion, eversion 앞정강근(Tibialis anterior muscle)
짧은종아리근(fibularis brevis muscle) 종아리뼈(fibula) fifth metatarsal fibular (peroneal) artery superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve plantarflexion, eversion

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발등[편집]

근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
짧은발가락폄근(extensor digitorum brevis muscle) calcaneus toes deep peroneal nerve extends digits 2, 3, and 4 긴발가락굽힘근(Flexor digitorum longus muscle), 짧은발가락굽힘근(Flexor digitorum brevis muscle)
짧은엄지폄근(extensor hallucis brevis muscle) calcaneus base of proximal phalanx of hallux deep peroneal nerve Extension of hallux 짧은엄지굽힘근(Flexor hallucis brevis muscle)

발바닥[편집]

첫번째 층(1st layer)[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
엄지벌림근(abductor hallucis muscle) medial process of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis medial side of base of proximal phalanx of first digit medial plantar nerve abducts hallux 엄지모음근(Adductor hallucis muscle)
짧은발가락굽힘근(flexor digitorum brevis muscle) medial process of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular septa middle phalanges of digits 2-5 medial plantar nerve flexes lateral four toes 긴발가락폄근(Extensor digitorum longus muscle), 짧은발가락폄근(Extensor digitorum brevis muscle)
새끼벌림근(Abductor digiti minimi muscle) Plantar aponeurosis Fifth toe or Phalanges lateral plantar artery lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) flex and abduct the fifth toe 짧은새끼굽힘근(Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle)
두번째 층(2nd layer)[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
발바닥네모근(quadratus plantae muscle) 발꿈치뼈(Calcaneus_ Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) Assists Flexor Digitorum Longus in flexion of DIP joints
벌레근(Lumbrical muscle) tendons of flexor digitorum longus medial aspect of extensor expansion of proximal phalanges of lateral four digits lateral plantar artery and plantar arch, and four plantar metatarsal arteries lateral plantar nerve (lateral three lumbricals) and medial plantar nerve (first lumbrical) maintain extension of digits at interphalangeal joints
세번째 층(3rd layer)[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
짧은엄지굽힘근(flexor hallucis brevis muscle) medial plantar nerve flex hallux 긴엄지폄근(Extensor hallucis longus muscle)
엄지모음근(adductor hallucis muscle) lateral plantar nerve adducts hallux 엄지벌림근(Abductor hallucis muscle)
짧은새끼굽힘근(flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle) fifth metatarsal bone phalanx of the fifth toe lateral plantar nerve (superficial branch) extend and adduct the fifth toe 새끼벌림근(Abductor digiti minimi muscle)
네번째 층(4th layer)[편집]
근육 Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action 대항근
등쪽뼈사이근(Dorsal interossei muscle) Lateral plantar nerve abduct toes 바닥쪽뼈사이근(Plantar interossei muscles)
바닥쪽뼈사이근(plantar interossei muscles) metatarsals proximal phalanges Lateral plantar nerve adduct toes 등쪽뼈사이근(Dorsal interossei muscle)

신경 분포(innervation)[편집]

Mind Map showing a summary of Upper Limb Muscle Innervation
Mind Map Showing a summary of Lower Limb Muscle innervation

함께 보기[편집]

참조[편집]

  1. Enotes
  2. exrx.net
  3. Essential Clinical Anatomy. K.L. Moore & A.M. Agur. Lippincott, 2 ed. 2002. Page 193
  4. Gosling et al. 2008, p. 200
  5. Essential Clinical Anatomy. K.L. Moore & A.M. Agur. Lippincott, 2 ed. 2002. Page 217
  6. Gosling 2008, p. 273
  7. Gosling et al. 2008, p. 266
  8. 틀:MedicalMnemonics

외부 링크[편집]