택견

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
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택견
대한민국의 기 대한민국국가무형문화재
지정 번호 국가무형문화재 제76호
지정일 1983년 6월 1일
전승지 서울특별시

택견 또는 태껸한국의 전통의 민속놀이, 무술이다. 독특한 리듬으로 스텝을 밟으며 다리걸기, 발차기, 던지기 등으로 공격한다. 대한민국의 국가무형문화재 제76호 택견으로 등록되어 있다[1]. 문화재 지정을 받았기 때문에 체육관을 도장이 아니라 「전수관(傳修館)」이라고 부른다.

택견 협회에서 택견이란 발을 위주로 사용하여 상대방을 제압하는 기술이라고 정의하고 있다. 손보다는 발을 위주로 사용하는 전통 무술로 볼 수 있다.

근현대 들어 택견은 유도, 공수도 등 일본계 무술의 유입에 의해 쇠퇴했다. 한국 해방 이후 만들어진 현대창작무술 태권도가 택견의 전통을 계승했음을 주장했으나, 택견과 태권도는 이름이 유사함을 제외하면 역사적으로나 기술적으로나 직접적인 관계가 전무하다.[2] 2011년 11월 28일, 택견은 세계 무술 가운데 최초로 유네스코 인류무형문화유산으로 등재되었다.[3][4]

어원[편집]

택견이라고 하는 명칭의 자료상의 초견은 조선 정조시대(1776-1800)의 것이다.

수박(手搏)은 변(卞)이라고 하고 각력(角力)은 무(武)라고 하는데 지금에는 이것을 탁견(托肩)이라 한다.

— 《재물보》, 이성지

이에 따라 "태껸"의 어원은 "탁견 (托肩)"이라고도 하나, 민간어원일 수도 있다. 어원에 대한 인식이 점점 약화되면서 "태껸"으로 굳어져 표준어 규정 제5항에 근거하여 태껸을 표준어로 삼았다. 본래 "택견"은 "l" 모음 역행 동화를 원칙적으로 인정하지 않는 표준어 규정 제9항에 어긋나 표준어로 인정받지 못하였으나, 거의 모든 택견 관련 단체들이 일관되게 "택견"이라는 용어를 사용하고 있고, 문화재청에도 "택견"으로 등록되어 있으며, 대한민국내의 언어 실생활에서 "택견"이라는 표기의 사용 빈도가 높음을 감안하여, 2011년 8월 22일 국립국어원 국어심의회 전체 회의를 거쳐 동년 8월 31일부터 복수 표준어로 인정되었다[5].

역사[편집]

19세기 중기에 활동한 유숙(劉淑)의 그림 「대쾌도(大快圖)」. 씨름(상부) 및 택견(하부)이 나와있다. 주변 군중의 다양한 모습들은 택견이 개방적인 무예라는 것을 알려주고 있다.

조선시대, 서울 지역(당시 한양)에서 유행한 민속놀이. 굼실 거리며 춤과 같이 움직인다. 조선시대와 일제강점기에는 씨름처럼 민속놀이로 인식되었으나, 해방 후 무술로서 재인식되었다.

조선시대에는 평안도의 날파람, 경상도의 까기 등 여러 명칭의 무예적 놀이가 존재했음을 짐작할 수 있지만, 그 형태는 확인되지 않는다. 그러한 무예적 놀이를 증언하는 노인들의 증언에서 형태의 상이함이 있으므로 택견, 날파름, 까기, 잽이 등은 지역성을 가지고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 그러한 점을 고려했을 때 수박과 택견과의 연관성도 연구가 필요하다 하겠다.

조선 말기에 임호(林虎)라는 택견꾼으로부터 택견을 배운 사람들 중, 송덕기(宋德基)가 현대 택견의 뿌리이다. 송덕기에게 택견을 배운 이들이 대한 택견 협회, 택견 원형 보존회, 한국 전통 택견회, 결련 택견 협회 등의 단체를 조직하였다.

그 당시에는 택견이라고 해서 특별한 무술이라고는 생각지 못하고, 운동을 좋아하는 사람들이 여가를 이용해서 운동하기 좋은 장소에 모여서 실시하던 일종의 민속놀이였다.
 
송덕기. 〈머리말〉. 《한국 고유 무술, 택견 (전통 무술, 택견)》. 서림문화사. 

조선 시대 말기와 일제시대에 택견을 하던 사람들은 택견을 무술이 아닌 씨름같은 민속놀이로 인식하였다.

용어[편집]

  • 태기질, 태질: 걸거나 잡아채어 넘어뜨리는 기술.
  • 손질: 손으로 낚아 채고, 밀고, 당기고는 등의 기술.
  • 발길질: 발놀림, 발차기. 사용하기 자유로운 손에 비해 발은 가는 길이 정해져 있다 하여 발길질이라고 한다.
  • 활개: 어깨 부터 손 까지의 팔 부위를 나타낸다.
  • 결련태, 결련택견: 마을과 마을 사이의 택견시합.
  • 판막음: 마을 간 단체전으로 진행된 결련택견판의 마지막 판을 이김으로써 판을 끝내는 행위. 당시에 판막음을 한 택견꾼은 그 마을의 영웅 대접을 받았다고 한다.
  • 옛법: 결련택견판에서 금지되어 있는, 치명상을 입힐 수 있는 기술을 말하며 택견의 무예성을 알 수 있는 부분이다. 송덕기옹이 설명하기를, 옛날에는 썼으나 지금은 쓰지 않는다고 하여 옛법이라고 불렀다고 한다.
  • 홀새김: 홀새김은 택견의 수련과정을 혼자서 연습할 수 있도록 대한택견협회에서 창안한 것으로 혼자서 택견을 수련 할 수 있도록 단계별로 구성되어 있다.
  • 호패술은 창안한 결련택견협회에서도 택견 기법으로 치지 않는다. 따라서 택견 용어라고 할 수 없다.

대표 기술[편집]

날치기. 결련 택견 협회, 본터패.
품밟기
택견의 가장 기본인 발놀림. 혹은 원활한 발놀림을 위한 연습. 品자 형태로 발을 밟는 것이 특징.
낚시걸이 (안낚걸이, 밭낚걸이)
발목이나 다리로 상대방 발이나 다리를 안팎으로 걸어 넘어뜨리는 것을 말한다. 발목을 낚시처럼 구부려 상대 다리나 발을 걸어 당겨 넘어뜨리거나, 다리를 상대편 다리 사이나 바깥쪽에서 걸어 당기는 것을 말하며 다리 사이로 걸어 당기는 것을 "안낚걸이", 바깥쪽으로 걸어 당기는 것을 "밭낚걸이"라고 한다.
곁치기 (곁차기, 째차기)
원래는 골반 언저리를 차는 것을 의미했으나, 현재 결련택견협회에서는 발등으로 안에서 밖으로 얼굴을 차는 기술을 의미한다. 전통택견협회에서는 같은 기술을 째차기라고 부른다.
날치기 (쌍발치기)
손으로 바닥을 짚고 물구나무 서 듯, 혹은 몸을 휘돌리며 찬다.
내지르기
발을 앞으로 들어 가슴팍이나 얼굴을 밀어 찬다.
덧걸이
다리로 상대방 다리의 오금부분을 걸어 넘어뜨린다. 대개 손을 보조 수단으로 삼는다.
발따귀
발바닥으로 상대의 따귀를 때린다.
엎어치기 (장대걸이)
발등이나 발목 정강이로 상대방의 다리를 가격하거나 걸어 넘어뜨린다.
내차기
권투의 잽과 같다. 곁치기를 낮춰 상대방의 다리를 가격한다.
솟구쳐차기 (두발낭상)
공중으로 솟구쳐 상대방의 얼굴이나 몸통을 가격한다. 차는 형태는 발따귀, 내지르기, 후려차기 등 여러가지가 있다.
깎음다리
밟아차기의 일종. 상대방의 정강이를 깎아 내려 밟는다.


태질. 택견 배틀 2009.
엎어치기. 택견 배틀 2009.

태권도와의 차이점[편집]

  • 택견은 태권도와는 운동 원리가 다르다.[6]
  • 주먹과 발모서리를 이용한 타격이 금지되어 있다.[7]
  • 명칭, 기원, 문화적 차이가 있다.[8]
  • 잡아넘길 수 있다.
  • 몸의 무릎 이상이 바닥에 닿으면 진다.
  • 상대의 다리를 걷어 찰 수 있다.

Old historical records on Taekkyeon-Yetbeob[편집]

Taekkyeon has always been teaching both regular Taekkyeon & street fighting Taekkyeon-Yetbeob which hits with any body part including powerful punches with historical Korean traits like shoulder (& torso) rotation, Yongryuk (stacking speed & power in motion), (no fist spin) horizontal fist. Nalparam is a form of Pyunssaum, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi of Bak-si, which is Si-bak) which hits with any body part including punches, kicks, headbutt. Street fighting styles (including punching & kicking) Nalparam & Sibak are taught by Taekkyeon like street fighting style Taekkyeon-Yetbeop is taught by Taekkyeon in South Korea. Taekkyeon's street fighting style Nalparam, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi), Yetbeop are likely created by being inspired by Kung Fu & Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop with little connection to Subak.

An important historical record exists on Korean street fighting game, which is the Prize Fight record in 1895 by Henry Savage Landor in his book "Corea", "the combatants generally fight with their fists, but, like the French, are much given to use their knees and feet as well in the contest."[9]

"분단되지 않았다면 날파람도 이어졌으리라. 다행히 1960년 초, 북한의 계정희 교수에 의해 개성에서 발굴된 것이 있다. 논문에서 택견 기능자 발굴이라는 말을 하는데, 북한학계에서는 날파람도 택견으로 보기에 그런 것이다." Translation: "If Korea was not split, South Korea would also have Nalparam. Fortunately, in the early 1960's, North Korea's professor Jungheui Gye found Nalparam artist. In his report, he described that Taekkyeon artist was found. This is because North Korean academia considers Nalparam also as a Taekkyeon."

[10] Nalparam is taught by Taekkyeon. Sibak is Taekkyeon-Yetbeob. North Korea also describes Nalparam to be cross-training Charyuk/Kihapsul/Kiaijutsu which includes Breaking/Tameshiwari. Regardless of how Breaking's system is for China & Japan, Breaking belonged to sidewalk performance art, power circus, power magic to Korean.

In medieval Jaemulbo book, Sibak was recorded to be also Taekyun, which would mean also being included in Taekyun.[11] "시박은 '서로 치는 것은 씨름의 일종인데 역(亦) 탁견'이라고 되어 있다." Translation: "Sibak's recorded, 'hitting each other (Sibak) is a type of wrestling, this is also Taekkyeon'." "시박? 낯선 이름이다. 위의 재물보에 수박과 함께 소개되고 있는 조선 고유의 체술 이었다." Translation: "Sibak? It's an unfamiliar name. Above in Jaemulbo, it's a Korean martial art introduced together with Subak." Murayama Jijun recorded Baksi & Nanjangbaksi in 1941, which were quite different from Taekyun.[12] "경북군위군의 군사(軍士)훈련이었던 박시(재물보상의 ‘시박’으로 여겨진다. 1941년, 무라야마지준의 글에도 언급되고 있다. 수백명의 사람들이 팔짱을 끼고 서로 어깨로 밀어 붙여 진(陳)을 뚫는 것이다. 나중에 동네 왈패들이 신작로에 모여 난장박시라 하는 패싸움을 했었다)등이 있었다." Translation: Gyungbook military training Baksi, etc existed. Seems Sibak from Jaemulbo. 1941's Murayama Jijun also mentions this. Hundreds of people, arms locked, push each other with shoulders to penetrate formation. Later, town thugs gather on the road to do team street fighting called Nanjangbaksi." (Korean sometimes reverse the word order, like Baksi & Sibak.)

an old Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by (most likely) Gisan Joongeun Kim

Also, in 1930's reputable Korean newspaper, it describes that Taekkyeon was recorded by Muyedobotongji as Gwonbeop including hand techniques. 1930's newspaper recorded that Taekkyeon has contents to be recorded as Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop. Although there may be discrepancies between the military version Gwonbeop and the civilian version Sibak, the newspaper corroborated that Taekkyeon has such contents within Taekkyeon.[13]

Like Subak had Subakdaeo club to train, Nalparam also had a club to train. "1935년 7월 22일자 동아일보를 보자. [평양]지난 17일 평양서에서는 부내 창전리에서 주소부정의 현기한, 이오 외 십이명을 검거하야 엄중취조중이라는데 그들은 약 일주일전부터 기림리(산림리) 신궁앞 부근에서 부랑배 백수십여명을 모아노코 "날파람이"(망나니 짓이란 의미)를 연습하며". Translation: "Let's see 1935's July 22nd Dongailbo Newspaper. On the 17th, in Pyungyang's Changjeonli, Gihan Hyun, Oh Yi, etc 12 men were arrested and interrogated. They have gathered over a hundred thugs at Girimli (Sanlimli) Singoong's front, practicing Nalparami."[14][15]

A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap, slapping chest at front), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song."[16][17]

The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. There are also online Taekkyeon articles on Taekkyeon Yetbub by the official Taekkyeon organizations.[18]

Sibak (Nanjangbaksi) & Nalparam are street fighting rule martial arts including punching & kicking just like Taekkyeon-Yetbeop. Other than Sibak & Nalparam which are taught by Taekkyeon like South Korea's Taekkyeon-Yetbeop, there's also another traditional Korean martial art in street fighting rule including punching & kicking. There's a Korean martial art called Taegyeok. From the phonetic similarity, it is speculated to be related to Taekkyeon (particularly Taekkyeon-Yetbeop). Taegyeok's original textbook was drawn between 1920's & 1940's, but the currently existing Taegyeok textbook was redrawn in the late 1950's. The age of 1950's Taegyeok textbook was verified by professors and specialists in managing old documents. Taegyeok & its 1950's textbook have been in Northern Jeonla's Gimje, which is a distant away from where Karate (Tode) was taught in 1950's South Korea (also away from 1960's earlier Taekwondo gyms).[19]

Difference between Competition Taekkyeon, & Martial Taekkyeon-(Yetbeop)[편집]

Taekkyeon is a wrestling with kicking in soft-contact. Even 1920's reputable newspaper recorded water-Taekkyeon is done by throwing the opponent (throwing sister in law).[20] Stewart Culin also recorded "Htaik-Kyen-Ha-Ki" to be a throwing game 100 years ago. "A high kick is permitted, and is caught with the hands. The object is to throw the opponent."[21] Even today, Taekkyeon game is done by throwing opponent as well as kicking. Taekkyeon-Yetbub is a full contact street fighting game which hits with any body part including punching. Taekwondo is a mix of Chosun(Korean)-Gwonbeop (started 300 years ago by Korean Muyedobotongji textbook) gym & Karate gyms. However, Korea has had many other Fight Games, particularly street fighting[22] games called Nalparam, Taekyun-Yetbub, Flag Fight (Gitssaum)[23], Pyunssaum ("team-fight", "side-fight"), Sibak ("opponent-hitting").

Regular Taekkyeon is a wrestling game with kicks allowed. 1920's Korean newspaper Dongailbo recorded Water Taekkyeon to throw a sister in law. Stewart Culin also recorded in the book "Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan" that Taekkyeon has throwing in it. However, Taekkyeon has another Taekkyeon in Taekkyeon. In medieval Korean encyclopedia Jaemulbo, a new martial art called Sibak shows up; it was recorded to be "also Taekkyeon". Murayama Jijun recorded 100 years ago about Nanjangbaksi in Baksi. (Korean sometimes reverse the word order like Baksi & Sibak). He recorded Nanjangbaksi to be a team street fighting game like Korean Prize Fight historically recorded, not a wrestling game nor a kicking game.

Taekkyeon has both Taekkyeon & Sibak in it; there are 2 sets of games in Taekkyeon; Sibak (Baksi, Nanjangbaksi street fighting) is Yetbub. Sibak, including Nanjangbaksi recorded by Murayama Jijun, is also Taekkyeon other than the regular Taekkyeon. There are also other old names & games other than Sibak, like Gitssaum (Flag Fight, this is a fist fighting game that also represents general Pyunssaum, Sibak, Taekkyeon-Yetbub), Nalparam, etc; they are all a form of Sibak ("opponent-hitting") & Pyunssaum ("team fight", "side fight") enjoyed by Taekkyeon population historically for gaming street fight. Other than 1927's reputable newspaper's Gitssaum (Flag Fight) fist-fighting pictures[24], an old (drawn 100 years ago) Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by (most likely) Gisan Joongeun Kim also helps identifying Taekyun Yetbub's moves. [25] In this old drawing, 2 teams are made, 1 team with red shirts and 1 team with black shirts. There are 2 games going on simultaneously. 1 game is Korean wrestling Ssireum; the other game is Pyunssaum punching & kicking, giving a visual understanding of Taekkyeon-Yetbub just like 1927's Gitssaum pictures. Yetbub is pyunssaum, Sibak which is also in Taekkyeon. Like the 1895's Prize Fight record, "the combatants generally fight with their fists, but, like the French, are much given to use their knees and feet as well in the contest."[26]

Yetbub is basically wrestlers street fighting in rules & postures including holding arm & punching at the same time like 1927's Gitssaum (Flag Fight) pictures (except that strikes are more powerful than a plain street fighting by shoulder-rotation, body momentum, Yongryuk stacking speed & power). In 1927's Flag Fighting & 300 years old Korean Muyedobotongji Kwonbeop, shoulder-rotation (turning, pushing the striking side's shoulder forward) is observed for punching front for extra mass, strength, speed. Shoulder-push means turning (pushing, rotating) shoulder forward when punching instead of the shoulders being stationary & square.[27][28] As for the texture of Korean strikes, Korean uses Yong which means stacking speed & power in the entire body including arms. Even Korean Ikmyung Yang's 1692's record of breaking a stone with hand strike used Yongryuk.[29] Horizontal fist is also observed for punching in 1927's Flag Fight, 100 years old Korean street fighting, 300 years old Muyedobotongji Gwonbub/Kwonbeop.[30][31][32] Taekkyeon Yetbub hits with such traits even today including in powerful punching (shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, mass, power for horizontal-fist no-spin punching). Taekkyeon Yetbub's hand techniques have swings hitting front (& also hitting side such as jaw-breaking slap) as well as straight strikes including punching & frontal slap even today.

A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap, slapping chest at front), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song."[33][34]

The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. There are also online Taekkyeon articles on Taekkyeon Yetbub by the official Taekkyeon organizations.[35]

As a side note, slapping cheek is often thought as hitting side, but cheek or jaw is actually halfway frontal in about 45 degrees, not 90 degrees at side like ears. Also, hook and swing are two different motions; hook isn't really used for slapping cheek. Furthermore, sports create techniques & motions; they evolve & add motions not from everyday-life (explicit proofs have to check such). Also, whether hitting 45 degrees, 0 degrees or 90 degrees from the front, shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, power, mass doesn't change for hand strike; the strike techniques are the same. Taekyun & Subak techniques are consistent in authenticity. Subak had swing slaps hitting front (frontal slap), straight slaps, punches already at the ancient time; Taekkyeon also had all those in the medieval times already. Straight slaps are also common in everyday-life anyway such as swatting, spanking. There are authoritative explicit proofs for Taekkyeon, Taekkyeon-Yetbub, Subak moves from the older eras by reputable sources.

Taekkyeon Myths & Facts[편집]

There's a Taekkyeon myth today that it is a kicking game. This is because Taekkyeon hasn't been a popular sport in South Korea while Taekwondo predominantly took Taekkyeon's place as an ethnic sport. Taekwondo originates from Gwonbeop (Mas Oyama wrote in his book "Karate for a million people" that Korean Gwonbeop existed even then, which Byungin Yoon's nickname Gyungnong 18ki, meaning Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop, corroborates) & Karate. However, Taekwondo has been putting in efforts to take a place as an ethnic sport in Korea. As a result, Taekkyeon has been known to the most people in the public through Taekwondo's rendition of Taekkyeon which is from indirect information via bits and pieces of records on Taekkyeon particularly in regards to kicking references.

In reality, there are 2 sets of games in Taekkyeon: regular competition Taekkyeon & Taekkeyon-Yetbeop. Regular Taekkyeon is a throwing wrestling game with kicks allowed. Taekkyeon-Yetbeop is a street fighting rule full contact style similar to Nalparam & Sibak including punching & kicking. Nalparam & Sibak are also taught by Taekkyeon whether that version of Taekkyeon is a set of 2 games like South Korea (regular Taekkyeon & Taekkyeon-Yetbeop) or just 1 game (Nalparam & Nanjangbaksi).

Difference between Sibak & Subak[편집]

Sibak isn't the same as Subak. Taekkyeon isn't Subak. Medieval Korean encyclopedia differentiates Taekkyeon & Subak. If they were the same, the people in the older era wouldn't have invented a new name to make the distinctions. Murayama Jijun recorded Nanjangbaksi to be a team street fighting game like Korean Prize Fight historically recorded, not a wrestling game nor a kicking game.[36] Sibak hits with any body part. Subak uses frontal slap, side slap, punches, Knife Hand strikes with fist and grab moving front and back, hand and fingers bending (Namseon Choi's description).[37] Also, Taekkyeon has kicks, which would be a main distinction between Subak & Sibak, which is why the older people differentiated Sibak from Subak. Also, Chaeho Shin testified that only Songdo (North Korea) had Subak 100 years ago. [38] Chaeho Shin also described that Subak became Gwonbeop in China, Judo in Japan.[39] Subak has relation to both wrestling & also striking martial art. Sibak (this is also a Taekkyeon) is a new version of Subak which includes kicking, headbutt, punches, etc.

각주[편집]

  1. 문화재청 : 국가무형문화재 76호 - 택견
  2. 택견 - 한국민족문화대백과사전
  3. 쿵푸 제친 택견, 세계 무술 최초 무형유산 등재
  4. 택견·줄타기·한산모시짜기, 유네스코 인류무형유산 등재
  5. 김태식 기자, '짜장면', 표준어 됐다, 《연합뉴스》, 2011년 8월 31일 작성.
  6. 동아닷컴::주간동아
  7. donga.com[뉴스]-[전영희 기자가 간다] ‘무적(無敵)무예’ 택견 체험
  8. “계간 <택견> 1999년 겨울호”. 2004년 12월 14일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2010년 2월 4일에 확인함. 
  9. “1895's Korean Prize Fighting Game”. 
  10. “Taekkyon Yetbub is Nalparam”. 
  11. “medieval Korean encyclopedia Jaemulbo records Sibak ("opponent-hitting") to be also Taekkyeon”. 
  12. “1941's Murayama Jijun's Baksi & Nanjangbaksi record”. 
  13. “Taekkyeon has contents to be recorded as Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop”. 
  14. “Taekyun-Yetbub is Nalparam 1”. 
  15. “Taekyun-Yetbub is Nalparam 2”. 
  16. “Taekyun-Yetbub has frontal chest slap; the same book also mentions jaw breaking Taekyun-Yetbub slap”. 
  17. “Taekkyeon Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap) description”. 
  18. “Taekyun-Yetbub article on Mookas News”. 
  19. “Taekkyeon-Yetbeop related Taegyeok with textbook drawn in 1950's”. 
  20. “1920's Water-Taekkyeon throwing sister in law”. 
  21. “Stewart Culin's record on Taekkyeon rule”. 
  22. “1888's Korean street fighting scene with no-spin horizontal fist punching”. 
  23. “1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch”. 
  24. “1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch”. 
  25. “an old Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by Gisan Joongeun Kim”. 
  26. “1895's Korean Prize Fighting Game”. 
  27. “300 years old Korean Gwonbub picture pushing shoulder in punch for mass & strength”. 
  28. “1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch”. 
  29. “1692's Korean Ikmyung Yang breaking a stone with hand strike & Yongryuk (stacking speed & power)”. 
  30. “300 years old Korean Muyedobotongji Gwonbub's Taekwondo punch”. 
  31. “1888's Korean street fighting scene with no-spin horizontal fist punching”. 
  32. “1927's Korean Flag Fight, Gitssaum, a street fighting game with no-spin horizontal fist punching & shoulder-push for frontal punch”. 
  33. “Taekyun-Yetbub has frontal chest slap; the same book also mentions jaw breaking Taekyun-Yetbub slap”. 
  34. “Taekkyeon Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap) description”. 
  35. “Taekyun-Yetbub article on Mookas News”. 
  36. “1941's Murayama Jijun's Baksi & Nanjangbaksi record”. 
  37. “Chosun Common Sense Q & A, 1937's Subak Newspaper Column”. 
  38. “North Korea's Songdo city had Subak 100 years ago”. 
  39. “North Korea's Songdo city had Subak 100 years ago”. 

외부 링크[편집]