윌리엄 3세

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윌리엄 3세
King William III of England, (1650-1702).jpg
잉글랜드의 왕
스코틀랜드의 왕
아일랜드의 왕
오라녜 공
나사우 백작
네덜란드 공화국의 총독
재위 1689년 ~ 1702년
왕비 메리 2세
이전 왕 제임스 2세
다음 왕

영국의 윌리엄 3세 또는 오란여의 빌럼 3세(네덜란드어: Willem III van Oranje, 영어: William III, 1650년 11월 14일 ~ 1702년 3월 8일)는 오란여 공작나사우 백작, 브레다 남작(재위 1689년 2월 12일 ~ 1702년 3월 8일), 네덜란드 공화국 통령(재직 1672년 6월 28일 ~ 1702년 3월 8일), 잉글랜드 왕국·스코틀랜드 왕국·아일랜드 왕국의 국왕(재위 1689년 2월 13일 ~ 1702년 3월 8일)이다. 스코틀랜드 국왕으로서는 윌리엄 2세, 아일랜드 국왕으로서는 윌리엄 1세이다. 의회가 주도한 반정(명예 혁명)으로 아내인 메리 2세와 함께 영국의 공동 통치자가 되었다.

유년기[편집]

1647년, 윌리엄 3세의 부모, 빌럼 2세매리 스튜어트, 프린세스 로열

출생과 가족[편집]

윌리엄 3세/빌렘 3세는 1650년 11월 4일 네덜란드 공화국 헤이그에서 태어났다. 매리 프린세스 로열빌럼 2세의 독자로 태어나, 빌렘 헨드릭으로 세례받았다. 매리는 찰스 1세의 장녀이자, 찰스 2세제임스 2세 (잉글랜드)의 자매이다.

빌렘이 태어나기 80일 전, 그의 아버지는 천연두로 사망했다. 그래서 빌렘은 태어나자마자 오라녜 공이 되었다.

오라녜공이 되자마자, 그의 어머니 매리 프린세스 로열과 빌렘 3세의 이름을 지은 빌렘 2세의 어머니 졸름스-브라운펠츠의 아말리아간의 갈등이 시작됐다.

매리는 그녀의 남형제의 이름을 따 아들의 이름을 샤를/찰스 로 짓기를 원했지만, 장모 아말리아는 그의 이름을 윌리엄/빌렘으로 지어서 슈타트홀더가 될 가능성을 키우길 원했다.

빌렘 2세는 그의 아내를 아들의 후견인으로 지정했다. 그러나 문서는 빌렘 2세의 죽음까지 서명되지 않은 채 남아있었고, 법적 효력이 없었다.

1651년 8월 13일, 호헤 라드 판 홀란트 엔 질란트(대법원)은 빌렘 3세의 후견인 권리를 빌렘의 어머니와 할머니, 그리고 빌렘 2세의 누나 루이제 앙리에타의 아내. 브란덴부르크 선제후 프리드리히 빌헬름 1세 (1620년)와 나누도록 판결을 내렸다.

1660년 경, 얀 데이비즈 드 힘얀 페르미어 판 위트레히트오라녜 가의 상징으로 화환을 채워서 묘사한 어린 빌렘공.

어린 시절과 교육[편집]

빌렘의 어머니는 아들에게 거의 관심을 주지 않았다, 가끔 몇년간 없기도 했고, 항상 네덜란드 사회에서 떨어지도록 고의적으로 했다.

빌렘의 교육은 몇명의 네덜란드 가정교사, 발부르크 호워드를 포함한 몇 잉글랜드 가문, 그리고 안나 맥캔지같은 스코틀랜드계 여귀족으로 진행되었다. 1656년 4월, 빌렘은 콘트라-레몬스트란트 신학자 히스베르투스 보에티우스의 추종자, 칼뱅주의 전도사 코르네리스 트리글란트에게서 개혁 교회에 대한 설명을 받았다. 

빌렘을 위한 이상적인 교육방법은 아마도 빌렘의 가정교사, 콘스탄틴 휘헨즈의 짧은 논문,Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince d'Orange에서 설명되었다.

이 수업들에서, 빌렘은 오라녜나사우 가의 역사적 운명을 만족시킬 신의 섭리의 매개채가 되는 숙명이라고 스스로 생각했다.

1659년 초부터, 빌렘은 정규 교육을 위해 (정식으로 학생으로서 한번도 입학하지 않았지만) 윤리학 교수 헨리크 보르니우스의 지도아래에서. 레이던 대학교에 7년간 머물렀다.

While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a small personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein, who (as an illegitimate son of stadtholder Frederick Henry of Orange) was his paternal uncle.

Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff pushed the States of Holland to take charge of William's education and ensure that he would acquire the skills to serve in a future—though undetermined—state function; the States acted on 25 September 1660.[15] This first involvement of the authorities did not last long. On 23 December 1660, when William was ten years old, his mother died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace, London, while visiting her brother King Charles II.[15] In her will, Mary requested that Charles look after William's interests, and Charles now demanded the States of Holland end their interference.[16] To appease Charles, they complied on 30 September 1661.[17] That year, Zuylenstein began to work for Charles and induced William to write letters to his uncle asking him to help William become stadtholder someday.[18] After his mother's death, William's education and guardianship became a point of contention between his dynasty's supporters and the advocates of a more republican Netherlands.[19]

The Dutch authorities did their best at first to ignore these intrigues, but in the Second Anglo-Dutch War one of Charles's peace conditions was the improvement of the position of his nephew.[18] As a countermeasure in 1666, when William was sixteen, the States officially made him a ward of the government, or a "Child of State".[18] All pro-English courtiers, including Zuylenstein, were removed from William's company.[18] William begged De Witt to allow Zuylenstein to stay, but he refused.[20] De Witt, the leading politician of the Republic, took William's education into his own hands, instructing him weekly in state matters—and joining him in a regular game of real tennis.[20]

통치 초기[편집]

Exclusion from stadtholdership[편집]

After the death of William's father, most provinces had left the office of stadtholder vacant.[21] At the demand of Oliver Cromwell, the Treaty of Westminster, which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War, had a secret annexe that required the Act of Seclusion, which forbade the province of Holland from appointing a member of the House of Orange as stadtholder.[22] After the English Restoration, the Act of Seclusion, which had not remained a secret for very long, was declared void as the English Commonwealth (with which the treaty had been concluded) no longer existed.[23] In 1660, Mary and Amalia tried to persuade several provincial States to designate William as their future stadtholder, but they all initially refused.[23]

In 1667, as William III approached the age of 18, the Orangist party again attempted to bring him to power by securing for him the offices of stadtholder and Captain-General. To prevent the restoration of the influence of the House of Orange, De Witt, the leader of the States Party, allowed the pensionary of HaarlemGaspar Fagel, to induce the States of Holland to issue the Perpetual Edict.[24] The Edict declared that the Captain-General or Admiral-General of the Netherlands could not serve as stadtholder in any province.[24] Even so, William's supporters sought ways to enhance his prestige and, on 19 September 1668, the States of Zeeland appointed him as First Noble.[25] To receive this honour, William had to escape the attention of his state tutors and travel secretly to Middelburg.[25] A month later, Amalia allowed William to manage his own household and declared him to be of majority age.[26]

The province of Holland, the center of anti-Orangism, abolished the office of stadtholder and four other provinces followed suit in March 1670, establishing the so-called "Harmony".[24] De Witt demanded an oath from each Holland regent (city council member) to uphold the Edict; all but one complied.[24] William saw all this as a defeat, but the arrangement was a compromise: De Witt would have preferred to ignore the prince completely, but now his eventual rise to the office of supreme army commander was implicit.[27] De Witt further conceded that William would be admitted as a member of the Raad van State, the Council of State, then the generality organ administering the defence budget.[28]William was introduced to the council on 31 May 1670 with full voting rights, despite De Witt's attempts to limit his role to that of an advisor.[29]

Conflict with republicans[편집]

In November 1670, William obtained permission to travel to England to urge Charles to pay back at least a part of the 2,797,859 guilder debt the House of Stuart owed the House of Orange.[30] Charles was unable to pay, but William agreed to reduce the amount owed to 1,800,000 guilders.[30] Charles found his nephew to be a dedicated Calvinist and patriotic Dutchman, and reconsidered his desire to show him the Secret Treaty of Dover with France, directed at destroying the Dutch Republic and installing William as "sovereign" of a Dutch rump state.[30] In addition to differing political outlooks, William found that his lifestyle differed from his uncles, Charles and James, who were more concerned with drinking, gambling, and cavorting with mistresses.[31]

The following year, the Republic's security deteriorated quickly as an Anglo-French attack became imminent.[32] In view of the threat, the States of Gelderland wanted William to be appointed Captain-General of the Dutch States Army as soon as possible, despite his youth and inexperience.[33] On 15 December 1671, the States of Utrecht made this their official policy.[34] On 19 January 1672, the States of Holland made a counterproposal: to appoint William for just a single campaign.[35] The prince refused this and on 25 February a compromise was reached: an appointment by the States General for one summer, followed by a permanent appointment on his 22nd birthday.[35]

Meanwhile, William had written a secret letter to Charles in January 1672 asking his uncle to exploit the situation by exerting pressure on the States to appoint William stadtholder.[36] In return, William would ally the Republic with England and serve Charles's interests as much as his "honour and the loyalty due to this state" allowed.[36]Charles took no action on the proposal, and continued his war plans with his French ally.

네덜란드 총독이 되어[편집]

요하네스 폴하우트가 묘사한 빌렘 3세의 승마 초상화

1672년 "재앙의 해"[편집]

네덜란드 공화국에 있어서, 1672년은 재앙을 초래하는 해였다. 이것은 Rampjaar ("재앙의 해")로도 알려져있다, 불란전쟁3차 영국-네덜란드 전쟁으로 프랑스와 프랑스의 동맹국, 영국,뮌스터, 그리고 쾰른에게 네덜란드는 침략당했기 때문이다.

솔베이 전투로 인해 영국-프랑스의 함대는 전투불능이 되었지만, 6월 프랑스 육군은 헬데를란트와 위트레히트로 빠르게 진격했다.

6월 14일, 빌렘은 남은 군대를 홀란드로 철수시켰고, where the States had ordered the flooding of the Dutch Water Line on 8 June.[37] Louis XIV of France, believing the war was over, began negotiations to extract as large a sum of money from the Dutch as possible.[38] The presence of a large French army in the heart of the Republic caused a general panic, and the people turned against De Witt and his allies.[38]

On 4 July, the States of Holland appointed William stadtholder, and he took the oath five days later.[39] The next day, a special envoy from Charles II, Lord Arlington, met with William in Nieuwerbrug and presented a proposal from Charles. In return for William's capitulation to England and France, Charles would make William Sovereign Prince of Holland, instead of stadtholder (a mere civil servant).[40] When William refused, Arlington threatened that William would witness the end of the Republic's existence.[40] William answered famously: "There is one way to avoid this: to die defending it in the last ditch." On 7 July, the inundations were complete and the further advance of the French army was effectively blocked. On 16 July, Zeeland offered the stadtholderate to William.[39]

Johan de Witt had been unable to function as Grand Pensionary after being wounded by an attempt on his life on 21 June.[41] On 15 August, William published a letter from Charles, in which the English king stated that he had made war because of the aggression of the De Witt faction.[42] The people thus incited, De Witt and his brother, Cornelis, were murdered by an Orangist civil militia in The Hague on 20 August.[42] Subsequently, William replaced many of the Dutch regents with his followers.[43]

1673년 오라녜의 빌렘의 나아르덴 재탈환

Though William's complicity in the lynching has never been proved (and some 19th-century Dutch historians have made an effort to disprove that he was an accessory) he thwarted attempts to prosecute the ringleaders, and even rewarded some, like Hendrik Verhoeff, with money, and others, like Johan van Banchem and Johan Kievit, with high offices.[44] This damaged his reputation in the same fashion as his later actions at Glencoe.

William continued to fight against the invaders from England and France, allying himself with Spain and Brandenburg. In November 1672, he took his army to Maastricht to threaten the French supply lines.[45] By 1673, the Dutch situation further improved. Although Louis took Maastricht and William's attack against Charleroi failed, Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter defeated the Anglo-French fleet three times, forcing Charles to end England's involvement by the Treaty of Westminster; after 1673, France slowly withdrew from Dutch territory (with the exception of Maastricht), while making gains elsewhere.[46]

Fagel now proposed to treat the liberated provinces of Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel as conquered territory (Generality Lands), as punishment for their quick surrender to the enemy.[47] William refused but obtained a special mandate from the States General to newly appoint all delegates in the States of these provinces.[47] William's followers in the States of Utrecht on 26 April 1674 appointed him hereditary stadtholder.[48] On 30 January 1675, the States of Gelderland offered him the titles of Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen.[49] The negative reactions to this from Zeeland and the city of Amsterdam made William ultimately decide to decline these honours; he was instead appointed stadtholder of Gelderland and Overijssel.[49]

침묵공 빌렘 제임스 1세
{{{프레드}}} {{{아밀리아}}} {{{찰리}}} {{{베티}}}
{{{프레드}}} {{{루이즈}}} {{{알버틴}}} {{{빌}}} {{{매리}}} {{{찰리}}} James II of England {{{소피아}}}
Frederick I of Prussia Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz William III of England Mary II of England Anne of England James Francis Edward
John William Friso, Prince of Orange
전 대
장인 제임스 2세
영국의 군주
1689년 - 1702년
후 대
처제