궁도 (바둑)

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
이동: 둘러보기, 검색

바둑에서 궁도(宮圖)란 한 색상의 돌이 끊임없이 에워싼 형태가 되었을 때, 그 공간 안에 있는 의 수나 그 형태를 의미하는 용어이다. 주로 돌의 사활에 관련된 형태에서 쓰이며, 일반적으로 3궁부터 6궁까지의 궁도의 형태를 일컫는다. 특정 모양으로 궁도가 형성되었을때 상대방이 치중하면 돌이 바로 죽어버리거나, 일부 형태에서는 치중했을 때 대처하면 살 수 있는 형태가 있는데, 이들 형태는 특별히 불리는 명칭이 따로 존재한다.

형태별 명칭[편집]

3궁[편집]

직삼궁 곡삼궁
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3궁(三宮)은 집이 세 개인 형태로서, 직삼궁(直三宮)과 곡삼궁(曲三宮)의 단 두가지 형태만 존재할 수 있다. 이 두 형태 모두 가운데인, 그림의 a에 치중하면 반드시 죽는다.

4궁[편집]

직사궁 번개사궁
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4궁(四宮)은 집이 네 개인 형태로서, 직사궁(直四宮), 곡사궁(曲四宮), 꽃사궁(-四宮), 정사궁(正四宮), 번개사궁(-四宮)의 다섯 형태가 존재한다. 정사궁은 판사궁(板四宮)이라고도 한다.

직사궁과 번개사궁의 경우 만일 상대가 치중해도 다음 수로 남은 세 집에서 두 눈을 반드시 만들 수 있기 때문에 살아있는 형태다.

꽃사궁 정사궁
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꽃사궁은 상대가 가운데로 치중하면 죽어버린다. 정사궁의 경우, 그림에서 백이 가일수를 어떻게 하더라도 백의 다음 형태가 곡삼궁이 되며, 직후 흑이 가운데로 치중해버린다면 백은 반드시 죽는다. 이 형태는 백이 두 수를 연속으로 둘 수 있어야지만 살 수 있으며, 정사궁은 계가시 죽은 것으로 판단한다.

곡사궁 귀곡사
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곡사궁은 특이한 형태의 사궁이다. 를 제외한 곳에 위치한 곡사궁의 경우 상대가 네 집 중에서 어느 곳을 치중하던 다음의 응수로 눈을 두 개 만들 수 있기 때문에 살 수 있는 형태이다. 단, 그림과 같이 귀에 생긴 곡사궁의 경우 백이 1로 치중하면 흑은 반드시 2로 받아 를 만들 수 밖에 없으며, 백은 3으로 흑 2를 따내어 흑돌(△)이 잡혀있는 모양이 된다. 위 형태를 귀곡사라고 하며, 이 다음 흑이 안쪽의 백 두 점을 잡는 것은 불가능하지만, 백의 경우 귀곡사 밖의 모든 팻감을 정리한 후에 흑돌을 전부 따낼 수 있기 때문에, 이 형태를 그대로 둔다면 계가시 귀곡사 형태는 죽은 것으로 인정된다.

5궁[편집]

십자오궁 오궁도화
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5궁(五宮)은 집이 다섯 개인 형태로서, 이름이 존재하는 형태는 선형오궁(線型五宮), 십자오궁(十字五宮), 오궁도화(五宮桃花)까지 셋이 있다. 선형오궁은 다섯 집이 직선으로 이어진 형태이며, 선형오궁과 위에 기술되지 않은 모든 5궁 형태는 상대가 치중하더라도 살아 있는 형태다.

십자오궁과 오궁도화는 그림의 a에 상대가 먼저 치중한다면 죽게 된다.

6궁[편집]

매화육궁 빗꼴육궁
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6궁(六宮)은 집이 여섯 개인 형태로, 이 궁도에서 특기할만한 형태는 매화육궁(梅花六宮)과 빗꼴육궁(-六宮)이 있다. 귀에 위치한 판 형태의 귀육궁 또한 둘러싼 돌의 형태에 따라 다양한 사활이 존재한다.

매화육궁은 그림의 a에 상대방이 치중하면 오궁도화 형태가 되며, 이후 상대가 치중함에 따라 4궁, 3궁, 2궁으로 점차 궁도가 줄어 죽는 형태다. 빗꼴육궁은 바깥 공배가 존재한다면 살며, 공배가 없다면 가일수해야 살 수 있다.