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|체계적 명칭 (IUPAC 명명법)|
|녹는점||-60 °C (-76 °F) |
|끓는점||195 °C (383 °F) |
|약물 대사||Primarily: MAO-B|
Other enzymes: MAO-A, SSAOs (AOC2 & AOC3), PNMT, AANAT, FMO3, and others
|법적 지위||Unscheduled (오스트레일리아) ? (캐나다) ? (영국) ? (미국)|
|중독 경향||Psychological: low–moderate|
|투여 방법||Oral (taken by mouth)|
페네틸아민(Phenethylamine)은 실온에서 무색 액체인 방향성 아민족 물질이다.
- 〈Chemical and Physical Properties〉. 《Phenethylamine》. 《PubChem Compound》. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information.
- Lindemann L, Hoener MC (2005). “A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family”. 《Trends Pharmacol. Sci.》 26 (5): 274–281. PMID 15860375. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.007.
The pharmacology of TAs might also contribute to a molecular understanding of the well-recognized antidepressant effect of physical exercise . In addition to the various beneficial effects for brain function mainly attributed to an upregulation of peptide growth factors [52,53], exercise induces a rapidly enhanced excretion of the main β-PEA metabolite β-phenylacetic acid (b-PAA) by on average 77%, compared with resting control subjects , which mirrors increased β-PEA synthesis in view of its limited endogenous pool half-life of ~30 s [18,55].
- Broadley KJ (March 2010). “The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines”. 《Pharmacol. Ther.》 125 (3): 363–375. PMID 19948186. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.11.005.
Trace amines are metabolized in the mammalian body via monoamine oxidase
- 〈Phenylethylamine〉. 《HMDB Version 3.6》. Human Metabolome Database. 2016년 2월 11일. 2016년 9월 20일에 확인함.
- Suzuki O, Katsumata Y, Oya M (1981). “Oxidation of beta-phenylethylamine by both types of monoamine oxidase: examination of enzymes in brain and liver mitochondria of eight species”. 《J. Neurochem.》 36 (3): 1298–301. PMID 7205271. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1981.tb01734.x.
- Kaitaniemi, S; Elovaara, H; Grön, K; Kidron, H; Liukkonen, J; Salminen, T; Salmi, M; Jalkanen, S; Elima, K (2009). “The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase”. 《Cell. Mol. Life Sci.》 66 (16): 2743–57. PMID 19588076. doi:10.1007/s00018-009-0076-5.
The preferred in vitro substrates of AOC2 were found to be 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and p-tyramine instead of methylamine and benzylamine, the favored substrates of AOC3.
- Krueger SK, Williams DE; Williams (June 2005). “Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases: structure/function, genetic polymorphisms and role in drug metabolism”. 《Pharmacol. Ther.》 106 (3): 357–387. PMC 1828602. PMID 15922018. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.01.001.
The biogenic amines, phenethylamine and tyramine, are N-oxygenated by FMO to produce the N-hydroxy metabolite, followed by a rapid second oxygenation to produce the trans-oximes (Lin & Cashman, 1997a, 1997b). This stereoselective N-oxygenation to the trans-oxime is also seen in the FMO-dependent N-oxygenation of amphetamine (Cashman et al., 1999) ... Interestingly, FMO2, which very efficiently N-oxygenates N-dodecylamine, is a poor catalyst of phenethylamine N-oxygenation. The most efficient human FMO in phenethylamine N-oxygenation is FMO3, the major FMO present in adult human liver; the Km is between 90 and 200 μM (Lin & Cashman, 1997b).
- Robinson-Cohen C, Newitt R, Shen DD, Rettie AE, Kestenbaum BR, Himmelfarb J, Yeung CK (August 2016). “Association of FMO3 Variants and Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentration, Disease Progression, and Mortality in CKD Patients”. 《PLoS ONE》 11 (8): e0161074. PMC 4981377. PMID 27513517. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161074.
TMAO is generated from trimethylamine (TMA) via metabolism by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 (FMO3). ... FMO3 catalyzes the oxidation of catecholamine or catecholamine-releasing vasopressors, including tyramine, phenylethylamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline [32, 33].
- 〈Pharmacology and Biochemistry〉. 《Phenethylamine》. 《PubChem Compound》. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Plasma Pharmacokinetics of PEA Could Be Described By 1st-Order Kinetics With Estimated T/2 of Approx 5-10 Min.