전투민족

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
(전투종족에서 넘어옴)
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전투민족(Martial race)은 세포이 항쟁 이후 영국령 인도의 군 관계자들이 만든 명칭으로 각 카스트를 '전투', '비전투'의 두 그룹으로 분류하던 것으로부터 유래하였다. 영국의 관점에서 '전투민족'은 일반적으로 용맹하고 체격이 건장한 반면 '비전투민족'은 정적인 생활 방식으로 전투에 적합하지 않다고 여겼다. 다른 가설에 의하면 세포이 항쟁 때 영국식 훈련을 받은 인도인 병사들이 포함되었던 일로 인해 이후의 모집 정책이 영국에 충성을 유지한 카스트를 선호하고 벵골군 모집 지역으로부터는 모집을 줄이거나 배제하면서 생긴 구분이라고도 한다. 개념 자체는 인도 문화 속에 이전부터 존재하던 것으로 힌두교식 사회 체계에서 4 계급 중 하나인 크샤트리아(전사, 戰士)가 이에 해당한다.

전투민족으로 구분된 부족들과 민족들[편집]

영국 식민지 시대[편집]

대영 도서관의 수록되어 있는 "라지푸트족" (불명, c.1860)

영국이 정리한 인도 아대륙의 "전투민족"[1]

참고 서적[편집]

각주[편집]

  1. Each of the following groups are mentioned in the Annual Class Return, 1925, pp 96-99.
  2. http://books.google.co.in/books?ei=r8WaTfO-McjKrAeViJHvBg&ct=result&id=WzIXHR8kVw0C&dq=jats++and+ahirs+of+pakistan&q=ahirs+
  3. Tan, Tai Yong (2005). 《The Garrison State: The Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947》. ISBN 978-0-7619-3336-6. 2010년 9월 19일에 확인함. 
  4. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=vRwS6FmS2g0C&pg=PA205
  5. The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, By Rajit K. Mazumder, pp 99, 105
  6. Ethnic Group Recruitment in the Indian Army by Dr. Omar Khalidi.
  7. Surridge, Keith (2007). “Martial Races: the Military, Race and Masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857-1914 (review)”. 《Journal of Victorian Culture》 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) 12 (1): 146–150. ISSN 1355-5502. 
  8. Britten, Thomas A. (1997). 《American Indians in World War I: At Home and at War》 illurat, reprint판. University of New Mexico Press. 128쪽. ISBN 0826320902. The Rajputs, Jats, Dogras, Pathans, Gorkhas, and Sikhs, for example, were considered martial races. Consequently, the British labored to ensure that members of the so-called martial castes dominated the ranks of infantry and cavalry and placed them in special "class regiments." 
  9. Restricted Peasants and the Restraint of Imperial Power, Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, 2003, R. K. Majumdar
  10. Ethnic Group Recruitment in the Indian Army by Dr. Omar Khalid.
  11. Creative Pasts: Historical Memory And Identity in Western India, 1700-1960 From book: "In the early twentieth century, the Marathas were identified as a "martial race" fit for the imperial army, and recruitment of Marathas increased after World War I."
  12. American Asiatic Association (1942). 《Asia: Asian Quarterly of Culture and Synthesis》. Asia Magazine. 22쪽. 
  13. Paul Hartmann, B. R. Patil, Anita Dighe (1989). 《The Mass Media and Village Life: An Indian Study》. Sage Publications. 224쪽. ISBN 0-8039-9581-4. 
  14. Kumara Padmanabha Sivasankara Menon (1965). 《Many Worlds: An Autobiography》. Oxford University Press. 2쪽. 
  15. Hugh Gantzer (April 1975-March 1976). 《Imprint》. Business Press. 80쪽. 
  16. Benjamin B. Cohen (2002). Hindu rulers in a Muslim state L: Hyderabad, 1850-1949. University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 78. Retrieved 20 July 2011
  17. "The chief areas for Saini recruitment were the Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Jullundur Districts. ", The Golden Galley: the story of the Second Punjab Regiment, 1761-1947, pp 313, Sir Geoffrey Betham, Herbert Valentine Rupert Geary,rinted for the 2d Punjab Regiment Officers ̕Association at the University Press, by C. Batey, printer to the university, 1956
  18. Punjab District Gazetteers, Volume XIV A. , Jullundur District with Maps, pp 269, 1904 , Lahore, Printed at the "Civil and Military Gazette" Press
  19. “British Sikhs salute Indian success”. 《BBC News》. 2004년 5월 21일. 2010년 5월 12일에 확인함. 
  20. http://www.sikhmediawatch.org/pubs/smartpub8.htm
  21. The People of India: A Series of Photographic Illustrations, with Descriptive Letterpress, of the Races and Tribes of Hindustan, Originally Prepared Under the Authority of the Government of India, and Reproduced by Order of the Secretary of State for India in Council By John Forbes Watson, John William Kaye, Meadows Taylor, Great Britain. India Office Published by India museum, 1872 Item notes: v. 5
  22. Bonarjee, P. D. (1899), A Handbook of Fighting Races of India, Calcutta: Thacker Spink (fasc. 1975, New Delhi: Asian Publication Services)