유엔 총회 결의 제112호

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
유엔 총회
결의 제112호
날짜: 1947년 11월 14일
결의: 제112차 회의
코드: A/RES/112(III) (문서)

투표: 찬성: 48 기권: 1 반대: 6
주제: 한반도 내 총선거 실시
결과: 결의안 채택

유엔 총회 결의 제112호는 1947년 11월에 통과된 한국에 인구비례의 자유선거로 총선거를 열기로 한 결의다.

상세[편집]

일제강점기 이후 미군정 시절 유엔 한국 임시위원단이 설립되어 한반도의 독립,통일, 그리고 발전 지원을 목적으로 설립되었다. 그러나 미소공동위원회에서 미국과 소련의 의견 및 입장 차이, 그리고 북한과 소련의 반대로 인하여 한반도에서 총선거 실시가 매우 어려운 상황이였다.

1948년 2월 유엔 소총회는 선거가 가능한 지역에서 총선을 하기로 결정했다.[1][2][3] 이것을 한국 임시위원회가 3월에 승인하면서 남한에서는 5·10 총선거가 치러져 대한민국 정부가 수립됐다.[4][5][6][7][8] 이에 선거를 거부하였던 북한 지역에서도 직접선거를 바탕으로, 흑백투표와 단독후보라는 비민주적인 방식을 이용하여 선거에 돌입하였다.[9][10] 제1기 최고인민회의 대의원 선거를 통해서 남한지역에서는 남로당원에 의한 선거로 최고인민회의 대의원을 선출한 뒤 1948년 9월 9일 조선민주주의인민공화국을 수립했다.

1948년 12월 12일에 유엔 총회유엔 총회 결의 제195호대한민국 정부한반도의 인구 대부분을 차지하는 지역에서 선거로 수립된 합법정부이자 유일하게 그러한 정부로 승인하기로 결의했다. 해방 직후 한반도 전체인구는 대략 2천5백만 정도였는데 이중 당시 남한 지역은 한국 인구의 약 2/3을 차지했다.[11] 오늘날에도 남한 인구가 5천만, 북한 인구가 2천 5백만명이라는 것을 보면, 여전히 남한은 2/3를,북한은 1/3을 차지하고 있다.

전문[편집]

A

Inasmuch as the Korean question which is before the General Assembly is primarily a matter for the Korean people itself and concerns its freedom and independence, and


Recognizing that this question cannot be correctly and fairly resolved without the participation of representatives of the indigenous population,


The General Assembly


1. Resolves that elected representatives of the Korean people be invited to take part in the consideration of the question;


2. Further resolves that in order to facilitate and expedite such participation and to observe that the Korean representatives are in fact duly elected by the Korean people and not mere appointees by military authorities in Korea, there be forthwith established a United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea, to be present in Korea, with right to travel, observe and consult throughout Korea.


B

The General Assembly,


Recognizing the urgent and rightful claims to independence of the people of Korea;


Believing that the national independence of Korea should be re-established and all occupying forces then withdrawn at the earliest practicable date;


Recalling its previous conclusion that the freedom and independence of the Korean people cannot be correctly or fairly resolved without the participation of representatives of the Korean people, and its decision to establish a United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (hereinafter called the "Commission") for the purpose of facilitating and expediting such participation by elected representatives of the Korean people,


1. Decides that the Commission shall consist of representatives of Australia, Canada, China, El Salvador, France, India, Philippines, Syria, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic;


2. Recommends that the elections be held not later than 31 March 1948 on the basis of adult suffrage and by secret ballot to choose representatives with whom the Commission may consult regarding the prompt attainment of the freedom and independence of the Korean people and which representatives, constituting a National Assembly, may establish a National Government of Korea. The number of representatives from each voting area or zone should be proportionate to the population, and the elections should be under the observation of the Commission;


3. Further recommends that as soon as possible after the elections, the National Assembly should convene and form a National Government and notify the Commission of its formation;


4. Further recommends that immediately upon the establishment of a National Government, that Government should, in consultation with the Commission: (a) constitute its own national security forces and dissolve all military or semi military formations not included therein: (b) take over the functions of government from the military commands and civilian authorities of north and south Korea, and (c) arrange with the occupying Powers for the complete withdrawal from Korea of their armed forces as early as practicable and if possible within ninety days;


5. Resolves that the Commission shall facilitate and expedite the fulfilment of the foregoing programme for the attainment of the national independence of Korea and withdrawal of occupying forces, taking into account its observations and consultations in Korea. The Commission shall report, with its conclusions, to the General Assembly and may consult with the Interim Committee (if one be established) with respect to the application of this resolution in the light of developments;


6. Calls upon the Member States concerned to afford every assistance and facility to the Commission in the fulfilment of its responsibilities;


7. Calls upon all Members of the United Nations to refrain from interfering in the affairs of the Korean people during the interim period preparatory to the establishment of Korean independence, except in pursuance of the decisions of the General Assembly; and thereafter, to refrain completely from any and all acts derogatory to the independence and sovereignty of Korea.


Hundred and twelfth plenary meeting,

14 November 1947.

[편집]

  1. “112 (II), The Problem of the Independence of Korea | Wilson Center Digital Archive”. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함. 
  2. UN. General Assembly (2nd sess. : 1947 : Flushing Meadow, N. Y. ) (1947). “The problem of the independence of Korea” (영어). 
  3. Park, Myung Soo (2021). “The Resolution of the UN Interim Committee for the General Election of South Korea in 1948 and Its Significance”. 《Journal of Korean Political and Diplomatic History》 (카누리어) 43 (1): 5–52. doi:10.33127/kdps.2021.43.1.5. ISSN 1229-4608. 
  4. “5·10”. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함. 
  5. ““1948년 5·10총선, 민주주의 원칙 따른 공정성 높은 선거였다””. 2018년 5월 9일. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함. 
  6. 강정구 (1992년 12월). “5.10 선거와 5.30선거의 비교연구”. 《한국사회학회 사회학대회 논문집》: 28–32. 
  7. 허호준 (2007). “Process of Jeju 4·3―Focusing on the role of the United States”. 《민주주의와 인권》 (카누리어) 7 (2): 267–306. ISSN 1598-2114. 
  8. “국회전자도서관”. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함. 
  9. “흑백투표(黑白投票)”. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함. 
  10. “우리역사넷”. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함. 
  11. “우리역사넷”. 2023년 8월 31일에 확인함.