사용자:배우는사람/문서:Chapter I - The Gods Of Egypt (32-41)

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Chapter I - The Gods Of Egypt (pp. 32~41)[편집]

The Goddess Nit[편집]

네이트 컬트의 중심지: 사이스[편집]

고대 이집트의 Saïs · Naḳâda · Thebes

The cult of Nit, or Neith, must have been very general in Egypt, although in dynastic times the chief seat thereof was at Saïs in the Delta, and we know that devotees of the goddess lived as far south as Naḳâda, a few miles to the north of Thebes, for several objects inscribed with the name of queen Nit-hetep have been found [Page 32] in a grave at that place.

Neithhotep
Queen consort of Egypt
BoneLabelQueenNeithhotep-BritishMuseum-August21-08.jpg
Bone label of queen Neithhotep on display at the British Museum.
Full name Neithhotep
Buried Naqada, "Great Tomb"
Consort King Narmer
Issue King Hor-Aha and maybe Benerib
Dynasty 1st dynasty of Egypt
신성 문자로 쓴 Neithhotep [1]
Neith-Emblem.png
R4

Neithhotep (or Hetepu-Neith) was the first queen of ancient Egypt, cofounder of the First dynasty, and is the earliest woman in history whose name is known. The name Neithhotep means "[The Goddess] Neith is satisfied".

Biography

Neithhotep's dynastic marriage to Narmer, which could represent the start of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, c. 3200 BCE with the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, may be represented on the Narmer Macehead.[2] Indeed, in this view Neithhotep was originally a princess of Lower Egypt, before marriage to Narmer (Thinite king of Upper Egypt). An alternative theory, based on the location of her tomb, holds that Neithhotep was a member of the royal line of Naqada.

Neithhotep was the wife of Narmer[1][3] or wife[4] or mother of Hor-Aha and possibly the mother of Benerib, Hor-Aha's wife.

Neithhotep's name was found in several locations:

  • Clay sealing in the tomb at Naqada with the names of Hor-Aha and Neithhotep.[3][5]
  • Clay sealing with the name of Neithhotep alone, also from the royal tomb in Naqada. Some of these are now in the Cairo Museum.[6]
  • Two inscribed vases were found in the tomb of Djer, Neithhotep's grandson.[7]
  • Ivory fragments with the name of Neithhotep were discovered in the subsidiary tombs near Djer's funerary complex.[7]
  • A fragment of an alabaster vase with the name of Neithhotep was found in the general vicinity of the royal tombs in Umm el-Qaab.[8]
  • On labels from Helwan.[3]
Mastaba attributed to Neithhotep which is believed to have been built by Hor-Aha.

Her titles were: ḫntỉ (Foremost of Women), sm3ỉ.t nb.tỉ (Consort of the Two Ladies). Both were titles given to queens during the First dynasty.[1]

Tomb

Neithhotep tomb was a large mastaba first excavated by Jacques de Morgan [9] at the end of the 19th century and now lost due to erosion.

Vessel inscriptions, labels and sealings from the graves of both Hor-Aha and Queen Neithhotep suggest that this queen died during the reign of Hor-Aha and that she was his mother.[10] The selection of the cemetery of Naqada as the resting place of Neithhotep is a strong indication that she came from this province. This, in turn, supports the view that Narmer married her because she was a member of the ancient royal line of Naqada.[11]

네이트: 사냥의 여신[편집]

Of the early worship of the goddess nothing is known, but it is most probable that she was adored as a great hunting spirit as were adored (숭배하다) spirits of like character by primitive peoples in other parts of the world. The crossed arrows and shield indicate that she was a hunting spirit in the earliest times,

Neith
Neith.svg
the Egyptian goddess Neith bearing her war goddess symbols, the crossed arrows and shield on her head, the ankh and the was staff. She sometimes wears the Red Crown of Lower Egypt.
Name in hieroglyphs
n
t
R25B1
Major cult center Sais
Symbol the bow, the shield, the crossed arrows
Consort Khnum or Set (mythology)
Offspring Sobek or Ra and Apep

Neith (/nθ/ or /nθ/; also spelled Nit, Net, or Neit) was an early goddess in the Egyptian pantheon. She was the patron deity of Sais, where her cult was centered in the Western Nile Delta of Egypt and attested as early as the First Dynasty.[12] The Ancient Egyptian name of this city was Zau.

Neith also was one of the three tutelary deities of the ancient Egyptian southern city of Ta-senet or Iunyt now known as Esna (Arabic: إسنا), Greek: Λατόπολις (Latopolis), or πόλις Λάτων (Polis Laton), or Λάττων (Laton); Latin: Lato), which is located on the west bank of the River Nile, some 55 km south of Luxor, in the modern Qena Governorate.

Name and symbolism

Neith was a goddess of war and of hunting and had as her symbol, two arrows crossed over a shield. Her symbol also identified the city of Sais.[13] This symbol was displayed on top of her head in Egyptian art. In her form as a goddess of war, she was said to make the weapons of warriors and to guard their bodies when they died.

Her name also may be interpreted as meaning water. In time, this led to her being considered as the personification of the primordial waters of creation. She is identified as a great mother goddess in this role as a creator.

Neith's symbol and part of her hieroglyph also bore a resemblance to a loom, and so later in the history of Egyptian myths, she also became goddess of weaving, and gained this version of her name, Neith, which means weaver. At this time her role as a creator changed from being water-based to that of the deity who wove all of the world and existence into being on her loom.

In art, Neith sometimes appears as a woman with a weavers’ shuttle atop her head, holding a bow and arrows in her hands. At other times she is depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness, as a snake, or as a cow.

Sometimes Neith was pictured as a woman nursing a baby crocodile, and she was titled "Nurse of Crocodiles". As the personification of the concept of the primordial waters of creation in the Ogdoad theology, she had no gender. As mother of Ra, she was sometimes described as the "Great Cow who gave birth to Ra".

Neith was considered to be a goddess of wisdom and was appealed to as an arbiter in the dispute between Horus and Seth.

Attributes

As a goddess of weaving and the domestic arts she was a protector of women and a guardian of marriage, so royal women often named themselves after Neith, in her honor. Since she also was goddess of war, and thus had an additional association with death, it was said that she wove the bandages and shrouds worn by the mummified dead as a gift to them, and thus she began to be viewed as a protector of one of the Four sons of Horus, specifically, of Duamutef, the deification of the canopic jar storing the stomach, since the abdomen (often mistakenly associated as the stomach) was the most vulnerable portion of the body and a prime target during battle. It was said that she shot arrows at any evil spirits who attacked the canopic jar she protected.

Mythology

Egyptian war goddess Neith wearing the Deshret crown of northern (lower) Egypt, which bears the cobra of Wadjet

In the late pantheon of the Ogdoad myths, she became identified as the mother of Ra and Apep. When she was identified as a water goddess, she was also viewed as the mother of Sobek, the crocodile.[14] It was this association with water, i.e. the Nile, that led to her sometimes being considered the wife of Khnum, and associated with the source of the River Nile. She was associated with the Nile Perch as well as the goddess of the triad in that cult center.

As the goddess of creation and weaving, she was said to reweave the world on her loom daily. An interior wall of the temple at Esna records an account of creation in which Neith brings forth from the primeval waters of the Nun the first land ex nihilo. All that she conceived in her heart comes into being including the thirty gods. Having no known husband she has been described as "Virgin Mother Goddess":

Unique Goddess, mysterious and great who came to be in the beginning and caused everything to come to be . . . the divine mother of Re, who shines on the horizon . . .[15]

Proclus (412–485 AD) wrote that the adyton of the temple of Neith in Sais (of which nothing now remains) carried the following inscription:

I am the things that are, that will be, and that have been. No one has ever laid open the garment by which I am concealed. The fruit which I brought forth was the sun.[16]

It was said that Neith interceded in the kingly war between Horus and Set, over the Egyptian throne, recommending that Horus rule.

A great festival, called the Feast of Lamps, was held annually in her honor and, according to Herodotus, her devotees burned a multitude of lights in the open air all night during the celebration.

Syncretic relationships

Louvre Statuette of Neith

A Hellenistic royal family ruled over Egypt for three centuries, a period called the Ptolemaic dynasty until the Roman conquest in 30 B.C. Anouke, a goddess from Asia Minor was worshiped by immigrants to ancient Egypt. This war goddess was shown wearing a curved and feathered crown and carrying a spear, or bow and arrows. Within Egypt, she was later assimilated and identified as Neith, who by that time had developed her aspects as a war goddess.

The Greek historian, Herodotus (c. 484-425 BC), noted that the Egyptian citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped Neith and that they identified her with Athena. The Timaeus, a Socratic dialogue written by Plato, mirrors that identification with Athena, possibly as a result of the identification of both goddesses with war and weaving.[17]

E. A. Wallis Budge argued that the spread of Christianity in Egypt was influenced by the likeness of attributes between the Mother of Christ and goddesses such as Isis and Neith. Partheno-genesis was associated with Neith long before the birth of Christ and other properties belonging to her and Isis were transferred to the Mother of Christ by way of the apocryphal gospels as a mark of honour.[18]

See also

People named after Neith:

네이트: 악어신 세베트의 어머니[편집]

but a picture of the dynastic period represents her (즉, Neith) with two crocodiles20) sucking one at each breast, and thus she appears in later times to have had ascribed to her power over the river.

20) In the text of Unȧs (1, G27) the crocodile-god Sebek is called the son of Neith

Sobek
Sobek.svg
The Nile, The Army and Military, Fertility
Name in hieroglyphs
S29D58V31
I3

or
I4
Major cult center Crocodilopolis, Faiyum, Kom Ombo
Symbol crocodile
Parents Set and Neith
Siblings Anubis

Sobek (also called Sebek, Sochet, Sobk, and Sobki), and in Greek, Suchos (Σοῦχος) was an ancient Egyptian deity with a complex and fluid nature.[19] He is associated with the Nile crocodile and is either represented in its form or as a human with a crocodile head. Sobek was also associated with pharaonic power, fertility, and military prowess, but served additionally as a protective deity with apotropaic qualities, invoked particularly for protection against the dangers presented by the Nile river.

History

This statue of Sobek was found at Amenemhat III’s mortuary temple (which was connected to his pyramid at Hawara in the Faiyum), serving as a testament to this king’s devotion to Sobek. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Sobek enjoyed a longstanding presence in the ancient Egyptian pantheon, from the Old Kingdom (c. 2686—2181 BCE) through the Roman period (c. 30 BCE—350 CE). He is first known from several different Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom, particularly from spell PT 317.[20] The spell, which praises the pharaoh as living incarnation of the crocodile god, reads:

"Unis is Sobek, green of plumage, with alert face and raised fore, the splashing one who came from the thigh and tail of the great goddess in the sunlight…Unis has appeared as Sobek, Neith’s son. Unis will eat with his mouth, Unis will urinate and Unis will copulate with his penis. Unis is lord of semen, who takes women from their husbands to the place Unis likes according to his heart’s fancy. "[21]

As one can understand from this text alone, Sobek was considered a violent, hyper-sexual, and erratic deity, prone to his primal whims. The origin of his name, Sbk[22] in ancient Egyptian, is debated among scholars, but many believe that it is derived from a causative of the verb "to impregnate."[23]

Though Sobek was worshipped in the Old Kingdom, he truly gained prominence in the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055—1650 BCE), most notably under the Twelfth Dynasty king, Amenemhat III. Amenemhat III had taken a particular interest in the Faiyum region of Egypt, a region heavily associated with Sobek. Amenemhat and many of his dynastic contemporaries engaged in building projects to promote Sobek – projects that were often executed in the Faiyum. In this period, Sobek also underwent an important change: he was often fused with the falcon-headed god of divine kingship, Horus. This brought Sobek even closer with the kings of Egypt, thereby giving him a place of greater prominence in the Egyptian pantheon.[24] The fusion added a finer level of complexity to the god’s nature, as he was adopted into the divine triad of Horus and his two parents: Osiris and Isis.[25]

This Late Period (c. 400 – 250 BCE) statue shows Sobek bearing the falcon head of Re-Harakhti, illustrating the fusion of Sobek and Re into Sobek-Re. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Sobek first acquired a role as a solar deity through his connection to Horus, but this was further strengthened in later periods with the emergence of Sobek-Ra, a fusion of Sobek and Egypt’s primary sun god, Ra. Sobek-Horus persisted as a figure in the New Kingdom (1550—1069 BCE), but it was not until the last dynasties of Egypt that Sobek-Ra gained prominence. This understanding of the god was maintained after the fall of Egypt’s last native dynasty in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt (c. 332 BCE—390 CE). The prestige of both Sobek and Sobek-Ra endured in this time period and tributes to him attained greater prominence – both through the expansion of his dedicated cultic sites and a concerted scholarly effort to make him the subject of religious doctrine.[26]

This relief from the Temple of Kom Ombo shows Sobek with typical attributes of kingship, including a was sceptre and royal kilt. The ankh in his hand represents his role as an Osirian healer and his crown is a solar crown associated with one of the many forms of Re.

Cult centers

The entire Faiyum region — the "Land of the Lake" in Egyptian (specifically referring to Lake Moeris) — served as a cult center of Sobek.[27] Most Faiyum towns developed their own localized versions of the god, such as Soknebtunis at Tebtunis, Sokonnokonni at Bacchias, and Souxei at an unknown site in the area. At Karanis, two forms of the god were worshipped: Pnepheros and Petsuchos. There, mummified crocodiles were employed as cult images of Petsuchos.[28]

Sobek Shedety, the patron of the Faiyum's centrally located capital, Crocodilopolis (or Egyptian "Shedet"), was the most prominent form of the god. Extensive building programs honoring Sobek were realized in Shedet, as it was the capital of the entire Arsinoite nome and consequently the most important city in the region. It is thought that the effort to expand Sobek's main temple was initially driven by Ptolemy II.[27] Specialized priests in the main temple at Shedet functioned solely to serve Sobek, boasting titles like "prophet of the crocodile-gods" and "one who buries of the bodies of the crocodile-gods of the Land of the Lake."[29]

This Roman period box shows a king making an offering to a solar form of Sobek. It is thought that this box could have been used in such offering rituals. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Outside the Faiyum, Kom Ombo, in southern Egypt, was the biggest cultic center of Sobek, particularly during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. The temple at this site was called the "Per-Sobek," meaning the "house of Sobek."[29]

Character and surrounding mythologies

Sobek is, above all else, an aggressive and animalistic deity who lives up to the vicious reputation of his patron animal, the large and violent Nile crocodile. Some of his common epithets betray this nature succinctly, the most notable of which being: "he who loves robbery," "he who eats while he also mates," and "pointed of teeth."[30] However, he also displays grand benevolence in more than one celebrated myth. After his association with Horus and consequent adoption into the Osirian triad of Osiris, Isis, and Horus in the Middle Kingdom, Sobek became associated with Isis as a healer of the deceased Osiris (following his violent murder by Set in the central Osiris myth).[31] In fact, though many scholars believe that the name of Sobek, Sbk, is derived from s-bAk, "to impregnate," others postulate that it is a participial form of the verb sbq,[32] an alternative writing of sAq, "to unite," thereby meaning Sbk could roughly translate to "he who unites (the dismembered limbs of Osiris)."[33]

It is from this association with healing that Sobek was considered a protective deity. His fierceness was able to ward off evil while simultaneously defending the innocent. He was thusly made a subject of personal piety and a common recipient of votive offerings, particularly in the later periods of ancient Egyptian history. It was not uncommon, particularly in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, for crocodiles to be preserved as mummies in order to present at Sobek’s cultic centers.[34] Sobek was also offered mummified crocodile eggs, meant to emphasize the cyclical nature of his solar attributes as Sobek-Ra.[35] Likewise, crocodiles were raised on religious grounds as living incarnations of Sobek. Upon their deaths, they were mummified in a grand ritual display as sacred, but earthly, manifestations of their patron god. This practice was executed specifically at the main temple of Crocodilopolis.[36] It should also be mentioned that these mummified crocodiles have been found with baby crocodiles in their mouths and on their backs. The crocodile – one of the few non-mammals that diligently care for their young – often transports its offspring in this manner. The practice of preserving this aspect of the animal’s behavior via mummification is likely intended to emphasize the protective and nurturing aspects of the fierce Sobek, as he protects the Egyptian people in the same manner that the crocodile protects its young.[37]

In Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, a "local monograph" called the Book of the Faiyum centered on Sobek with a considerable portion devoted to the journey made by Sobek-Ra each day with the movement of the sun through the sky. The text also focuses heavily on Sobek’s central role in creation as a manifestation of Ra, as he is said to have risen from the primal waters of Lake Moeris, not unlike the Ogdoad in the traditional creation myth of Hermopolis.[38]

Many varied copies of the book exist and many scholars feel that it was produced in large quantities as a "best-seller" in antiquity. The integral relationship between the Faiyum and Sobek is highlighted via this text, and his far reaching influence is seen in localities that are outside of the Faiyum as well; a portion of the book is copied on the Upper Egyptian (meaning southern Egyptian) Temple of Kom Ombo.[39]

Gallery

Bibliography

  • Allen, James P. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005.
  • Bresciani, Edda. “Sobek, Lord of the Land of the Lake.” In Divine Creatures : Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt, edited by Salima Ikram, 199-206. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2005.
  • Frankfurter, David. Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-691-07054-7.
  • Ikram, Salima. “Protecting Pets and Cleaning Crocodiles: The Animal Mummy Project.” Divine Creatures : Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt, edited by Salima Ikram, 207-227. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2005.
  • Murray, Mary Alice. The Splendor that was Egypt. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1963.
  • O’Connor, David. “From Topography to Cosmos: Ancient Egypt’s Multiple Maps.” In Ancient Perspectives: Maps and Their Place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert, 47 – 79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  • Tait, John. “The ‘Book of the Fayum’: Mystery in a Known Landscape.” In Mysterious Lands, edited by David O’Connor and Stephen Quirke, 183 – 202. Portland: Cavendish Publishing, 2003.
  • Zecchi, Marco. Sobek of Shedet : The Crocodile God in the Fayyum in the Dynastic Period. Umbria: Tau Editrice, 2010.

Further reading

  • Beinlich, Horst. Das Buch vom Fayum : zum religiösen Eigenverständnis einer ägyptischen Landschaft. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1991.
  • Dolzani, Claudia. Il Dio Sobk. Roma: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1961.

See also

External links

위키미디어 공용에 Sobek 관련 미디어 분류가 있습니다.

이집트인들의 신에 대한 관념: 인간과 닮았음[편집]

It has already been said that the primitive Egyptians, though believing that their gods possessed powers superior to their own, regarded them as beings who were liable to grow old and die, and who were moved to love and to hate, and to take pleasure in meat and drink like man; they were even supposed to intermarry with human beings and to have the power of begetting offspring like the “sons of God,” as recorded in the Book of Genesis (vi. 2, 4).

These ideas were common in all periods of Egyptian history, and it is clear that the Egyptians never wholly freed themselves from them; there is, in fact, abundant proof that even in the times when monotheism had developed in a remarkable degree they clung to them with a tenacity which is surprising (놀라운, 놀랄).

The religious texts contain numerous references to them, and beliefs which were conceived by the Egyptians in their lowest states of civilization are mingled with those which reveal the existence of high spiritual conceptions. The great storehouse of religious thought is the Book of the Dead, and in one of the earliest Recensions of that remarkable work we may examine its various layers with good result. In these are preserved many passages which throw light upon the views which were held concerning the gods, and the powers which they possessed, and the place where they dwelt in company with the beatified (시복하다) dead.

King Unȧs as a God[편집]

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트[편집]

One of the most instructive of these passages for our purpose forms one of the texts which are inscribed on the walls and corridors of the chambers in the pyramid tombs of Unȧs, a king of the Vth Dynasty, and of Tetȧ, a king of the VIth Dynasty.

[Page 33] The paragraphs in general of the great Heliopolitan Recension deal, as we should expect, with the offerings which were to be made at stated intervals in the little chapels attached to the pyramids, and many were devoted to the object of removing enemies of every kind from the paths of the king in the Underworld ; others contain hymns, and short prayers for his welfare, and magical formulae, and incantations. A few describe the great power which the beatified king enjoys in the world beyond the grave, and, of course, declare that the king is as great a lord in heaven as he was upon earth.

Unas

Funerary chamber of Unas' pyramid
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 2375–2345 BC, 5th Dynasty
Predecessor Djedkare Isesi
Successor Teti
Consort(s) Nebet, Khenut
Children Unas-ankh, Iput, Hemetre, Khentkaues, Neferut, Nefertkaues, Sesheshet Idut
Father unknown
Mother unknown
Burial Pyramid of Unas

Unas /ˈjnəs/ or Oenas (/ˈnəs/; also spelled Unis or Wenis) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, and the last ruler of the Fifth dynasty from the Old Kingdom.[40] His reign has been dated between 2375 BC and 2345 BC.[41] Unas is believed to have had two queens, Nebet and Khenut, based on their burials near his tomb.[42]

With his death, the Fifth dynasty came to an end, according to Manetho; he probably had no sons. Furthermore, the Turin King List inserts a break at this point, which "gives us some food for thought," writes Jaromir Malek, "because the criterion for such divisions in the Turin Canon invariably was the change of location of the capital and royal residence."[43] However, there are several instances of uninterrupted continuity between the Fifth and the sixth dynasties: Kagemni, the vizer of Unas's successor Teti, began his career under Djedkare Isesi and Unas. Teti's queen, Iput, is believed to have been the daughter of Unas, which shows Teti, Nicolas Grimal argues, "made no conscious break with the preceding dynasty."[44] The break between the two dynasties may have been more as an official act than in fact.

The Pyramid Texts

View of the remains of Unas’ pyramid at Saqqara

He built a small pyramid at Saqqara, originally named "Beautiful are the places of Unas", close to the Step Pyramid of Djoser. It has been excavated by Vyse, Barsanti, Gaston Maspero, Firth, Selim Hassan, A. Husein, and Alexandre Piankoff.[45] Its interior is decorated with a number of reliefs detailing events during his reign as well as a number of inscriptions. However, Jaromir Malek considers "the main innovation of Unas' pyramid, and one that was to be characteristic of the remaining pyramids of the Old Kingdom (including some of the queens), was the first appearance of the Pyramid Texts".[46] These texts were inscribed in Sixth Dynasty royal versions, but Unas's texts contains verses and spells which were not included in the later 6th dynasty copies.[47] The pyramid texts were intended to help the king in overcoming hostile forces and powers in the Underworld and thus join with the Sun God Ra, his divine father in the afterlife.[48] The king would then spend his days in eternity sailing with Ra across the sky in a solar boat.[49]

An example of a pyramid Text here is given below:

Re-Atum, this Unas comes to you, A spirit indestructible...Your son comes to you, This Unas comes to you, May you cross the sky united in the dark. May you rise in lightland, the place in which you shine! (Utterance 217)[49]

Technology

Syro-Canaanite sailors aboard a seagoing ship. A relief from the causeway of Unas at Saqqara. Lateral trusses are seen here supporting the tripod mast (on the right).

The causeway of Unas's pyramid complex includes a bas relief showing how they transported a palm column by boat on the Nile.[50]

In popular culture

Gallery

See also

Teti

Sistrum inscribed with the name of Teti.
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 2345–2333 BC, 6th Dynasty
Predecessor Unas
Successor Userkare
Consort(s) Iput I, Khuit, Khent(kaus III), Weret-Imtes?
Children Pepi I, Teti-ankh-kem, Seshseshet Watet-khet-her, Nebty-nubkhet Sesheshet (D), Inty?
Burial Pyramid of Teti

Teti, less commonly known as Othoes, was the first Pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt and is buried at Saqqara. The exact length of his reign has been destroyed on the Turin King List, but is believed to have been about 12 years.

Biography

Teti had several wives:

  • Queen Iput, likely the daughter of King Unas, the last king of the Fifth dynasty. Iput I was the mother of Pepi I
  • Queen Khuit, who may have been the mother of Userkare (according to Jonosi and Callender) [51]
  • Queen Khent (or Khentkaus III). Known from a relief of Pepi I's mortuary temple. She may have been buried in a mastaba.[51]
  • Weret-Imtes? This queen is mentioned in the autobiography of Wenis. It may be a reference to the title of the queen instead of her personal name. She was involved in a harem plot to overthrow Pepi, but apparently was caught before she succeeded. In the tomb of the official Wenis there is mention of “a secret charge in the royal harem against the Great of Sceptre”.

Teti is known to have had several children. He was the father of at least three sons and probably ten daughters.[52] Of the sons, two are well attested, a third one is likely :

  • Pepi I, whose mother is Queen Iput I
  • Tetiankh, "eldest King’s son", whose mastaba is located on the east side of Queen Iput’s funerary complex[53]
  • Nebkauhor, with the beautiful name of Idu, "king’s eldest son of his body", buried in the mastaba of Vizier Akhethetep/Hemi, in King Unis’cemetery. He is most probably Teti’s son, born of Queen Iput I and buried in a fallen Vizier’s tomb, within the funerary complex of his maternal grandfather [54]
Piriform mace head inscribed with the cartouche of Teti, Imhotep Museum.

According to N. Kanawati, King Teti had at least 9 daughters, by a number of wives, and the fact that they were named after his mother, Sesheshet, allows to trace his family. At least three princesses bearing the name Seshseshet are designated as " king’s eldest daughter ", meaning that there were at least three different queens. It seems that there was a tenth one, born of a fourth queen as she is also designated as " king’s eldest daughter ".

  • Seshseshet whose beautiful name was Waatetkhéthor, married to Vizier Mereruka, in whose mastaba she has a chapel. She is designated as " king’s eldest daughter of his body ". She may have been the eldest daughter of Queen Iput I [55]
  • Seshseshet with the beautiful name of Idut, "king’s daughter of his body", who died very young at the beginning of her father’s reign and was buried in the mastaba of Vizier Ihy, in King Unis’cemetery. She is most certainly Teti’s daughter, born of Queen Iput I and buried within the funerary complex of her maternal [55]
  • Seshseshet called Nubkhetnebty, "king’s daughter of his body", wife of Vizier Kagemni, et represented in her husband’s mastaba. She was maybe also born of Queen Iout I [56]
  • Seshseshet, also called Sathor, married to Isi, resident governor at Edfu and also totled vizier. She also would have been born of Queen Iput I.[57]
  • Seshseshet, with the beautiful name of Sheshit, " king’s eldest daughter of his body and wife of the overseer of the great court Neferseshemptah, and is depicted in her husband’s mastaba. As she is an eldest daughter of the king, she cannot be born of the same mother as Waatkhetethor and therefore may have been a daughter of Queen Khuit [58]
  • Seshseshet also called Sheshti, "king’s daughter of his body", married to the keeper of the head ornaments Shepsipuptah, and depicted in her husband’s mastaba.[59]
  • Seshseshet with the beautiful name of Merout, entitled " king’s eldest daughter " but without the addition " of his body " and therefore born of a third, maybe a minor queen, and married to Ptahemhat [60]
  • Seshseshet, wife of Remni, "sole companion" and overseer of the department of the palace guards[61]
  • Seshseshet, married to Pepyankh Senior of Meir [62]
  • the so-called " queen of the West Pyramid in King Pepy I cemetery. She is called " king’s eldest daughter of his body " and kings wife of Meryre mennefer (the name of Pepy I’s pyramid). Therefore she is a wife of King Pepi and most certainly his –half- sister [63] As she is also an eldest daughter of the king, her mother must be a fourth queen of Teti

Another possible daughter is princess Inti.[64]

During Teti's reign, high officials were beginning to build funerary monuments that rivaled that of the Pharaoh. His vizier, Mereruka, built a mastaba tomb at Saqqara which consisted of 33 richly carved rooms, the biggest known tomb for an Egyptian nobleman.[65] This is considered to be a sign that Egypt's wealth was being transferred from the central court to the officials, a slow process that culminated in the end to the Old Kingdom[출처 필요].

Manetho states that Teti was murdered by his palace bodyguards in a harem plot, but he may have been assassinated by the usurper Userkare . He was buried in the royal necropolis at Saqqara. His pyramid complex is associated with the mastabas of officials from his reign. Teti's Highest date is his Year after the 6th Count 3rd Month of Summer day lost (Year 12 if the count was biannual) from Hatnub Graffito No.1.[66] This information is confirmed by the South Saqqara Stone Annal document from Pepi II's reign which gives him a reign of around 12 years.

3rd "subsidiary" pyramid to Teti's tomb

The ruins of Teti's pyramid (Saqqara)
Pyramid texts from Teti I's pyramid at Saqqara

Teti's mother was the Queen Sesheshet, who was instrumental in her son's accession to the throne and a reconciling of two warring factions of the royal family.[67] Sesheshet lived between 2323 BC to 2291 BC. Egypt's chief archaeologist Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, announced, on November 11, 2008, that she was entombed, in a 4,300-year-old headless 5 metre (16-foot-tall) Saqqara most complete subsidiary pyramid. This is the 118th pyramid discovered thus far in Egypt, the largest portion of its 2 metres wide beautiful casing was built with a superstructure 5 metres high. It originally reached 14 metres, with sides 22 metres long.[68][69]

Once 5 stories tall, it lay beneath 23 feet (7 meters) of sand, a small shrine and mud-brick walls from later periods. The 3rd known "subsidiary" pyramid to Teti's tomb, was originally 46 feet (14 meters) tall and 72 feet (22 meters) square at its base, due to its walls having stood at a 51-degree angle. Buried next to the Saqqara Step Pyramid, its base lies 65 feet underground and is believed to have been 50 feet tall when it was built.[70][71][72]

See also

Further reading

External links

Pyramid of Unas

The Pyramid Complex of Unas is located in the pyramid field at Saqqara, near Cairo in Egypt.

The pyramid of Unas of the Fifth Dynasty (originally known as Beautiful are the places of Unas) is now ruined, and looks more like a small hill than a royal pyramid.

It was investigated by Perring and then Lepsius, but it was Gaston Maspero who first gained entry to the chambers in 1881, where he found texts covering the walls of the burial chambers. These together with others found in nearby pyramids of successive pharaohs are now known as the Pyramid Texts. He was the first pharaoh to include this, and he created the concept of having a number of magic spells inscribed on the walls of his tomb, intended to assist with the pharaoh's journey through the Duat and into the afterlife. This concept was thought to be so successful by other pharaohs that it soon evolved into the Coffin Texts in the Middle Kingdom, and then into the Book of the Dead from the beginning of the New Kingdom until the end of the Ptolemaic Period, when new texts began appearing.

In the burial chamber itself the remains of a mummy were found, including the skull, right arm and shin, but whether these belong to Unas is not certain. Near to the main pyramid, to the north east, there are mastabas that contain the burials of the consorts of the king.

The pyramid was built close to the pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara. The causeway was approximately 750m long and the unusual shape is because it follows a wadi. Material was taken from the complex of Djoser that was used to plug gaps in the wadi. The roof of the causeway was covered over to make a closed tunnel, with the exception of a long 'slot' that illuminated the walls that were decorated with brightly painted reliefs. [73]

It is believed that within the inscriptions of the Pyramid Text in Unas's tomb, there are also some lines of a Semitic dialect, written in Egyptian script and comprising the earliest evidence of written Semitic language.[74]

Pyramid of Unas at Saqqara, showing Sekhemkhet, Unas, Djoser and Userkaf. Taken from 3d models
Image of pyramid of Unas taken from a 3d model
Iso image of the pyramid of Unas taken from a 3d model

See also

  • Verner, Miroslav, "The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History", Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8

External links

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트의 구절[편집]

The passage in question from the pyramid of Unȧs is of such interest and importance that it21) is given in the Appendix to this Chapter, with interlinear translation and transliteration, and with the variant readings from the pyramid of Tetȧ, but the following general rendering of its contents may be useful.

21) The hieroglyphic texts are given by Maspero, Les Inscriptions des Pyramides de Saqqarah, Paris, 1894, p. 67, 1. 496, and p. 134, 1. 319.

“The sky poureth down rain, the stars tremble, the bow-bearers run about with hasty steps, the bones of Aker tremble, and those who are ministrants (보좌역) unto them betake themselves to flight (쏜살같이 도망치다) when they see Unȧs rising [in the heavens] like a god who liveth upon his fathers and feedeth upon his mothers.
Unȧs is the lord of wisdom whose name his mother knoweth not. The noble estate (토지) of Unȧs is in heaven, and his strength in the horizon is like unto that of the god Tem his father, indeed, he is stronger than his father who gave him birth. The doubles (kau) of Unȧs are behind him, and those whom he hath conquered are beneath his feet.
His gods are upon him, his uraei are upon his brow, his serpent-guide is before him, and his soul looketh upon the spirit of flame; the powers of Unȧs protect him.”
Aker in hieroglyphs
Ak
r
[75]
ꜣkr
Aker.svg
Aker

In Egyptian mythology, Aker (also spelt Akar) was one of the earliest gods worshipped, and was the deification of the horizon. There are strong indications that Aker was worshipped before other known Egyptian gods of the earth, such as Geb.[출처 필요] Aker itself means (one who) curves because it was perceived that the horizon bends all around us. The Pyramid texts make an assertive statement that the Akeru (= 'those of the horizon', from the plural of aker) will not seize the pharaoh, stressing the power of the Egyptian pharaoh over the surrounding non-Egyptian peoples.

As the horizon, Aker was also seen as symbolic of the borders between each day, and so was originally depicted as a narrow strip of land (i.e. a horizon), with heads on either side, facing away from one another, a symbol of borders. These heads were usually those of lions. Over time, the heads became full figures of lions (still facing away from each other), one representing the concept of yesterday (Sef in Egyptian), and the other the concept of tomorrow (Duau in Egyptian).[76]

Consequently, Aker often became referred to as Ruti, the Egyptian word meaning two lions. Between them would often appear the hieroglyph for horizon, which was the sun's disc placed between two mountains. Sometimes the lions were depicted as being covered with leopard-like spots, leading some to think it a depiction of the extinct Barbary lion, which, unlike African species, had a spotted coat.

Since the horizon was where night became day, Aker was said to guard the entrance and exit to the underworld, opening them for the sun to pass through during the night. As the guard, it was said that the dead had to request Aker to open the underworld's gates, so that they might enter. Also, as all who had died had to pass Aker, it was said that Aker annulled the causes of death, such as extracting the poison from any snakes that had bitten the deceased, or from any scorpions that had stung them.

As the Egyptians believed that the gates of the morning and evening were guarded by Aker, they sometimes placed twin statues of lions at the doors of their palaces and tombs. This was to guard the households and tombs from evil spirits and other malevolent beings. This practice was adopted by the Greeks and Romans, and is still unknowingly followed by some today. Unlike most of the other Egyptian deities, the worship of Aker remained popular well into the Greco-Roman era. Aker had no temples of his own like the main gods in the Egyptian religion, since he was more connected to the primeval concepts of the very old earth powers.

See also

Tem may refer to:

Pyramid of Teti
Pyramid of Teti 2010.jpg
Teti
Coordinates 북위 29° 52′ 31″ 동경 31° 13′ 18″ / 북위 29.87528° 동경 31.22167°  / 29.87528; 31.22167
Ancient Name
<
t
t
i
>DdstststO24

Ḏd-jswt-Ttj
Djed-isut-Teti
Teti's Places Are Enduring
Type Smooth-sided Pyramid
Height 100 cubits (45.72 m)
Base 150 cubits (68.58 m)
Slope 53° 07' 48"

The Pyramid of Teti is a smooth-sided pyramid situated in the pyramid field at Saqqara in Egypt. It is historically the second known pyramid containing pyramid texts. Excavations have revealed a satellite pyramid, two pyramids of queens accompanied by cult structures, and a funerary temple. The pyramid was opened by Gaston Maspero in 1882 and the complex explored during several campaigns ranging from 1907 to 1965.[77] It was originally called Teti's Places Are Enduring. The preservation above ground is very poor, and it now resembles a small hill. Below ground the chambers and corridors are very well preserved.

The Funerary Complex

Map of the Funerary Complex

The pyramid complex of Teti follows a model established during the reign of Djedkare Isesi, the arrangement of which is inherited from the funerary complexes of Abusir.

Name of the pyramid of Teti Djed-isut-teti on the limestone funerary stele of his chief treasurer Izi, from Saqqara. Musée du Louvre.

A valley temple, now lost, was probably destroyed in antiquity due to the place of an Old Kingdom temple dedicated to Anubis constructed there. A better known funerary temple revealed by James Edward Quibell in 1906, is connected to the valley temple by a causeway. The plan of the temple of Teti is also comparable in many respects to that of Unas, which is its immediate predecessor. Teti's temple has a somewhat special plan, however, due to a deviation of the floor which traditionally should have been located in the axis of the temple but here is moved south.[78] It then accesses the temple through a hallway of the north-south facade joining the east-west axis of the monument. Followed in this main axis is a second hall. The thickness of the walls suggests a vaulted cover. It was probably the Room of the Greats, on the walls of which the royal family and influential members of the court were to be represented assisting and accompanying the eternal journey of their sovereign.

This hall opened into an open courtyard surrounded on all four sides by colonnades whose main purpose was the presentation of daily offerings and ritual libations. The only way out is centered to the west and provides access to the innermost part the sanctuary.

Included in the Peribolos, a sacred part of the royal pyramid reserved for priests of the king, was a chapel containing the five Naos, housing five statues of the King appearing in the aspect of the five principal deities of the realm. This part also included a private room containing the false door stela of the King, a veritable object of funeral worship, and a double row of stores on both sides of the axis of the temple. The first row frames the party host and is accessible by a long corridor along the entire width of the building that leads to the south and north within the peribolos of the pyramid. The second set frames the sanctuary and the hall of statues of gods and was only accessible from the latter.

Finally the last element essential to the funerary cult, the satellite-pyramid encircled in its own peribolos, is located southeast of the royal pyramid and therefore was accessible only through a corridor of stores and halls of worship. This small pyramid covers an underground plan consisting of a short ramp leading to a single underground chamber. In the middle of the courtyard of the paribolos, facing east and west, are two landscaped basins in the granite floor. Their use is disputed by Egyptologists, but the location of these basins, following the path of the sun, suggests ritual practices that shed some light on the role of this monument.

The Pyramid

Pyramid of Teti

The orientation of the pyramid is not aligned with the four cardinal points. However, the proportions and plan of the pyramid follow exactly the same pattern as that of the Pyramid of Djedkare-Isesi. The internal dimensions and slope are the same and it is otherwise very similar.

Access to the burial chambers are located inside the adjoining chapel against the north face of the pyramid. The entrance hallway leads to a long descent of eighteen hundred and twenty-three metres. The entrance was once blocked by a plug of granite now lost. The descending passage was probably clogged along its length by large blocks of limestone that thieves have broken up. The debris still littered the passage at the time of discovery. In the descending corridor is a successive horizontal hallway, a vestibule, another hallway, a bedroom with harrows, a final corridor, and a final granite passage which opens into the funerary apartments of the King.

The room with harrows spans more than six metres and is designed with alternating limestone and granite. The three granite harrows, originally lowered, are now broken into several pieces leaving the way open to visitors.

The horizontal passage leads to rooms consisting of a funeral serdab, an antechamber, and a burial chamber. All three are aligned along an east-west axis. The only peculiarity of the serdab is the size of the block ensuring its coverage, measuring 6.72 metres long with a weight of forty tons. The antechamber and burial chamber are covered with huge vaulted rafters. They are connected by a passage where access was closed by a double door. The walls of these rooms are covered with inscriptions commonly called Pyramid Texts. The pyramid of Teti is the second royal monument to contain the complex theological corpus to assist and support the rebirth of the king.

The burial chamber contains an unfinished greywacke sarcophagus, a fragment of a lid and a canopic container that is nothing more than a simple hole in the ground. And for the first time, a royal sarcophagus contains inscriptions, here slightly etched on the hollow interior of the vessel.

Although looted since ancient times, remains of the king's grave goods were found during the first excavation of the monument. Consisting mainly of stone materials, these objects have been abandoned by looters, probably considered useless or worthless. Thus, a series of club heads with the names of Teti has reached us and one of the canopic jars containing the viscera of the king. The most troubling item found among the debris of the funeral viaticum is the plaster mold of a death mask. The reproduced molding transmits to us the face of a man with eyes closed, mouth slightly open. The expression is striking and it is purported to be an image of Teti making it the only true royal portrait that has survived from the Old Kingdom. The Egyptian Royal Cubit is estimated at 525mm. Teti's pyramid measures 78.5 per side at the base and the height is 52.5m. These are equal to 150 cubits per side at the base and 100 cubits high. The core was a built in steps and accretions made of small, locally quarried stone and debris fill.[79] This was covered with a layer of dressed limestone which has been removed, causing the core to slump

View of the pyramid of Teti taken from a 3d model

Photos

The Necropolis of Teti

All around the funerary complex of the king extends one of the richest parts of the necropolis of Saqqara. The king, whose special destiny seems to have impressed his contemporaries, will be revered later as a divine mediator along with a few courtiers who have in some sense inherited it by reputation. The king was also accompanied by his two principal wives who each had a pyramid accompanied with a temple of worship.

The Pyramid Complexes of the Queens of Teti, Khouit II and Iput

Among the many tombs that form this necropolis of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt include:

  • The pyramid complex of Khuit II;
  • The pyramid complex of Iput I;
  • The pyramid complex of Sesheshet I, the king's mother;
  • The mastaba of Tetiankh Khem, royal prince, son of Teti and Khouit;
  • The mastaba of Kagemni, Vizier of Teti;
  • The mastaba of Ankhmahor;
  • The mastaba of Mereruka.

Menkauhor Kaiu, a pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty built his pyramid and is one of the predecessors near Teti's pyramid.

During the Middle Kingdom, the cult of the king was assured as evidenced by recent discoveries in the east of Teti's pyramid tombs of Sa-Hathor-Ipy Sekoueskhet and two priests attached to the worship of the famous pharaoh.[80]

In the New Kingdom, other graves are arranged near the funerary complex of Teti, who is sometimes referred to as a true deity. Under the reign of Ramses II, Khaemwaset, the royal prince and High Priest of Ptah, would even restore the pyramid of the distant ruler, taking care to re-register his name on one side of his pyramid.

Finally, in the Late Period, popular enthusiasm for the gods of Saqqara increased to the point that a temple dedicated to Anubis is built on the funerary complex of Teti whose pyramid continued to dominate the entire valley and would remain a sacred monument to all the devotees who borrowed while along dromos leading to the Serapeum of Saqqara and which skirted the venerable pyramid of Teti.

See also

사용자:배우는사람/틀:Portal

References

Work cited in the text

  • David P. Silverman, Middle Kingdom tombs in the Teti pyramid cemetery, Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000, Praque, 2000

Other articles

  • Cecil Mallaby Firth, The Teti pyramid cemeteries, Excavations at Saqqara, Egyptian Department of Antiquities, Cairo, 1926;
  • Jean-Philippe Lauer & Jean Leclant, Le temple haut du complexe funéraire du roi Téti, Bulletin d'Études n°51, 1972;
  • Sydney Aufrère & Jean-Claude Golvin, L'Égypte restituée, 1997;
  • Jean-Pierre Adam & Christiane Ziegler, Les pyramides d'Égypte, 1999;
  • Audran Labrousse, L'architecture des pyramides à textes, 2000.

The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately sum of bodily parts). The other souls were aakhu, khaibut, and khat.

Ib (heart)

신성 문자로 쓴 jb (F34) "heart"
F34

An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the Ib (jb), or heart. The Ib[81] or metaphysical heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception.[82]

To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab.

In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit.

Sheut (shadow)

A person's shadow, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.

The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black.

Ren (name)

As a part of the soul, a person's ren (rn 'name') was given to them at birth and the Egyptians believed that it would live for as long as that name was spoken, which explains why efforts were made to protect it and the practice of placing it in numerous writings. For example, part of the Book of Breathings, a derivative of the Book of the Dead, was a means to ensure the survival of the name. A cartouche (magical rope) often was used to surround the name and protect it. Conversely, the names of deceased enemies of the state, such as Akhenaten, were hacked out of monuments in a form of damnatio memoriae. Sometimes, however, they were removed in order to make room for the economical insertion of the name of a successor, without having to build another monument. The greater the number of places a name was used, the greater the possibility it would survive to be read and spoken.

Ba

Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head.
This golden Ba amulet from the Ptolemaic period would have been worn as an apotropaic device. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
신성 문자로 쓴 bꜣ (G29)
G29
신성 문자로 쓴 bꜣ (G53)
G53

The 'Ba' (bꜣ) was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of 'personality'. (In this sense, inanimate objects could also have a 'Ba', a unique character, and indeed Old Kingdom pyramids often were called the 'Ba' of their owner). The 'Ba' is an aspect of a person that the Egyptians believed would live after the body died, and it is sometimes depicted as a human-headed bird flying out of the tomb to join with the 'Ka' in the afterlife.

In the Coffin Texts one form of the Ba that comes into existence after death is corporeal, eating, drinking and copulating. Louis Žabkar argued that the Ba is not part of the person but is the person himself, unlike the soul in Greek, or late Judaic, Christian or Muslim thought. The idea of a purely immaterial existence was so foreign to Egyptian thought that when Christianity spread in Egypt they borrowed the Greek word psyche to describe the concept of soul and not the term Ba. Žabkar concludes that so particular was the concept of Ba to ancient Egyptian thought that it ought not to be translated but instead the concept be footnoted or parenthetically explained as one of the modes of existence for a person.[83]

In another mode of existence the Ba of the deceased is depicted in the Book of Going Forth by Day returning to the mummy and participating in life outside the tomb in non-corporeal form, echoing the solar theology of Re (or Ra) uniting with Osiris each night.[84]

The word 'bau' (bꜣw), plural of the word ba, meant something similar to 'impressiveness', 'power', and 'reputation', particularly of a deity. When a deity intervened in human affairs, it was said that the 'Bau' of the deity were at work [Borghouts 1982]. In this regard, the ruler was regarded as a 'Ba' of a deity, or one deity was believed to be the 'Ba' of another.

Ka

신성 문자로 쓴 kꜣ (D28)
D28

The Ka (kꜣ) was the Egyptian concept of vital essence, that which distinguishes the difference between a living and a dead person, with death occurring when the ka left the body. The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies. Depending on the region, Egyptians believed that Heket or Meskhenet was the creator of each person's Ka, breathing it into them at the instant of their birth as the part of their soul that made them be alive. This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions.

The Egyptians also believed that the ka was sustained through food and drink. For this reason food and drink offerings were presented to the dead, although it was the kau (kꜣw) within the offerings that was consumed, not the physical aspect. The ka was often represented in Egyptian iconography as a second image of the king, leading earlier works to attempt to translate ka as double.

Akh

Akh glyph

The Akh (Ꜣḫ meaning '(magically) effective one'),[85] was a concept of the dead that varied over the long history of ancient Egyptian belief.

It was associated with thought, but not as an action of the mind; rather, it was intellect as a living entity. The Akh also played a role in the afterlife. Following the death of the Khat, the Ba and Ka were reunited to reanimate the Akh.[86] The reanimation of the Akh was only possible if the proper funeral rites were executed and followed by constant offerings. The ritual was termed: se-akh 'to make (a dead person) into an (living) akh.' In this sense, it even developed into a sort of ghost or roaming 'dead being' (when the tomb was not in order any more) during the Ramesside Period. An Akh could do either harm or good to persons still living, depending on the circumstances, causing e.g., nightmares, feelings of guilt, sickness, etc. It could be evoked by prayers or written letters left in the tomb's offering chapel also in order to help living family members, e.g., by intervening in disputes, by making an appeal to other dead persons or deities with any authority to influence things on earth for the better, but also to inflict punishments.

The separation of Akh and the unification of Ka and Ba were brought about after death by having the proper offerings made and knowing the proper, efficacious spell, but there was an attendant risk of dying again. Egyptian funerary literature (such as the Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead) were intended to aid the deceased in "not dying a second time" and becoming an akh.

Relationships

Ancient Egyptians believed that death occurs when a person's ka leaves the body. Ceremonies conducted by priests after death, including the "opening of the mouth (wp r)", aimed not only to restore a person's physical abilities in death, but also to release a Ba's attachment to the body. This allowed the Ba to be united with the Ka in the afterlife, creating an entity known as an "Akh" (ꜣḫ, meaning "effective one").

Egyptians conceived of an afterlife as quite similar to normal physical existence — but with a difference. The model for this new existence was the journey of the Sun. At night the Sun descended into the Duat (the underworld). Eventually the Sun meets the body of the mummified Osiris. Osiris and the Sun, re-energized by each other, rise to new life for another day. For the deceased, their body and their tomb were their personal Osiris and a personal Duat. For this reason they are often addressed as "Osiris". For this process to work, some sort of bodily preservation was required, to allow the Ba to return during the night, and to rise to new life in the morning. However, the complete Akhu were also thought to appear as stars.[87] Until the Late Period, non-royal Egyptians did not expect to unite with the Sun deity, it being reserved for the royals.[88]

The Book of the Dead, the collection of spells which aided a person in the afterlife, had the Egyptian name of the Book of going forth by day. They helped people avoid the perils of the afterlife and also aided their existence, containing spells to assure "not dying a second time in the underworld", and to "grant memory always" to a person. In the Egyptian religion it was possible to die in the afterlife and this death was permanent.

The tomb of Paheri, an Eighteenth dynasty nomarch of Nekhen, has an eloquent description of this existence, and is translated by James P. Allen as:

Your life happening again, without your ba being kept away from your divine corpse, with your ba being together with the akh ... You shall emerge each day and return each evening. A lamp will be lit for you in the night until the sunlight shines forth on your breast. You shall be told: "Welcome, welcome, into this your house of the living!"

See also

References

Further reading

  • Allen, James Paul. 2001. "Ba". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 1 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 161–162.
  • Allen, James P. 2000. "Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs", Cambridge University Press.
  • Borghouts, Joris Frans. 1982. "Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and Its Manifestation (b3w)". In Gleanings from Deir el-Medîna, edited by Robert Johannes Demarée and Jacobus Johannes Janssen. Egyptologische Uitgaven 1. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. 1–70.
  • Borioni, Giacomo C. 2005. "Der Ka aus religionswissenschaftlicher Sicht", Veröffentlichungen der Institute für Afrikanistik und Ägyptologie der Universität Wien.
  • Burroughs, William S. 1987. "The Western Lands", Viking Press. (fiction).
  • Friedman, Florence Margaret Dunn. 1981. On the Meaning of Akh (3ḫ) in Egyptian Mortuary Texts. Doctoral dissertation; Waltham: Brandeis University, Department of Classical and Oriental Studies.
  • ———. 2001. "Akh". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 1 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 47–48.
  • Jaynes, Julian. 1976. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, Princeton University.
  • Žabkar, Louis Vico. 1968. A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 34. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트 (1)의 해석[편집]

Aker in hieroglyphs
Ak
r
[89]
ꜣkr
Aker.svg
Aker

From this paragraph we see that Unȧs is declared to be the son of Tem, and has made himself stronger than his father, and that when the king, who lives upon his fathers and mothers, enters the sky as a god, all creation is smitten with terror. The sky dissolves in rain, the stars shake in their places, and even the bones of the great double lion-headed earth-god Aker, [Gods1 49], quake (전율하다), and all the lesser powers of heaven flee in fear.

He is considered to have been a mighty conqueror upon earth, for those whom he has vanquished are [Page 34] beneath his feet; there is no reason why this statement should not be taken literally, and not as referring to the mere pictures of enemies which were sometimes painted on the cartonnage (고대 이집트 미라의 관) coverings of mummies under the feet, and upon the sandals of mummies, and upon the outside of the feet of coffins.

An ordinary man possessed one ka or “double,” but a king or a god was believed to possess many kau or “doubles.” Thus in one text22) the god is said to possess seven souls (bau) and fourteen doubles (kau), and prayers were addressed to each soul and double of as well as to the god himself; elsewhere23) we are told that the fourteen kau of , [Gods1 50], were given to him by Thoth.

22) Dümichen, Tempelinschriſten, vol. i., pi. 29.

23) Lepsius, Denkmäler, iii., Bl. 194.

Unȧs appears in heaven with his “gods” upon him, the serpents are on his brow, he is led by a serpent-guide, and is endowed with his powers. It is difficult to say what the “gods” here referred to really are, for it is unlikely that the allusion is to the small figures of gods which, in later times, were laid upon the bodies of the dead, and it seems that we are to understand that he, Unȧs, was accompanied by a number of divine beings who had laid their protecting strength upon him. The uraei on his brow and his serpent-guide were the emblems of similar beings whose help he had bespoken (보여주다; 시사하다)—in other words, they represented spirits of serpents which were made friendly towards man.

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트 (2)[편집]

The passage in the text of Unȧs continues,

“Unȧs is the Bull of heaven which overcometh by his will, and which feedeth upon that which cometh into being from every god, and he eateth of the provender (여물) of those who fill themselves with words of power and come from the Lake of Flame.
Unȧs is provided with power sufficient to resist his spirits (khu), and he riseth [in heaven] like a mighty god who is the lord of the seat of the hand (i.e., power) [of the gods].
He taketh his seat and his back is towards Seb. Unȧs weigheth his speech with the god whose name is hidden on the day of slaughtering the oldest [gods].
Unȧs is the master of the offering and he tieth the knot, and provideth meals for himself; he eateth men and he [Page 35] liveth upon gods, he is the lord of offerings, and he keepeth count of the lists of the same.”

The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately sum of bodily parts). The other souls were aakhu, khaibut, and khat.

Ka

신성 문자로 쓴 kꜣ (D28)
D28

The Ka (kꜣ) was the Egyptian concept of vital essence, that which distinguishes the difference between a living and a dead person, with death occurring when the ka left the body. The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies. Depending on the region, Egyptians believed that Heket or Meskhenet was the creator of each person's Ka, breathing it into them at the instant of their birth as the part of their soul that made them be alive. This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions.

The Egyptians also believed that the ka was sustained through food and drink. For this reason food and drink offerings were presented to the dead, although it was the kau (kꜣw) within the offerings that was consumed, not the physical aspect. The ka was often represented in Egyptian iconography as a second image of the king, leading earlier works to attempt to translate ka as double.

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트 (2)의 해석[편집]

Unȧs의 음식[편집]

The dead king (즉 Unȧs) is next likened to a young and vigorous bull which feeds upon what is produced by every god and upon those that come from theFiery Lake to eat words of power. Here we have a survival of the old worship of the bull, which began in the earliest times in Egypt, and lasted until the Roman period. His food is that which is produced by every god, and when we remember that the Egyptians believed that every object, animate and inanimate, was the habitation of a spirit or god, it is easy to see that the allusion in these words is to the green herbage (목초) which the bull ordinarily eats, for from this point of view, every blade of grass was the abode of a god.

In connexion with this may be quoted the words of Sankhôn-yâthân, the Sanchoniatho of the Greeks, as given by Eusebius, who says,

“But these first men consecrated the productions of the earth, and judged them gods, and worshipped those things, upon which they themselves lived, and all their posterity, and all before them; to these they made libations and sacrifices.” 24)

24) Eusebius, Praep. Evan., lib. i., c. 10 (in Cory, Ancient Fragments, London, 1832, p. 5).

Sanchuniathon (Greek: Σαγχουνιάθων; gen.: Σαγχουνιάθωνος) is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos, according to the Christian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea. These few fragments comprise the most extended literary source concerning Phoenician religion in either Greek or Latin: Phoenician sources, along with all of Phoenician literature, were lost with the parchment on which they were habitually written. He is also known as Sancuniates.

The author

The compilers of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica warned that Sanchuniathon "belongs more to legend than to history." All our knowledge of Sanchuniathon and his work comes from Eusebius's Praeparatio Evangelica, (I. chs ix-x)[90] which contains some information about him along with the only surviving excerpts from his writing, as summarized and quoted from his supposed translator, Philo of Byblos.

Eusebius also quotes the neo-Platonist writer Porphyry as stating that Sanchuniathon of Berytus (Beirut) wrote the truest history about the Jews because he obtained records from "Hierombalus" ("Jerubbaal"? or "Hiram'baal" ?) priest of the god Ieuo (Yahweh), that Sanchuniathon dedicated his history to Abibalus king of Berytus, and that it was approved by the king and other investigators, the date of this writing being before the Trojan war[91] approaching close to the time of Moses, "when Semiramis was queen of the Assyrians."[92] Thus Sanchuniathon is placed firmly in the mythic context of the pre-Homeric heroic age, an antiquity from which no other Greek or Phoenician writings are known to have survived to the time of Philo. Curiously, however, he is made to refer disparagingly to Hesiod at one point, who lived in Greece ca. 700 BC.

The supposed Sanchuniathon claimed to have based his work on "collections of secret writings of the Ammouneis[93] discovered in the shrines", sacred lore deciphered from mystic inscriptions on the pillars which stood in the Phoenician temples, lore which exposed the truth—later covered up by invented allegories and myths—that the gods were originally human beings who came to be worshipped after their deaths and that the Phoenicians had taken what were originally names of their kings and applied them to elements of the cosmos (compare euhemerism) as well as also worshipping forces of nature and the sun, moon, and stars. Eusebius' intent in mentioning Sanchuniathon is to discredit pagan religion based on such foundations.

This rationalizing euhemeristic slant and the emphasis on Beirut, a city of great importance in the late classical period but apparently of little importance in ancient times, suggests that the work itself is not nearly as old as it claims to be. Some have suggested it was forged by Philo of Byblos himself, or assembled from various traditions and presented within an authenticating pseudepigraphical format, in order to give the material more believable weight. Or Philo may have translated genuine Phoenician works ascribed to an ancient writer known as Sanchuniathon, but in fact written in more recent times.

Not all readers have taken such a critical view. Squier Payne remarked in a preface to Richard Cumberland's Sanchoniatho's Phoenician History (1720)

"The Humour which prevail'd with several learned Men to reject Sanchuniatho as a counterfeit because they knew not what to make of him, his Lordship always blam'd Philo Byblius, Porphyry and Eusebius, who were better able to judge than any Moderns, never call in question his being genuine."[94]

However that may be,[95] much of what has been preserved in this writing, despite the euhemeristic interpretation given it, turned out to be supported by the Ugaritic mythological texts excavated at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) in Syria since 1929; Otto Eissfeldt demonstrated in 1952[96] that it does incorporate genuine Semitic elements that can now be related to the Ugaritic texts, some of which is shown in our versions of Sanchuniathon, remained unchanged since the second millennium BC. The modern consensus is that Philo's treatment of Sanchuniathon offered a Hellenistic view of Phoenician materials[97] written between the time of Alexander the Great and the first century BC, if it was not a literary invention of Philo.[98]

In what follows, it is sometimes difficult to tell whether Eusebius is citing Philo's translation of Sanchuniathon or speaking in his own voice. Another difficulty is the use of Greek proper names instead of Phoenician ones and the possible corruption of some of the Phoenician names that do appear. There may be other garblings.

The work

The fragments that come down to us contain: Philosophical creation story

A philosophical creation story traced to "the cosmogony of Taautus, whom Philo explicitly identified with the Egyptian Thoth—"the first who thought of the invention of letters, and began the writing of records"— which begins with Erebus and Wind, between which Eros 'Desire' came to be. From this was produced Môt which seems to be the Phoenician/Ge'ez/Hebrew/Arabic/Ancient Egyptian word for 'Death' but which the account says may mean 'mud'. In a mixed confusion, the germs of life appear, and intelligent animals called Zophasemin (explained probably correctly as 'observers of heaven') formed together as an egg, perhaps. The account is not clear. Then Môt burst forth into light and the heavens were created and the various elements found their stations.

Following the etymological line of Jacob Bryant one might also consider with regard to the meaning of Môt, that according to the Ancient Egyptians Ma'at was the personification of the fundamental order of the universe, without which all of creation would perish. She was also considered the wife of Thoth.

Allegorical culture heroes

Copias and his wife Baau (translated as Nyx 'Night') give birth to Aeon and Protogonus ("first-born"), who are mortal men; "and that when droughts occurred, they stretched out their hands to heaven towards the sun; for him alone (he says) they regarded as god the lord of heaven, calling him Beelsamen, which is in the Phoenician language 'lord of heaven,' and in Greek 'Zeus.'" (Eusebius, I, x). A race of Titan-like mountain beings arose, "sons of surpassing size and stature, whose names were applied to the mountains which they occupied... and they got their names, he says, from their mothers, as the women in those days had free intercourse with any whom they met." Various descendants are listed, many of whom have allegorical names but are described in the quotations from Philo as mortals who first made particular discoveries or who established particular customs.

The history of the gods

Then comes a genealogy and history of various northwest Semitic gods who were widely worshipped, sometimes hidden under Greek names. Greek names appear below in parentheses and italics. Only equations made in the text appear here but many of the hyperlinks point to the northwest Semitic deity that is probably intended.

                                     Elioun  =  Beruth 
                                  (Hypsistus)|
                                             |
                                     +-------+------+
                                     |              |
                                     |              |
                            (Uranus)/(Epigeius) = (Ge)
                                (Autochthon)    |
                                                |
     +-----------+------------------------------+-----------+--------+----------------+-------+
     |           |                              |           |        |                |       |
     |           |                              |           |        |                |       |
    Elus     Baetylus      (Uranus) = ? = Dagon/(Siton)  (Atlas)  Astarte = Elus = (Rhea)  Baaltis
  (Cronus)                          |    (Zeus Arotrios)       (Aphrodite)|      |         (Dione)
     |                              |                                     |      |
     +-----------+--------+         |               +++++++-------+-------+-+    +++++++----+
     |           |        |         |               |||||||       |         |    |||||||    |
     |           |        |         |               |||||||       |         |    |||||||    |
(Persephone) (Athena) (Sadidus)  Demarûs  Sydyc = (Titanides)  (Pothos)  (Eros)  7 sons   Muth
                              Adodus/(Zeus) |   | (Artemides)           (Qetesh)       (Thanatos)
                                    |       |   |                                        (Pluto)
                             +------+  +++++++  +------+
                             |         |||||||         |
                             |         |||||||         |
                        Melcarthus    (Cabeiri)   (Asclepius)
                        (Heracles)   (Corybantes)
                                    (Samothraces)
                                      (Dioscuri)
                                Elus = Anobret       (Nereus)
               born in Peraea    |   |                  |
                                 |   |                  |
    +---------------+------------+   +----+             |
    |               |            |        |             |
    |               |            |        |             |
(Cronus II)   (Zeus) Belus   (Apollo)   Iedud        (Pontus)
                                Mot                     |                                          |
                                                        |
                                                        |
                                                        |
                                                        |
                                                      Sidon

Translations of Greek forms: arotrios, 'of husbandry, farming'; autochthon (for autokhthon) 'produced from the ground', epigeius (for epigeios) 'from the earth', eros 'desire', ge 'earth', hypsistos 'most high', pluto (for plouton) 'wealthy', pontus (for pontos) 'sea', pothos 'longing', siton 'grain', thanatos 'death', uranus (for ouranos) 'sky'.

As in the Greek and Hittite theogonies, Sanchuniathon's Elus/Cronus overthrows his father Sky or Uranus and castrates him. However Zeus Demarûs, that is Hadad Ramman, purported son of Dagon but actually son of Uranus, eventually joins with Uranus and wages war against Cronus. To El/Cronus is attributed the practice of circumcision. Twice we are told that El/Cronus sacrificed his own son. At some point peace is made and Zeus Adados (Hadad) and Astarte reign over the land with Cronus' permission. An account of the events is written by the Cabeiri and by Asclepius, under Thoth's direction.

About serpents

A passage about serpent worship follows in which it is not clear what part is from Sanchuniathon and what part from Philo of Byblus:

The nature then of the dragon and of serpents Tauthus himself regarded as divine, and so again after him did the Phoenicians and Egyptians: for this animal was declared by him to be of all reptiles most full of breath, and fiery. In consequence of which it also exerts an unsurpassable swiftness by means of its breath, without feet and hands or any other of the external members by which the other animals make their movements. It also exhibits forms of various shapes, and in its progress makes spiral leaps as swift as it chooses. It is also most long-lived, and its nature is to put off its old skin, and so not only to grow young again, but also to assume a larger growth; and after it has fulfilled its appointed measure of age, it is self-consumed, in like manner as Tauthus himself has set down in his sacred books: for which reason this animal has also been adopted in temples and in mystic rites.

On the Phoenician Alphabet

A further work of Sanchuniathon noted by Eusebius (P.E. 1.10.45) is a treatise On the Phoenician Alphabet.

Bibliography

  • Ebach, J., Weltentstehung und Kulturentwicklung bei Philo von Byblos, BWANT 108, Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln, Mainz: Kohlhammer, 1978.
  • Attridge, H. W., and R. A. Oden, Jr., Philo of Byblos: The Phoenician History: Introduction, Critical Text, Translation, Notes, CBQMS 9 (Washington: D. C.: The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1981).
  • Baumgarten, Albert Irwin, The Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos: a Commentary EPRO 89 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981).
  • Lipiński, E., “The ‘Phoenician History,’ of Philo of Byblos,” BiOr 40 (1983): 305-10.

External links

English translations

Other links

  • Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Colby, F. M., 편집. (1905). 〈문서 이름 지정 필요〉. 《신 국제 사전》 1판. New York: Dodd, Mead.  다음 글자 무시됨: ‘Sanchuniathon’ (도움말)

Lake of Fire 또는 She-Sȧsȧ는 Sekhet-Sȧsȧ에 있다[편집]

Now the food of this bull Unȧs is also said to be those who came from the Lake of Fire, or the city of She-Sȧsȧ, and who are these? From Chapter cviii. of the Book of the Dead we learn that She-Sȧsȧ was situated in Sekhet-Sȧsȧ,25) i.e., a district in heaven, and it is clear from the text of the Chapter that it was one of the abodes wherein the beatified dead obtained food.

25) See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, Text, p. 203.

Sekhmet
Sekhmet.svg
Sekhmet with head of lioness and a solar disk and uraeus on her head
Goddess of medicine
Name in hieroglyphs
S42Aa1
t
B1
Major cult center Memphis, Leontopolis
Symbol Sun disk, red linen
Consort Ptah
Parents Ra
Siblings Presumably Hathor, Bast, Serket, Shu and Tefnut

In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet /ˈsɛkˌmɛt/[99] or Sachmis (/ˈsækm[unsupported input]s/; also spelled Sakhmet, Sekhet, or Sakhet, among other spellings) was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing for Upper Egypt. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath created the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare.

Her cult was so dominant in the culture that when the first pharaoh of the twelfth dynasty, Amenemhat I, moved the capital of Egypt to Itjtawy, the centre for her cult was moved as well. Religion, the royal lineage, and the authority to govern were intrinsically interwoven in Ancient Egypt during its approximately three thousand years of existence.

Sekhmet also is a solar deity, sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra and often associated with the goddesses Hathor and Bast. She bears the solar disk and the uraeus which associates her with Wadjet and royalty. With these associations she can be construed as being a divine arbiter of the goddess Ma'at (Justice, or Order) in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, associating her with the Wedjat (later the Eye of Ra), and connecting her with Tefnut as well.

Etymology

Sekhmet's name comes from the Ancient Egyptian word "sekhem" which means "power". Sekhmet's name suits her function and means "the (one who is) powerful". She also was given display=inlines such as the "(One) Before Whom Evil Trembles", "Mistress of Dread", "Lady of Slaughter" and "She Who Mauls".

This golden cultic object is called an aegis. It is devoted to Sekhmet, highlighting her solar attributes. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

History

Sekhmet from the temple of Mut at Luxor, granite, 1403–1365 BC, in the National Museum, Copenhagen
Image from a ritual Menat necklace, depicting a ritual being performed before a statue of Sekhmet on her throne, she also is flanked by the goddess Wadjet as the cobra and the goddess Nekhbet as the white vulture, symbols of lower and upper Egypt respectively who always were depicted on the crown of Egypt and referred to as the two ladies, and the supplicant holds a complete menat and a sistrum for the ritual, circa 870 B.C. (Berlin, Altes Museum, catalogue number 23733)
The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown from a relief at the Temple of Kom Ombo.

In order to placate Sekhmet's wrath, her priestesses performed a ritual before a different statue of the goddess on each day of the year. This practice resulted in many images of the goddess being preserved. Most of her statuettes were rigidly crafted and do not exhibit any expression of movements or dynamism; this design was made to make them last a long time rather than to express any form of functions or actions she is associated with. It is estimated that more than seven hundred statues of Sekhmet once stood in one funerary temple alone, that of Amenhotep III, on the west bank of the Nile.

She was envisioned as a fierce lioness, and in art, was depicted as such, or as a woman with the head of a lioness, who was dressed in red, the colour of blood. Sometimes the dress she wears exhibits a rosetta pattern over each breast, an ancient leonine motif, which can be traced to observation of the shoulder-knot hairs on lions. Occasionally, Sekhmet was also portrayed in her statuettes and engravings with minimal clothing or naked. Tame lions were kept in temples dedicated to Sekhmet at Leontopolis.

Festivals and evolution

To pacify Sekhmet, festivals were celebrated at the end of battle, so that the destruction would come to an end. During an annual festival held at the beginning of the year, a festival of intoxication, the Egyptians danced and played music to soothe the wildness of the goddess and drank great quantities of wine ritually to imitate the extreme drunkenness that stopped the wrath of the goddess—when she almost destroyed humankind. This may relate to averting excessive flooding during the inundation at the beginning of each year as well, when the Nile ran blood-red with the silt from upstream and Sekhmet had to swallow the overflow to save humankind.

In 2006, Betsy Bryan, an archaeologist with Johns Hopkins University excavating at the temple of Mut presented her findings about the festival that included illustrations of the priestesses being served to excess and its adverse effects being ministered to by temple attendants.[100] Participation in the festival was great, including the priestesses and the population. Historical records of tens of thousands attending the festival exist. These findings were made in the temple of Mut because when Thebes rose to greater prominence, Mut absorbed some characteristics of Sekhmet. These temple excavations at Luxor discovered a "porch of drunkenness" built onto the temple by the Pharaoh Hatshepsut, during the height of her twenty year reign.

In a myth about the end of Ra's rule on the earth, Ra sends Hathor or Sekhmet to destroy mortals who conspired against him. In the myth, Sekhmet's blood-lust was not quelled at the end of battle and led to her destroying almost all of humanity, so Ra poured out beer dyed with red ochre or hematite so that it resembled blood. Mistaking the beer for blood, she became so drunk that she gave up the slaughter and returned peacefully to Ra.[101]

Sekhmet later was considered to be the mother of Maahes, a deity who appeared during the New Kingdom period. He was seen as a lion prince, the son of the goddess. The late origin of Maahes in the Egyptian pantheon may be the incorporation of a Nubian deity of ancient origin in that culture, arriving during trade and warfare or even, during a period of domination by Nubia. During the Greek dominance in Egypt, note was made of a temple for Maahes that was an auxiliary facility to a large temple to Sekhmet at Taremu in the delta region (likely a temple for Bast originally), a city which the Greeks called Leontopolis, where by that time, an enclosure was provided to house lions.

In popular culture

Death metal band Nile referenced Sekhmet in the display=inline track of their album "Ithyphallic", and in "The Eye Of Ra" on their album Those Whom the Gods Detest.

Death metal band Behemoth referenced Sekhmet in the song "Christgrinding Avenue" on their album The Apostasy.

Sekhmet is used in The 39 Clues book Beyond the Grave and is the reason why the characters travel to Cairo.

Sekhmet is also featured in The Red Pyramid written by Rick Riordan as a minor antagonist.

Sekhmet is the subject of "Lionheart" a song about the goddess by the symphonic power metal band, Amberian Dawn from their The Clouds of Northland Thunder album.

Sekhmet is also mentioned in Stargate SG-1. A young girl Anna is created by a German doctor, who is son of a Nazi. Sam, Daniel and Teal'c find artifacts belonging the Goa'uld Sekhmet. Sekhmet is also featured in the Stargate SG-1 game Stargate SG-1 Unleashed.

In Tutenstein, an animated TV series about Ancient Egypt, Sekhmet is featured in one of the episodes. She goes on a rampage in the museum and the building site to make people build a pyramid for Tut.

The space vessel "Sekhmet" is a level in the video game Jet Force Gemini, a third person shooter developed by Rare in 1999.

Sekhmet is also the name of an alien Aragami in the PlayStation Portable game, God Eater.

In the BBC TV series Sherlock episode "The Great Game", John Watson believes a cat named Sekhmet is responsible for the death of her owner.

See also

External links

A lake of fire appears, in both ancient Egyptian and Christian religion, as a place of after-death destruction of the wicked. The phrase is used in four verses of the Book of Revelation. The image was also used by the Early Christian Hippolytus of Rome in about the year 200 and has continued to be used by modern Christians. Related is Jewish Gehenna which, among other things, is a valley near Jerusalem where trash was burned.

Ancient Egyptian religion

Richard H. Wilkinson has written:

According to the Coffin Texts and other works, the underworld contained fiery rivers and lakes as well as fire demons (identified by fire signs on their heads) which threatened the wicked. Representations of the fiery lakes of the fifth "hour" or "house" of the Amduat depict them in the form of the standard pool or lake hieroglyph, but with flame-red "water" lines, and surrounded on all four sides by fire signs which not only identify the blazing nature of the lakes, but also feed them through the graphic "dripping" of their flames. Some temple texts and modern books have said that the Lake of Fire in the Egyptian Religion is the lake that Ra would pass through in his daily journey in the Duat. He goes in the west gate and exit through the east gate and after that, it would say that the boat was renewed.[102]

An image[103] in the Papyrus of Ani (ca. 1250 BC), a version of the Book of the Dead, has been described as follows:

The scene shows four cynocephalous baboons sitting at the corners of a rectangular pool. On each side of this pool is a flaming brazier. The pool's red colour indicates that it is filled with a fiery liquid, reminding one of the "Lake of Fire" frequently mentioned in the Book of the Dead.[104]

The 1995 edition of the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia says that the Egyptian lake of fire is too remote to be relevant to the use of "lake of fire" in the Book of Revelation.[105]

"Lake of fire" in the Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation, written some time in the last half of the first century, has five verses that mention a "lake of fire":

Revelation 19:20: "And the beast[106] was taken, and with him the false prophet[107] that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone."
Revelation 20:10 "And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever."
Revelation 20:14-15 "Then Death and Hades[108] were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire."[NKJV]
Revelation 21:8 "But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the detestable, as for murderers, the sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their portion will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death."[109]

A commonly accepted and traditional interpretation is that the "lake of fire" and the "second death" are symbolic of eternal pain, pain of loss and perhaps pain of the senses, as punishment for wickedness.[110][111][112][113][114][115][116]

"Lake of fire" in other religions

Jehovah's Witnesses interpret the "lake of fire" and "second death" of the Book of Revelation as referring to a complete and definitive annihilation of those cast into it.[117] See Annihilationism

Christian Universalists interpret the "lake of fire" as an instrument of purification/refinement that will bring all people into a relationship with God. The word for "torment" in Revelation 14:10 is the Greek "basanizo" which has a primary meaning of testing with a touchstone. The lake of fire is not only for torment but for "testing": the analogy is in testing metal with a touchstone to make sure it is pure.

"Lake of unquenchable fire" in the third century

Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235) pictured Hades, the abode of the dead, as containing "a lake of unquenchable fire" at the edge of which the unrighteous "shudder in horror at the expectation of the future judgment, (as if they were) already feeling the power of their punishment", while the righteous "are brought to a locality full of light" (called the Bosom of Abraham), "enjoying always the contemplation of the blessings which are in their view, and delighting themselves with the expectation of others ever new".[118]

The third-century writing explicitly pictures the "lake of unquenchable fire" as the eternal destiny of the unrighteous,[119] who, while awaiting execution of the judgement upon them, are tortured in the abode of the dead (Hades) by the vision of their doom.

Mark 9:43 has Jesus himself use the image of a punishing unquenchable fire: "If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life maimed than with two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire." [New American Bible, Revised Edition][120]

"Sea of fire" in the twentieth century

The Catholic Portuguese visionary Lúcia Santos reported that the Virgin Mary (Our Lady of Fatima) had given her a vision of Hell[출처 필요] as a sea of fire:

"Our Lady showed us a great sea of fire which seemed to be under the earth. Plunged in this fire were demons and souls in human form, like transparent burning embers, all blackened or burnished bronze, floating about in the conflagration, now raised into the air by the flames that issued from within themselves together with great clouds of smoke, now falling back on every side like sparks in a huge fire, without weight or equilibrium, and amid shrieks and groans of pain and despair, which horrified us and made us tremble with fear."[121]

The twentieth-century account of the "sea of fire" excludes the notion of annihilation and is considered by its author to be a picture of Hell.[출처 필요]

See also

External links

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트 (3)[편집]

The deceased is made to say,

“I have not lain down (눕다) in death; I have stood over thee,26) and I have risen like a god. I have cackled (꼬꼬댁 울다) like a goose (거위), and I have alighted (…에 날아가 앉다) like the hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew .... I have come from She-Sȧsȧ, which is in Sekhet-Sȧsȧ, i.e., the Lake of Fire, which is in the Field of Fire

26) He speaks to the Thigh, [^^],in heaven.

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트 (3)의 해석[편집]

Towards the end of the Chapter (line 10) mention is made of herbage or crops [Gods1 51], and it seems as if these [Page 36] grew in the Field of Fire, or in the neighbourhood of it, and it is clear that it must be these which are referred to as the provender (여물) of those who come from the Lake of Fire. We are next told that Unȧs hath power sufficient to oppose or resist his spirits (khu), but it is not certain whether these are beings in the Underworld which are hostile to him, or spirits which belong to himself; in any case the meaning of the passage is not clear.

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트에 대한 전체적인 해석[편집]

Seb 즉 Geb에 대하여[편집]

Having risen in heaven Unȧs takes his seat with his back towards Seb, the great earth-god who was represented by the mythological goose which was supposed to have laid the great cosmic egg.

Geb
God of the Earth
Consort Nut
Parents Shu and Tefnut
Siblings Nut
신성 문자로 쓴 Geb
G39bA40

Geb was the Egyptian god of the Earth and a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. It was believed in ancient Egypt that Geb's laughter were earthquakes and that he allowed crops to grow. Name

The name was pronounced as such from the Greek period onward and was formerly erroneously read as Seb[122] or as Keb. The original Egyptian was perhaps "Gebeb"/"Kebeb". It was spelled with either initial -g- (all periods), or with -k-point (gj). The latter initial root consonant occurs once in the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts, more often in 21st Dynasty mythological papyri as well as in a text from the Ptolemaic tomb of Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel or was written with initial hard -k-, as e.g. in a 30th Dynasty papyrus text in the Brooklyn Museum dealing with descriptions of and remedies against snakes.

Role and development

The oldest representation in a fragmentary relief of the god, was as an anthropomorphic bearded being accompanied by his name, and dating from king Djoser's reign, 3rd Dynasty, and was found in Heliopolis. In later times he could also be depicted as a ram, a bull or a crocodile (the latter in a vignet of the Book of the Dead - papyrus of the lady Heryweben in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo).

Frequently described mythologically as father of snakes (one of the names for snake was s3-t3 - 'son of the earth' and in a Coffin Texts-spell Geb was described as father of the snake Nehebkau, while his mother was in that case Neith) and therefore depicted sometimes as such. In mythology Geb also often occurs as a primeval divine king of Egypt from whom his son Osiris and his grandson Horus inherited the land after many contendings with the disruptive god Set, brother and killer of Osiris. Geb could also be regarded as personified fertile earth and barren desert, the latter containing the dead or setting them free from their tombs, metaphorically described as 'Geb opening his jaws', or imprisoning those there not worthy to go to the fertile North-Eastern heavenly Field of Reeds. In the latter case, one of his otherworldly attributes was an ominous jackal-headed stave (called wsr.t) rising from the ground unto which enemies could be bound.

In the Heliopolitan Ennead (a group of nine gods created in the beginning by the one god Atum or Ra), Geb is the husband of Nut, the sky or visible daytime and nightly firmament, the son of the earlier primordial elements Tefnut (moisture) and Shu ('emptiness'), and the father to the four lesser gods of the system - Osiris, Seth, Isis and Nephthys. In this context, Geb was believed to have originally been engaged in eternal sex with Nut, and had to be separated from her by Shu, god of the air.[123] Consequently, in mythological depictions, Geb was shown as a man reclining, sometimes with his phallus still pointed towards Nut.

As time progressed, the deity became more associated with the habitable land of Egypt and also as one of its early rulers. As a chthonic deity he (like Min) became naturally associated with the underworld and with vegetation -barley being said to grow upon his ribs- and was depicted with plants and other green patches on his body.

His association with vegetation, and sometimes with the underworld and royalty brought Geb the occasional interpretation that he was the husband of Renenutet, a minor goddess of the harvest and also mythological caretaker (the meaning of her name is 'nursing snake') of the young king in the shape of a cobra, who herself could also be regarded as the mother of Nehebkau, a primeval snake god associated with the underworld. He is also equated by classical authors as the Greek Titan Cronus.

Goose

Sky goddess Nut and Geb with the head of a snake.

Some Egyptologists, (specifically Jan Bergman, Terence Duquesne or Richard H. Wilkinson) have stated that Geb was associated with a mythological divine creator goose who had laid a world egg from which the sun and/or the world had sprung. This theory is assumed to be incorrect and to be a result of confusing the divine name "Geb" with that of a Whitefronted Goose (Anser albifrons), also called originally gb(b): 'lame one, stumbler'.[124]

This bird-sign is used only as a phonogram in order to spell the name of the god (H.te Velde, in: Lexikon der Aegyptologie II, lemma: Geb). An alternative ancient name for this goose species was trp meaning similarly 'walk like a drunk', 'stumbler'. The Whitefronted Goose is never found as a cultic symbol or holy bird of Geb. The mythological creator 'goose' referred to above, was called Ngg wr 'Great Honker' and always depicted as a Nilegoose/Foxgoose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) who ornitologically belongs to a separate genus and whose Egyptian name was smn, Coptic smon. A coloured vignet irrefutably depicts a Nile Goose with an opened beak (Ngg wr!) in a context of solar creation on a mythological papyrus dating from the 21st Dynasty.[125]

Similar images of this divine bird are to be found on temple walls (Karnak, Deir el-Bahari), showing a scene of the king standing on a papyrus raft and ritually plucking papyrus for the Theban god Amun-Re-Kamutef. The latter Theban creator god could be embodied in a Nilegoose, but never in a Whitefronted Goose. In Underworld Books a diacritic goose-sign (most probably denoting then an Anser albifrons) was sometimes depicted on top of the head of a standing anonymous male anthropomorphic deity, pointing to Geb's identity. Geb himself was never depicted as a Nile Goose, as later was Amun, called on some New Kingdom stelae explicitly:'Amun, the beautiful smn-goose (Nile Goose).[126]

The only clear pictorial confusion between the hieroglyphs of a Whitefronted Goose (in the normal hieroglyphic spelling of the name Geb, often followed by the additional -b-sign) and a Nile Goose in the spelling of the name Geb occurs in the rock cut tomb of the provincial governor Sarenput II (12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom) on the Qubba el-Hawa desert-ridge (opposite Aswan), namely on the left (southern) wall near the open doorway, in the first line of the brightly painted funerary offering formula. This confusion is to be compared with the frequent hacking out by Ekhnaton's agents of the sign of the Pintail Duck (meaning 'son') in the royal display=inline 'Son of Re', especially in Theban temples, where they confused the duck sign with that of a Nilegoose regarded as a form of the then forbidden god Amon.[127]

Unȧs 피라미드 텍스트 (2)의 'weigheth his speech with the god whose name is hidden'에 대하여[편집]

In the latter part of the section of the text of Unȧs quoted above we have some remarkable ideas enunciated (말하다). It is asserted first of all that he “weigheth his speech with the god whose name is hidden,” which indicates that Unȧs was supposed to be of equal rank and power with the god of judgment.

From the Theban Recensions of the Book of the Dead27) we know that the expression “weighing of words,” [Gods1 52], means also the “weighing of actions,” and that it is applied to the examination of the deceased which is held on the day wherein his heart is weighed in the Great Scales. The examination was conducted by Thoth on behalf of Osiris, but the words in the text of Unȧs show that the dead king considers himself able to judge his own actions, and to award himself happiness.

27) See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, Text, p. 18,1. 12 ; p. 19, 1. 5 ; etc.

god of the hidden name: 아마도 Osiris[편집]

The god of the hidden name is probably Osiris.

Unȧs eats men and feeds upon the gods[편집]

Finally it is said that Unȧs eats men and feeds upon the gods. We have already referred to the passage in Juvenal’s Fifteenth Satire in which he declares that the Egyptians ate human flesh, and it has been already said that the dynastic inscriptions afford no proof whatsoever that the Egyptians were cannibals.

The statement here that Unȧs ate men is definite enough, and it is not easy to give any other than a literal meaning to the words; we can only assume then that this portion of the text has reference to some acts of cannibalism of which a tradition had come down from predynastic to dynastic times.

We gather from other passages in the texts of Unȧs and Tetȧ what manner of treatment [Page 37] was meted out to (가하다[부과하다]) the vanquished in battle by the victors, and it seems to find a parallel in the atrocious (끔찍한) acts which were, and in some places still are, perpetrated (저지르다) by conquering tribes of Central Africa after a battle. In predynastic times all the property of those who were defeated in war was seized upon by the successful warriors, and all the women fell into their hands, and at times nameless abominations (혐오[가증]스러운 것) were committed upon the unfortunate male captives.

Unȧs is fecundator, the bull[편집]

The dead king in the texts of Unȧs and Tetȧ is, naturally, described as the lord of heaven and of all the beings and things which are therein; as such he is master of all the women, and it is said plainly of him that he is the

“fecundator (다산성의, 비옥한), and that he carries off the women from their husbands to whatsoever place he pleaseth whensoever he pleaseth.”28)

28) Unȧs line 629.

Thus one of his attributes was that of the bull, which, because of his fecundity and strength, became the object of worship by the early Egyptians, and he exercised the rights of a victorious tribal chief.

Unȧs의 피정복자에 대한 행위[편집]

Upon the conquered men who were allowed to live terrible indignities (수모, 모욕, 치욕) were perpetrated, and in the text of Tetȧ the dead king is exhorted (열심히 권하다, 촉구하다) to rise up,

“for Horus hath caused Thoth to bring unto thee (즉 Tetȧ) thine enemy, and he (i.e., Horus) hath put thee (즉 Tetȧ) behind him (즉 enemy) in order that he (즉 enemy) may not do thee (즉 Tetȧ) an injury, and that thou (즉 Tetȧ) mayest make thy place upon him (즉 enemy), so that when [thou] (즉 Tetȧ) goest forth thou (즉 Tetȧ) mayest take thy place upon him (즉 enemy), and he (즉 enemy) may not have union with thee (즉 Tetȧ).”29)

29) Tetȧ, line 286

predynastic & dynastic times 때의 피정복자에 대한 행위[편집]

It is possible then that in predynastic times in addition to the wanton (타당한 이유 없이 고의적인[악의적인]) destruction which the Egyptians brought about after a victorious fight with their enemies, and the slaughter, and rapine (강탈, 약탈), and nameless abominations which followed, they sometimes imitated the example of wild and savage beasts and ate the foes they had [Page 38] conquered.

The accounts of the battles of dynastic times show that the Egyptians looted (약탈하다) and destroyed the cities and towns of the vanquished, and that they cut down (쓰러[넘어]뜨리다) orchards (과수원) and gardens, and carried off (가져가다) all the flocks and herds which they could find; and there is abundant proof that they mutilated (훼손하다) the bodies of their dead foes after a fight, but that they either ate them or behaved (처신[행동]하다) towards them in a manner contrary to nature (자연을 거스르는; 인간성에 위배되는) there is absolutely no evidence to show.

Unȧs Eats The Gods, Absorbs Their Powers[편집]

Unȧs가 먹는 음식의 준비자들[편집]

We have now to consider the remaining paragraphs of the extract from the text of Unȧs. The gods upon whose bodies Unȧs fed were snared (덫으로 잡다) by Am-kehuu, and they were examined as to their fitness (건강) and condition by Tcheser-ṭep-f, a divine being who was in later times one of the Forty-Two Judges in the Hall of Maāti, and is mentioned in the “Negative Confession” of the Book of the Dead. The gods were next bound by Her-thertu, and the god Khensu cut their throats and took out their intestines; a being called Shesemu acted as butcher (도살자) and cut them up and cooked the pieces thereof in his fiery cauldrons (가마솥). Thereupon Unås ate them, and in eating them he also ate their words of power and their spirits.

42 in Religion

  • In Japanese culture, the number 42 is considered unlucky because the numerals when pronounced separately — "shi ni" (four two) — sound like the phrase, "unto death".[128]
  • There are 42 principles of Ma'at, the Ancient Egyptian personification of physical and moral law, order, and truth. In the judgement scene described in the Egyptian and the Book of the Coming/Going Forth by Day (the Book of the Dead (which evolved from the Coffin Texts and the Pyramid Texts)), there are 42 gods and goddesses of Egypt, personifying the principles of Ma'at. These 42 correspond to the 42 Nomes (Governmental Units) of Egypt. If the departed successfully answers all 42, s/he becomes an Osiris.
  • 42 is the number with which God creates the Universe in Kabbalistic tradition. In Kabbalah, the most significant name is that of the En Sof (also known as "Ein Sof", "Infinite" or "Endless"), who is above the Sefirot (sometimes spelled "Sephirot").[129] The Forty-Two-Lettered Name contains four combined names which are spelled in Hebrew letters (spelled in letters = 42 letters), which is the name of Azilut (or "Atziluth" "Emanation"). While there are obvious links between the Forty-Two Lettered Name of the Babylonian Talmud and the Kabbalah's Forty-Two Lettered Name, they are probably not identical because of the Kabbalah's emphasis on numbers. The Kabbalah also contains a Forty-Five Lettered Name and a Seventy-Two Lettered Name.
  • The number 42 appears in various contexts in Christianity. There are 42 generations (names) in the Gospel of Matthew's version of the Genealogy of Jesus; it is prophesied that for 42 months the Beast will hold dominion over the Earth (Revelation 13:5); 42 men of Beth-azmaveth were counted in the census of men of Israel upon return from exile (Ezra 2:24); God sent bears to maul 42 of the teenage boys who mocked Elisha for his baldness (2 Kings 2:23), etc.
  • In Judaism, the number (in the Babylonian Talmud, compiled 375 AD to 499 AD) of the "Forty-Two Lettered Name" ascribed to God. Rab (or Rabhs), a 3rd-century source in the Talmud stated "The Forty-Two Lettered Name is entrusted only to him who is pious, meek, middle-aged, free from bad temper, sober, and not insistent on his rights". [Source: Talmud Kidduschin 71a, Translated by Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein]. Maimonides felt that the original Talmudic Forty-Two Lettered Name was perhaps composed of several combined divine names [Maimonides "Moreh"]. The apparently unpronouncable Tetragrammaton provides the backdrop from the Twelve-Lettered Name and the Forty-Two Lettered Name of the Talmud.[출처 필요]
  • The Gutenberg Bible is also known as the "42-line Bible", as the book contained 42 lines per page.
  • The Forty-Two Articles (1552), largely the work of Thomas Cranmer, were intended to summarise Anglican doctrine, as it now existed under the reign of Edward VI.

Kabbalistic use

One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof ( אין סוף "Void", "Infinite" or "Endless"). The forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names אהיה יהוה אדוני הויה, that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled הא יוד הא וו‎ = 45) is the forty-five-lettered name.[모호한 표현]

The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus (14:19–21) beginning with "Vayyissa", "Vayyabo" and "Vayyet" respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the Shemhamphorasch. The kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah explains that the creation of the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred letters that form the names of God.

Maat themes found in the The Book of Going Forth by Day and on tomb inscriptions

틀:Original research

A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the "Weighing of the Heart" in the Duat using the feather of Maat as the measure in balance

One aspect of ancient Egyptian funerary literature which often is mistaken for a codified ethic of Maat is Spell (Chapter) 125 of the Book of the Dead or Papyrus of Ani (known to the ancient Egyptians as The Book of Going Forth by Day). The lines of these texts are often collectively called the "Forty-Two Declarations of Purity". These declarations varied somewhat from tomb to tomb and so cannot be considered a canonical definition of Maat. Rather, they appear to express each tomb owner's individual practices in life to please Maat, as well as words of absolution from misdeeds or mistakes, made by the tomb owner in life could be declared as not having been done, and through the power of the written word, wipe particular misdeed from the afterlife record of the deceased.

Many of the lines are similar, however, and they can help to give the student a "flavor" for the sorts of things which Maat governed — essentially everything, from the most formal to the most mundane aspects of life.

The doctrine of Maat is represented in the declarations to Rekhti-merti-f-ent-Maat and the 42 Negative Confessions listed in the Papyrus of Ani. The following are taken from public domain translations made by E. A. Wallis Budge in the early part of the 20th century; more recent translations may differ in the light of modern scholarship.

42 Negative Confessions (Papyrus of Ani)

  1. I have not committed sin.
  2. I have not committed robbery with violence.
  3. I have not stolen.
  4. I have not slain men and women.
  5. I have not stolen grain.
  6. I have not purloined offerings.
  7. I have not stolen the property of the god.
  8. I have not uttered lies.
  9. I have not carried away food.
  10. I have not uttered curses.
  11. I have not committed adultery, I have not lain with men.
  12. I have made none to weep.
  13. I have not eaten the heart [i.e I have not grieved uselessly, or felt remorse].
  14. I have not attacked any man.
  15. I am not a man of deceit.
  16. I have not stolen cultivated land.
  17. I have not been an eavesdropper.
  18. I have slandered [no man].
  19. I have not been angry without just cause.
  20. I have not debauched the wife of any man.
  21. I have not debauched the wife of [any] man. (repeats the previous affirmation but addressed to a different god).
  22. I have not polluted myself.
  23. I have terrorised none.
  24. I have not transgressed [the Law].
  25. I have not been wroth.
  26. I have not shut my ears to the words of truth.
  27. I have not blasphemed.
  28. I am not a man of violence.
  29. I am not a stirrer up of strife (or a disturber of the peace).
  30. I have not acted (or judged) with undue haste.
  31. I have not pried into matters.
  32. I have not multiplied my words in speaking.
  33. I have wronged none, I have done no evil.
  34. I have not worked witchcraft against the King (or blasphemed against the King).
  35. I have never stopped [the flow of] water.
  36. I have never raised my voice (spoken arrogantly, or in anger).
  37. I have not cursed (or blasphemed) God.
  38. I have not acted with evil rage.
  39. I have not stolen the bread of the gods.
  40. I have not carried away the khenfu cakes from the Spirits of the dead.
  41. I have not snatched away the bread of the child, nor treated with contempt the god of my city.
  42. I have not slain the cattle belonging to the god.[130]

Unȧs가 먹는 음식[편집]

The largest and finest of the gods he ate at daybreak (새벽, 동틀 녘), and the smaller sized ones for meals at sunset, and the smallest for his meals in the night; the old and worn-out gods he rejected entirely and used them up as fuel in his furnace. The cauldrons in which the bodies of the gods were cooked were heated by the “Great One in heaven,” who shot flame (화염을 발사하다) under those (가마솥) which contained the thighs of the oldest of the gods : and the “Perer, who is in heaven,” of Unȧs cast also into cauldrons the thighs of their women.

Unȧs의 여행[편집]

Unȧs is then said to make a journey about every part of the double sky, or double heaven, [Gods1 53], i.e., the night sky and the day sky, and also to travel about, presumably from one end to the other, through the two ȧṭebu, [Gods1 54], of Egypt, i.e., the land which lies between the mountains and the Nile on each side of the river.

gods들을 먹은 결과 Unȧs는 Great Sekhem이 됨[편집]

As a result of eating of the bodies of the gods Unȧs becomes the Great Sekhem, the Sekhem of the Sekhemu; he also becomes the Āshem of Āshem, the Great Āshem of the Āshemu.

The power which protects Unȧs and which he possesses is greater than that of all the [Page 39] sāḥu in the heavens, and he becomes the eldest of all the firstborn gods and he goes before thousands and makes offerings to hundreds [of them]; indeed, the power which has been given to him as the Great Sekhem makes him to become as the star Sahu, i.e., Orion, with the gods.

신성 문자로 쓴 aba, (kh)rp, or sekhem scepter
S42

The Sekhem-scepter is a type of ritual scepter in ancient Egypt. It is a symbol of authority and is often incorporated in names and words associated with power and control. The sekhem-scepter (symbolizing "the powerful") is related to the hrp-scepter (symbolizing "the controller") and the aba-scepter (symbolizing "the commander"), which are all represented with the same hieroglyphic symbol.[131] These scepters resembled a flat paddle on a papyrus-umble handle. Its symbolic role may have originated in Abydos as a fetish of Osiris. The shape of the scepter might have derived from professional tools.

Symbol of rank

Khasekhemwy, Pharaoh of 2nd Dynasty's serekh.

Being a symbol of power or might, the sekhem was frequently incorporated into various names, such as the king's name, Sekhemkhet, and Sekhmet, the lioness-goddess, whose name means 'she who is powerful".

After the 3rd Dynasty, the sekhem appeared in the royal names of the pharaohs, and later in the display=inlines of queens and princesses as well. When the king held a sekhem-scepter in his right hand, he would usually hold a mace or censer in the left.

From the earliest times, viziers and other officials of important rank held the sekhem, symbolizing the individual's successful life and prestigious position. Such officials were often portrayed holding the scepter in the course of performing their duties. If they held the scepter in their right hand, they would usually hold a staff in the left hand. The classic Egyptian funerary statue depicted the deceased with a staff in one hand, and the sekhem in the other. As a scepter of office, a pair of eyes were carved on the upper part of the staff.

Word "sekhem": power

Relief of the wall of Trajan representing a procession of singers and musicians in the honor of the Monthu at Medamoud.
신성 문자로 쓴 s-kh-m
"Power"
(of Harp-(music))
(procession)
O34
Aa1Z9
Aa13
Y7

The Egyptian language word S-kh-m is the word for power. A procession of a woman with a boquet of flowers, followed by a harpist, from Medamud illustrates the use of the word: "...(from) the gods, Power (of the) Harp-Music...."

Religious symbolism

Osiris was often called "the Great Sekhem" or "Foremost of Powers". Hence, the sekhem was often used as a symbol of the underworld deity. This probably led to the scepter also becoming an emblem of Anubis. The sekhem-scepter was sacred to Anubis in the temple of Hu (known as the "Enclosure of the Sekhem" (hwt-shm)). Anubis is frequently depicted in his manifestation of a reclining dog with the sekhem-scepter behind him. In such depictions, the scepter is often portrayed with an elongated head. The scepter was also associated with Khentimentiu (Chief of the Westerners), another deity who was especially associated with the royal cemetery. In this type of iconographic representation, the sekhem is often given two eyes, which were carved or painted on the scepter's upper part as a symbol indicating that it was the manifestation of divine power.

The sekhem was also utilized in temple and mortuary offering rituals. The officiant who presented the offerings often held it. In such cases the scepter was held in the right hand and was waved four or five times over the offerings while ritual recitations were being made. A gilded sekhem scepter was found in Tutankhamun's tomb. On the back of this scepter were carved five registers depicting a slaughtered bull, which may indicate that the scepter was waved five times over the offering. We are also told that, when consecrating offerings, the king used two sekhem-scepters; one for Seth, and another for Horus. Elsewhere, Horus and Seth appear as "the Two Sekhems" (shmwy).

A late variant of this type of scepter hieroglyph sometimes represented the sistrum,[131] a musical rattle that was sacred to Hathor and was carried by her priestesses. The sistrum had a metal loop with jingles mounted on a cow-goddess faced handle.

See also

피라미드 텍스트: Red & White Crowns[편집]

Unȧs can repeat his rising in the sky, for he is the Seben crown as lord of the heavens. He taketh count of the knots (or, sinews (힘줄)) and of livers, and he hath taken possession of the hearts of the gods. He hath eaten the Red Crown (즉 Deshret), he hath eaten the White Crown (즉, Hedjet), and he feedeth upon fat entrails (내장); the offerings made to him are those in whose hearts live words of power.
What the Red Crown emitteth that he hath eaten, and he flourisheth; the words of power are in his belly, and his sāhu (즉 star Sahu, Orion) is not turned away from him. He hath eaten the knowledge of every god, and his existence and the duration of his life are eternal and everlasting in any Sāḥu (즉 star Sahu, Orion) which he is pleased to make.
Whatsoever he hateth he shall never do within the limits, or, inside the borders of heaven. Behold their soul, i.e., the soul of the gods, is in Unȧs, and their spirits are with him; his food is more abundant than that of the gods, in whose bones is the flame of Unȧs. Behold their soul is with Unȧs, and their Shadows are with their Forms, or Attributes.
Unȧs is in, or with, the doubly hidden Khā gods (?) [as] a Sekhem, and having performed [all] the ordinances of the (ceremony of) ploughing (일구다) the seat of the heart of Unȧs shall be among the living upon this earth for ever and ever.”
The Red Crown
신성 문자로 쓴 Deshret
n
S3

Deshret, from ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet, the fertile Nile river basin. When combined with the Hedjet (White Crown) of Upper Egypt, it forms the Pschent (Double Crown), in ancient Egyptian called the sekhemti.

The Red Crown in Egyptian language hieroglyphs eventually was used as the vertical letter 'n' . The original language "n" hieroglyph from the Predynastic Period, and the Old Kingdom was the horizontal letter n, (N-water ripple (n hieroglyph)).

Significance

In mythology, the earth deity Geb, original ruler of Egypt, invested Horus with the rule over Lower Egypt.[132] The Egyptian pharaohs, who saw themselves as successors of Horus, wore it to symbolize their authority over Lower Egypt.[133]
Other deities wore the deshret too, or were identified with it, such as the protective serpent goddess Wadjet and the creator-goddess of Sais, Neith, who often is shown wearing the Red Crown.[134]

The Red Crown would later be combined with the White Crown of Upper Egypt to form the Double Crown, symbolizing the rule over the whole country, "The Two Lands" as the Egyptians expressed it.[135]

As concerns deshret, the Red Land which comprised the deserts and foreign lands surrounding Egypt, Seth was its lord.[136] It was considered a region of chaos, without law and full of dangers.

The word deseret, mentioned in connection with the Jaredites in the Book of Mormon, is purported to mean honeybee.[137] Most LDS scholars see the similarity of this word to deshret as evidence of a connection.[138]

Records of the Red Crown

No Red Crown has survived, and it is unknown how it was constructed and what materials were used. Copper, reeds, cloth, and leather have been suggested, but this is purely speculative.

The Red Crown frequently is mentioned in texts and depicted in reliefs and statues. An early example is the depiction of the victorious pharaoh of the South [출처 필요] wearing the deshret on the Narmer Palette. A label from the reign of Djer records a royal visit to the shrine of the Deshret which may have been located at Buto in the Nile delta.[139]

The fact that no crown has ever been found buried with any of the pharaohs, even in relatively intact tombs, might suggest that it was passed from one regent to the next, much as in present day monarchies.

Vertical "n", the Red Crown


The original letter "n" in Egyptian language hieroglyphs, was the horizontal water ripple, N-water ripple (n hieroglyph). It was used as the phonogram for 'n', as well as the preposition, "to", "for"; (many prepositions can be commonly used for any other, dependent on context). Eventually, a vertical 'n' was introduced into the language, probably for a dual reason, the beauty, or significance of the actual 'crown of a pharaoh', (note: it makes up one form of the word-phrase "Behold!" with the 'reed' hieroglyph), and the fact that the hieroglyph was in a vertical form, thus satisfying the purpose of creating the vertical hieroglyph. In running lines of text, transition to next words, or parts of sentence structures, can lie in the hieroglyph blocks, at beginning, middle, or end. The horizontal 'n' easily can be at the top, middle, or bottom of a block, leaving the remaining block space for the rest of the block. The vertical 'n' simply allows for two other possibilities.

A vertical 'n' can be used for emphasis reasons as one possibility. It could be a segue form, or could introduce, or end lines of text. The second use would simply be the complexity of the story being told, and the use of either the vertical or horizontal, as a simpler means to write with flexibility in the choice of completing, starting, or transitioning hieroglyphic blocks of text.

Deshret headdress gallery

Vertical "n" gallery

See also


  • Deshret - Red Crown of Lower Egypt
  • Hedjet - White Crown of Upper Egypt
  • Pschent - Double Crown of Lower & Upper Egypt
  • Atef - Hedjet Crown with feathers identified with Osiris
  • Khepresh - Blue or War Crown also called Royal Crown
  • Uraeus - Rearing Cobra
The Hedjet
신성 문자로 쓴 Hedjet
ḥḏt
S1

Hedjet (ḥḏt) is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt. The crown was white and, after the unification of Egypt, it was combined with the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, with the delta to form the Pschent, the Double Crown of Egypt. The symbol sometimes used for the Hedjet was the vulture goddess Nekhbet shown next to the head of the cobra goddess Wadjet, the Uraeus on the Pschent.[140]

The white crown, along with the red crown, has a long history, with each of their respective representations going back into the Predynastic Period, indicating that kingship had been the base of Egyptian society for some time. The earliest image of the Hedjet known so far is in Northern Nubia (Ta-Seti) around the Naqada II period, around 3500–3200 BCE.[141] It is possible that the "White crown clan" either migrated northward and their regalia were adopted by the southern Egyptians, or the conquering upper Egyptians took the white crown as their own as they absorbed the kingdom into the new unified state, as they later did with Lower Egypt.

Nekhbet, the tutelary goddess of Nekhebet (modern el Kab) near Hierakonpolis, was depicted as a woman, sometimes with the head of a vulture, wearing the White Crown.[142] The falcon god Horus of Hierakonpolis (Egyptian: Nekhen) was generally shown wearing a White Crown.[143] A famous depiction of the White Crown is on the Narmer Palette found at Hierakonpolis in which the king of the South wearing the hedjet is shown triumphing over his northern enemies. The kings of the united Egypt saw themselves as successors of Horus. Vases from the reign of Khasekhemwy show the king as Horus wearing the White Crown.[144]

As with the Deshret (Red Crown), none of the White Crowns has survived either, and it is hence unknown how it was constructed and what materials were used. Felt or leather have been suggested, but this is purely speculative. The fact that no crown has ever been found, even in relatively intact tombs (such as that of king Tutankhamun) might suggest that the crown was passed from one regent to the next, much as in present day monarchies.

See also

  • Atef - Hedjet Crown with feathers identified with Osiris
  • Khepresh - Blue or War Crown also called Royal Crown
  • Uraeus - Rearing Cobra

영혼의 5측면: ba · kau · khu · Sāḥu · sekhem[편집]

The last portion of the extract is of peculiar interest because it affords some insight into the beliefs which the Egyptians held about the constituent parts of the economy of the gods. We have already seen that a ba, or soul, has been assigned to Unȧs, and kau, or “doubles,” and khu, or spirits, and a Sāḥu, and a sekhem; the last two words are difficult to translate, but they are rendered with approximate correctness by “spiritual body,” and “power.”

Soul (Ba): 심장과 연결되어 있음[편집]

The soul (ba) was intimately connected with the heart, and was supposed to be gratified by offerings, which it was able to consume ;

Double (Ka): shadow와 연결되어 있음[편집]

the “double (kau)” was an integral part of a man, and was connected with his shadow, and came into being when he was born, and lived in the tomb with the body after death;

Spirit (Khu): 인간의 spiritual part의 자리[편집]

the spirit (khu) was the seat of [Page 40] the spiritual part of man, and gods and divine personages were credited with the possession of several spirits;

Spiritual body (Sāḥu): 영체[편집]

the Sāḥu, or spiritual body, was the ethereal, intangible, transparent and translucent body, which was supposed, in dynastic times at all events, to grow from the dead body, the form of which it preserved ;

Power (Sekhem): Sāḥu의 활성자[편집]

the sekhem was the “power” which seems to have animated the Sāḥu and to have made it irresistible.

The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately sum of bodily parts). The other souls were aakhu, khaibut, and khat.

Ib (heart)

신성 문자로 쓴 jb (F34) "heart"
F34

An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the Ib (jb), or heart. The Ib[145] or metaphysical heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception.[146]

To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab.

In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit.

Sheut (shadow)

A person's shadow, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present. Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.

The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black.

Ren (name)

As a part of the soul, a person's ren (rn 'name') was given to them at birth and the Egyptians believed that it would live for as long as that name was spoken, which explains why efforts were made to protect it and the practice of placing it in numerous writings. For example, part of the Book of Breathings, a derivative of the Book of the Dead, was a means to ensure the survival of the name. A cartouche (magical rope) often was used to surround the name and protect it. Conversely, the names of deceased enemies of the state, such as Akhenaten, were hacked out of monuments in a form of damnatio memoriae. Sometimes, however, they were removed in order to make room for the economical insertion of the name of a successor, without having to build another monument. The greater the number of places a name was used, the greater the possibility it would survive to be read and spoken.

Ba

Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head.
This golden Ba amulet from the Ptolemaic period would have been worn as an apotropaic device. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
신성 문자로 쓴 bꜣ (G29)
G29
신성 문자로 쓴 bꜣ (G53)
G53

The 'Ba' (bꜣ) was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of 'personality'. (In this sense, inanimate objects could also have a 'Ba', a unique character, and indeed Old Kingdom pyramids often were called the 'Ba' of their owner). The 'Ba' is an aspect of a person that the Egyptians believed would live after the body died, and it is sometimes depicted as a human-headed bird flying out of the tomb to join with the 'Ka' in the afterlife.

In the Coffin Texts one form of the Ba that comes into existence after death is corporeal, eating, drinking and copulating. Louis Žabkar argued that the Ba is not part of the person but is the person himself, unlike the soul in Greek, or late Judaic, Christian or Muslim thought. The idea of a purely immaterial existence was so foreign to Egyptian thought that when Christianity spread in Egypt they borrowed the Greek word psyche to describe the concept of soul and not the term Ba. Žabkar concludes that so particular was the concept of Ba to ancient Egyptian thought that it ought not to be translated but instead the concept be footnoted or parenthetically explained as one of the modes of existence for a person.[147]

In another mode of existence the Ba of the deceased is depicted in the Book of Going Forth by Day returning to the mummy and participating in life outside the tomb in non-corporeal form, echoing the solar theology of Re (or Ra) uniting with Osiris each night.[148]

The word 'bau' (bꜣw), plural of the word ba, meant something similar to 'impressiveness', 'power', and 'reputation', particularly of a deity. When a deity intervened in human affairs, it was said that the 'Bau' of the deity were at work [Borghouts 1982]. In this regard, the ruler was regarded as a 'Ba' of a deity, or one deity was believed to be the 'Ba' of another.

Ka

신성 문자로 쓴 kꜣ (D28)
D28

The Ka (kꜣ) was the Egyptian concept of vital essence, that which distinguishes the difference between a living and a dead person, with death occurring when the ka left the body. The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies. Depending on the region, Egyptians believed that Heket or Meskhenet was the creator of each person's Ka, breathing it into them at the instant of their birth as the part of their soul that made them be alive. This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions.

The Egyptians also believed that the ka was sustained through food and drink. For this reason food and drink offerings were presented to the dead, although it was the kau (kꜣw) within the offerings that was consumed, not the physical aspect. The ka was often represented in Egyptian iconography as a second image of the king, leading earlier works to attempt to translate ka as double.

Akh

Akh glyph

The Akh (Ꜣḫ meaning '(magically) effective one'),[149] was a concept of the dead that varied over the long history of ancient Egyptian belief.

It was associated with thought, but not as an action of the mind; rather, it was intellect as a living entity. The Akh also played a role in the afterlife. Following the death of the Khat, the Ba and Ka were reunited to reanimate the Akh.[150] The reanimation of the Akh was only possible if the proper funeral rites were executed and followed by constant offerings. The ritual was termed: se-akh 'to make (a dead person) into an (living) akh.' In this sense, it even developed into a sort of ghost or roaming 'dead being' (when the tomb was not in order any more) during the Ramesside Period. An Akh could do either harm or good to persons still living, depending on the circumstances, causing e.g., nightmares, feelings of guilt, sickness, etc. It could be evoked by prayers or written letters left in the tomb's offering chapel also in order to help living family members, e.g., by intervening in disputes, by making an appeal to other dead persons or deities with any authority to influence things on earth for the better, but also to inflict punishments.

The separation of Akh and the unification of Ka and Ba were brought about after death by having the proper offerings made and knowing the proper, efficacious spell, but there was an attendant risk of dying again. Egyptian funerary literature (such as the Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead) were intended to aid the deceased in "not dying a second time" and becoming an akh.

Relationships

Ancient Egyptians believed that death occurs when a person's ka leaves the body. Ceremonies conducted by priests after death, including the "opening of the mouth (wp r)", aimed not only to restore a person's physical abilities in death, but also to release a Ba's attachment to the body. This allowed the Ba to be united with the Ka in the afterlife, creating an entity known as an "Akh" (ꜣḫ, meaning "effective one").

Egyptians conceived of an afterlife as quite similar to normal physical existence — but with a difference. The model for this new existence was the journey of the Sun. At night the Sun descended into the Duat (the underworld). Eventually the Sun meets the body of the mummified Osiris. Osiris and the Sun, re-energized by each other, rise to new life for another day. For the deceased, their body and their tomb were their personal Osiris and a personal Duat. For this reason they are often addressed as "Osiris". For this process to work, some sort of bodily preservation was required, to allow the Ba to return during the night, and to rise to new life in the morning. However, the complete Akhu were also thought to appear as stars.[151] Until the Late Period, non-royal Egyptians did not expect to unite with the Sun deity, it being reserved for the royals.[152]

The Book of the Dead, the collection of spells which aided a person in the afterlife, had the Egyptian name of the Book of going forth by day. They helped people avoid the perils of the afterlife and also aided their existence, containing spells to assure "not dying a second time in the underworld", and to "grant memory always" to a person. In the Egyptian religion it was possible to die in the afterlife and this death was permanent.

The tomb of Paheri, an Eighteenth dynasty nomarch of Nekhen, has an eloquent description of this existence, and is translated by James P. Allen as:

Your life happening again, without your ba being kept away from your divine corpse, with your ba being together with the akh ... You shall emerge each day and return each evening. A lamp will be lit for you in the night until the sunlight shines forth on your breast. You shall be told: "Welcome, welcome, into this your house of the living!"

See also

References

Further reading

  • Allen, James Paul. 2001. "Ba". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 1 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 161–162.
  • Allen, James P. 2000. "Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs", Cambridge University Press.
  • Borghouts, Joris Frans. 1982. "Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and Its Manifestation (b3w)". In Gleanings from Deir el-Medîna, edited by Robert Johannes Demarée and Jacobus Johannes Janssen. Egyptologische Uitgaven 1. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. 1–70.
  • Borioni, Giacomo C. 2005. "Der Ka aus religionswissenschaftlicher Sicht", Veröffentlichungen der Institute für Afrikanistik und Ägyptologie der Universität Wien.
  • Burroughs, William S. 1987. "The Western Lands", Viking Press. (fiction).
  • Friedman, Florence Margaret Dunn. 1981. On the Meaning of Akh (3ḫ) in Egyptian Mortuary Texts. Doctoral dissertation; Waltham: Brandeis University, Department of Classical and Oriental Studies.
  • ———. 2001. "Akh". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 1 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 47–48.
  • Jaynes, Julian. 1976. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, Princeton University.
  • Žabkar, Louis Vico. 1968. A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 34. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Unȧs, The Āshem Of The Āshemu[편집]

이집트인들은 신들에게 자신의 이미지를 부여했다[편집]

From the extract given above from the text of Unȧs we learn that the gods were composed of all these various parts, and that in fact their economy resembled that of man; in other words, the Egyptians made their gods in their own image, only they attributed to them superhuman powers.

meket (Meskhenet, magical protection)와 ḥekau (Heqet, words of power)[편집]

The gods, however, preserved their existence by means of a magical protection which they enjoyed, meket (magical protection, 네쉐마, khu), [Gods1 55], and also by ḥekau (words of power, 루아크, ba), [Gods1 56], which is commonly translated “words of power” ; the aim of every Egyptian was to obtain possession of both the magical protection (meket) and the words of power (ḥekau), for they thought that if they once were masters of these they would be able to live like the gods.

Meskhenet
Meskhenet standing.svg
Meskhenet as a woman with a symbolic cow's uterus on her head
Goddess of childbirth
Symbol Cow's uterus
Consort Andjety

In Ancient Egyptian mythology, Meskhenet, (also spelt Mesenet, Meskhent, and Meshkent) was the goddess of childbirth, and the creator of each child's Ka, a part of their soul, which she breathed into them at the moment of birth. She was worshipped from the earliest of times by Egyptians.

In mythology

In ancient Egypt, women delivered babies while squatting on a pair of bricks, known as birth bricks, and Meskhenet was the goddess associated with this form of delivery. Consequently, in art, she was sometimes depicted as a brick with a woman's head, wearing a cow's uterus upon it. At other times she was depicted as a woman with a symbolic cow's uterus on her headdress.[153]

Since she was responsible for creating the Ka, she was associated with fate. Thus later she was sometimes said to be paired with Shai, who became a god of destiny after the deity evolved out of an abstract concept.[153]

Meskhenet features prominently in the last of the folktales in the Westcar Papyrus. The story tells of the birth of Userkaf, Sahure, and Neferirkare Kakai, the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty, who in the story are said to be triplets. Just after each child is born, Meskhenet appears and prophesies that he will become king of Egypt.[154]

Gallery

See also

신성 문자로 쓴 Heqet
Hq
t
I7

To the Egyptians, the frog was a symbol of life and fertility, since millions of them were born after the annual inundation of the Nile, which brought fertility to the otherwise barren lands. Consequently, in Egyptian mythology, there began to be a frog-goddess, who represented fertility, referred to by Egyptologists as Heqet (also Heqat, Hekit, Heket etc., more rarely Hegit, Heget etc.),[155] written with the determinative frog.[156]

Name and depiction

Her name was probably pronounced more like

  • Ḥaqā́tat in Middle Egyptian, hence her later Greek counterpart Ἑκάτη (see Hecate).[157] Heqet was usually depicted as a frog, or a woman with a frog's head, or more rarely as a frog on the end of a phallus to explicitly indicate her association with fertility. She was often referred to as the wife of Khnum.[158]

Worship of Heqet

The god Khnum, accompanied by Heqet, moulds Ihy in a relief from the mammisi (birth temple) at Dendera Temple complex, Dendara, Egypt

The beginning of her cult dates to the early dynastic period at least. Her name was part of the names of some high-born Second Dynasty individuals buried at Helwan and was mentioned on a stela of Wepemnofret and in the Pyramid Texts. Early frog statuettes are often thought to be depictions of her.[159]

Later, as a fertility goddess, associated explicitly with the last stages of the flooding of the Nile, and so with the germination of corn, she became associated with the final stages of childbirth. This association, which appears to have arisen during the Middle Kingdom, gained her the title She who hastens the birth.[160] Some claim that—even though no ancient Egyptian term for "midwife" is known for certain—midwives often called themselves the Servants of Heqet, and that her priestesses were trained in midwifery.[161] Women often wore amulets of her during childbirth, which depicted Heqet as a frog, sitting in a lotus.

Heqet was considered the wife of Khnum, who formed the bodies of new children on his potter's wheel.[162]

In the myth of Osiris developed, it was said that it was Heqet who breathed life into the new body of Horus at birth, as she was the goddess of the last moments of birth. As the birth of Horus became more intimately associated with the resurrection of Osiris, so Heqet's role became one more closely associated with resurrection. Eventually, this association led to her amulets gaining the phrase I am the resurrection, and consequently the amulets were used by early Christians.[163]

Great Power 또는 Power of Powers 또는 Āshem of Ashem: 신의 힘과 불멸성을 얻는 방법은 신을 먹는 것이라고 생각함[편집]

In the earliest times in Egypt men thought that the only way to obtain the strength and immortality of the gods was to eat the gods themselves, and so we read that Unȧs, having eaten parts of the boiled bodies of the gods,

“hath eaten their words of power (ḥeka (words of power, 루아크, ba)), and swallowed their spirits (khu (mental soul, 네쉐마)).”

As a result of this he becomes the “Great Power,” the “Power of Powers,” i.e., the greatest Power in heaven. He becomes also the Āshem of Ashem, the great Āshem of the Āshemu, that is to say, the very essence of Āshem, and the greatest powers of the Āshemu beings are enshrined (소중히 간직하다[모시다]) within him because he has within him the spirits (khu, mental soul, 네쉐마) and the words of power (ḥekau, 루아크, ba) of the gods.

Āshem과 그 복수형 Āshemu의 뜻: 한정사 hawk[편집]

But what is the meaning of Āshem? In the text of Tetȧ the word has for its determinative (한정사, 결정사) a hawk perched upon a standard, [Gods1 57], which shows that it has some meaning connected with deity or divinity, but it cannot be the name of one divine being only, for we find it in the plural form Āshemu, [Gods1 58]. The determinative, however, does not help us very much, for it proves little more than that some attribute of the Hawk-god Ḥeru was ascribed to the Āshemu; the hawk was undoubtedly the first [Page 41] creature worshipped by the predynastic Egyptians, and [Gods1 59] became in consequence the common determinative of all words implying the idea of deity or divinity, and of the proper names of the gods in a very large number of passages in the hieroglyphic texts inscribed on the walls of the chambers and corridors in the pyramids at Ṣaḳḳâra.

The common name for “god,” as we have already seen, is “neter,” [Gods1 60], or [Gods1 61], with the plural “neteru,” [Gods1 62], or [Gods1 63], or [Gods1 64], or [Gods1 65], but we find that the male gods are some times called “hawks,” [Gods1 66], even when the female gods are called “netert,” [Gods1 67],30) In the Book of the Dead31) the word Āshemu is written [Gods1 68], which may be translated by “divine Āshemu,” and as the first determinative is a squatting (웅크린 상태) hawk, we may assume that the word āshemu means “hawks.”32)

30) See the text of Unȧs, line 209 ; in the text of Tetȧ, line 197, the gods are described as “male and female,”.

31) See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, Text, p. 128, 1. 14.

32) A variant form of the word is ȧkhem , and Brugsch (Wörterbuch, Suppl., p. 279) renders it by “the symbol, or visible form of a god.”

Āshem of Āshem, Great Āshem of the Āshemu의 뜻: the spirit of that which is above[편집]

If this assumption be correct,

“Āshem of Āshem, Great Āshem of the Āshemu,”

means

“Hawk of Hawk, the Great Hawk of the Hawks,”

and since the hawk was not only a god to the predynastic Egyptians, but their oldest and greatest god, being in fact the spirit of that which is above, i.e., heaven, the passage

“Āshem of Āshem, Great Āshem of the Āshemu,”

may very well be rendered

“god of god, great god of the gods.”

Power of God, Firstborn of the gods, Great Sekhem: 상징물은 Saḥ or Orion[편집]

Thus with the words of power (ḥekau, 루아크, ba) and the spirits (khu, mental soul, 네쉐마) of the gods in him Unȧs becomes the habitation (거주지) of the power of God, and the firstborn of the gods. He is now able to go round about heaven at pleasure, and as the Great Sekhem, or Power, his visible emblem is Saḥ or Orion, and he is able to repeat his rising [daily] in heaven like this constellation. It is not improbable that the identification of Orion with kings who had eaten the gods filtered (새어[스며] 들어오다) down in tradition to the Semitic people who lived in the Delta in dynastic times, and so became the base of the legends about Orion which are found among the Arabs and Hebrews.

An engraving of Orion from Johann Bayer's Uranometria, 1603 (US Naval Observatory Library)

Orion (Ὠρίων[164] or Ὠαρίων, Latin: Orion[165]) was a giant huntsman in Greek mythology whom Zeus placed among the stars as the constellation of Orion.

There are two major versions of his birth and several versions of his death. The most important recorded episodes are his birth somewhere in Boeotia, his visit to Chios where he met Merope and was blinded by her father, Oenopion, the recovery of his sight at Lemnos, his hunting with Artemis on Crete, his death by the bow of Artemis or the sting of the giant scorpion which became Scorpio, and his elevation to the heavens. Most ancient sources omit some of these episodes and several tell only one. These various incidents may originally have been independent, unrelated stories and it is unknown whether omissions are simple brevity or represent a real disagreement.

In Greek literature he first appears as a great hunter in Homer's epic the Odyssey, where Odysseus sees his shade in the underworld. The bare bones of his story are told by the Hellenistic and Roman collectors of myths, but there is no extant literary version of his adventures comparable, for example, to that of Jason in Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica or Euripides' Medea; the entry in Ovid's Fasti for May 11 is a poem on the birth of Orion, but that is one version of a single story. The surviving fragments of legend have provided a fertile field for speculation about Greek prehistory and myth.

Orion served several roles in ancient Greek culture. The story of the adventures of Orion, the hunter, is the one on which we have the most evidence (and even on that not very much); he is also the personification of the constellation of the same name; he was venerated as a hero, in the Greek sense, in the region of Boeotia; and there is one etiological passage which says that Orion was responsible for the present shape of the Straits of Sicily.

Legends

Homer and Hesiod

Orion is mentioned in the oldest surviving works of Greek literature, which probably date back to the 7th or 8th century BC, but which are the products of an oral tradition with origins several centuries earlier. In Homer's Iliad Orion is described as a constellation, and the star Sirius is mentioned as his dog.[166] In the Odyssey, Odysseus sees him hunting in the underworld with a bronze club, a great slayer of animals; he is also mentioned as a constellation, as the lover of the Goddess Dawn, as slain by Artemis, and as the most handsome of the earthborn.[167] In the Works and Days of Hesiod, Orion is also a constellation, one whose rising and setting with the sun is used to reckon the year.[168]

Daniel Seiter's 1685 painting of Diana over Orion's corpse, before he is placed in the heavens

The legend of Orion was first told in full in a lost work by Hesiod, probably the Astronomia; simple references to Hesiod will refer to this, unless otherwise stated. This version is known through the work of a Hellenistic author on the constellations; he gives a fairly long summary of Hesiod's discourse on Orion.[169] According to this version, Orion was likely the son of the sea-god Poseidon and Euryale,[170] daughter of Minos, King of Crete. Orion could walk on the waves because of his father; he walked to the island of Chios where he got drunk and attacked Merope,[171] daughter of Oenopion, the ruler there. In vengeance, Oenopion blinded Orion and drove him away. Orion stumbled to Lemnos where Hephaestus — the lame smith-god — had his forge. Hephaestus told his servant, Cedalion, to guide Orion to the uttermost East where Helios, the Sun, healed him; Orion carried Cedalion around on his shoulders. Orion returned to Chios to punish Oenopion, but the king hid away underground and escaped Orion's wrath. Orion's next journey took him to Crete where he hunted with the goddess Artemis and her mother Leto, and in the course of the hunt, threatened to kill every beast on Earth. Mother Earth objected and sent a giant scorpion to kill Orion. The creature succeeded, and after his death, the goddesses asked Zeus to place Orion among the constellations. Zeus consented and, as a memorial to the hero's death, added the Scorpion to the heavens as well.[172]

Other sources

Although Orion has a few lines in both Homeric poems and in the Works and Days, most of the stories about him are recorded in incidental allusions and in fairly obscure later writings. No great poet standardized the legend.[173] The ancient sources for Orion's legend are mostly notes in the margins of ancient poets (scholia) or compilations by later scholars, the equivalent of modern reference works or encyclopedias; even the legend from Hesiod's Astronomy survives only in one such compilation. In several cases, including the summary of the Astronomy, although the surviving work bears the name of a famous scholar, such as Apollodorus of Athens, Eratosthenes, or Gaius Julius Hyginus, what survives is either an ancient forgery or an abridgement of the original compilation by a later writer of dubious competence; editors of these texts suggest that they may have borne the names of great scholars because they were abridgments, or even pupil's notes, based on the works of the scholars.[174]

The margin of the Empress Eudocia's copy of the Iliad has a note summarizing a Hellenistic poet[175] who tells a different story of Orion's birth. Here the gods Zeus, Hermes and Poseidon come to visit Hyrieus of Tanagra, who roasts a whole bull for them.[176] When they offer him a favor, he asks for the birth of sons. The gods take the bull's hide and ejaculate or urinate into it[177] and bury it in the earth, then tell him to dig it up ten months[178] later. When he does, he finds Orion; this explains why Orion is earthborn.[179]

A second full telling (even shorter than the summary of Hesiod) is in a Roman-era collection of myths; the account of Orion is based largely on the mythologist and poet Pherecydes of Leros. Here Orion is described as earthborn and enormous in stature. This version also mentions Poseidon and Euryale as his parents. It adds a first marriage to Side before his marriage to Merope. All that is known about Side is that Hera threw her into Hades for rivalling her in beauty. It also gives a different version of Orion's death than the Odyssey: Eos, the Dawn, fell in love with Orion and took him to Delos where Artemis killed him.[180]

Another narrative on the constellations, three paragraphs long, is from a Latin writer whose brief notes have come down to us under the name of Hyginus.[181] It begins with the oxhide story of Orion's birth, which this source ascribes to Callimachus and Aristomachus, and sets the location at Thebes or Chios.[182] Hyginus has two versions. In one of them he omits Poseidon;[183] a modern critic suggests this is the original version.[184]

The same source tells two stories of the death of Orion. The first says that because of his "living joined in too great a friendship" with Oenopion, he boasted to Artemis and Leto that he could kill anything which came from Earth. Earth objected and created the Scorpion.[185] In the second story, Apollo objected to his sister Artemis's love for Orion, and, seeing Orion swimming with just his head visible, challenged her to shoot at that mark, which she hit, killing him.[186] He connects Orion with several constellations, not just Scorpio. Orion chased Pleione, the mother of the Pleiades, for seven years, until Zeus intervened and raised all of them to the stars.[187] In Works and Days, Orion chases the Pleiades themselves. Canis Minor and Canis Major are his dogs, the one in front is called Procyon. They chase Lepus, the hare, although Hyginus says some critics thought this too base a prey for the noble Orion and have him pursuing Taurus, the bull, instead.[188] A Renaissance mythographer adds other names for Orion's dogs: Leucomelaena, Maera, Dromis, Cisseta, Lampuris, Lycoctonus, Ptoophagus, Arctophonus.[189]

Variants

There are numerous variants in other authors. Most of these are incidental references in poems and scholiasts. The Roman poet Vergil shows Orion as a giant wading through the Aegean Sea with the waves breaking against his shoulders; rather than, as the mythographers have it, walking on the water.[190] There are several references to Hyrieus as the father of Orion that connect him to various places in Boeotia, including Hyria; this may well be the original story (although not the first attested), since Hyrieus is presumably the eponym of Hyria. He is also called Oeneus, although he is not the Calydonian Oeneus.[191] Other ancient scholia say, as Hesiod does, that Orion was the son of Poseidon and his mother was a daughter of Minos; but they call the daughter Brylle or Hyeles.[192] There are two versions where Artemis killed Orion, either with her arrows or by producing the Scorpion. In the second variant, Orion died of the Scorpion's sting as he does in Hesiod. Although Orion does not defeat the Scorpion in any version, several variants have it die from its wounds. Artemis is given various motives. One is that Orion boasted of his beast-killing and challenged her to a contest with the discus. Another is that he assaulted either Artemis or the Hyperborean maiden Opis in her band of huntresses.[193] Aratus's brief description, in his Astronomy, conflates the elements of the myth: according to Aratus, Orion attacks Artemis while hunting on Chios, and the Scorpion kills him there.[194] Nicander, in his Theriaca, has the scorpion of ordinary size and hiding under a small (oligos) stone.[195] Most versions of the story that continue after Orion's death tell of the gods raising Orion and the Scorpion to the stars, but even here a variant exists: Ancient poets differed greatly as to who Aesculapius brought back from the dead;[196] the Argive epic poet Telesarchus is quoted as saying in a scholion that Aesculapius resurrected Orion.[197] Other ancient authorities are quoted anonymously that Aesculapius healed Orion after he was blinded by Oenopion.[198]

The story of Orion and Oenopion also varies. One source refers to Merope as the wife of Oenopion and not his daughter. Another refers to Merope as the daughter of Minos and not of Oenopion.[199] The longest version (a page in the Loeb) is from a collection of melodramatic plots drawn up by an Alexandrian poet for the Roman Cornelius Gallus to make into Latin verse.[200] It describes Orion as slaying the wild beasts of Chios and looting the other inhabitants to make a bride-price for Oenopion's daughter, who is called Aëro or Leiro.[201] Oenopion does not want to marry her to someone like Orion, and eventually Orion, in frustration, breaks into her bedchamber and rapes her. The text implies that Oenopion blinds him on the spot.

Johannes Hevelius drew the Orion constellation in Uranographia, his celestial catalogue in 1690
Lucian includes a picture with Orion in a rhetorical description of an ideal building, in which Orion is walking into the rising sun with Lemnos nearby, Cedalion on his shoulder. He recovers his sight there with Hephaestus still watching in the background.[202]

The next picture deals with the ancient story of Orion. He is blind, and on his shoulder carries Cedalion, who directs the sightless eyes towards the East. The rising Sun heals his infirmity; and there stands Hephaestus on Lemnos, watching the cure.[203]

Latin sources add that Oenopion was the son of Dionysus. Dionysus sent satyrs to put Orion into a deep sleep so he could be blinded. One source tells the same story but converts Oenopion into Minos of Crete. It adds that an oracle told Orion that his sight could be restored by walking eastward and that he found his way by hearing the Cyclops' hammer, placing a Cyclops as a guide on his shoulder; it does not mention Cabeiri or Lemnos—this is presumably the story of Cedalion recast. Both Hephaestus and the Cyclopes were said to make thunderbolts; they are combined in other sources.[204] One scholion, on a Latin poem, explains that Hephaestus gave Orion a horse.[205]

Giovanni Boccaccio cites a lost Latin writer for the story that Orion and Candiope were son and daughter of Oenopion, king of Sicily. While the virgin huntsman Orion was sleeping in a cave, Venus seduced him; as he left the cave, he saw his sister shining as she crossed in front of it. He ravished her; when his father heard of this, he banished Orion. Orion consulted an oracle, which told him that if he went east, he would regain the glory of kingship. Orion, Candiope, and their son Hippologus sailed to Thrace, "a province eastward from Sicily". There he conquered the inhabitants, and became known as the son of Neptune. His son begat the Dryas mentioned in Statius.[206]

Cult and popular appreciation

In Ancient Greece, Orion had a hero cult in the region of Boeotia. The number of places associated with his birth suggest that it was widespread.[207] Hyria, the most frequently mentioned, was in the territory of Tanagra. A feast of Orion was held at Tanagra as late as the Roman Empire.[208] They had a tomb of Orion[209] most likely at the foot of Mount Cerycius (now Mount Tanagra).[210][211] Maurice Bowra argues that Orion was a national hero of the Boeotians, much as Castor and Pollux were for the Dorians.[212] He bases this claim on the Athenian epigram on the Battle of Coronea in which a hero gave the Boeotian army an oracle, then fought on their side and defeated the Athenians.

The Boeotian school of epic poetry was chiefly concerned with the genealogies of the gods and heroes; later writers elaborated this web.[213] Several other myths are attached to Orion in this way: A papyrus fragment of the Boeotian poet Corinna gives Orion fifty sons (a traditional number). This included the oracular hero Acraephen, who, she sings, gave a response to Asopus regarding Asopus' daughters who were abducted by the gods. Corinna sang of Orion conquering and naming all the land of the dawn.[214] Bowra argues that Orion was believed to have delivered oracles as well, probably at a different shrine.[215][216] Hyginus says that Hylas's mother was Menodice, daughter of Orion.[217] Another mythographer, Liberalis, tells of Menippe and Metioche, daughters of Orion, who sacrificed themselves for their country's good and were transformed into comets.[218]

The Fountain of Orion, in Messina, Italy

Orion also has etiological connection to the city of Messina in Sicily. Diodorus of Sicily wrote a history of the world up to his own time (the beginning of the reign of Augustus). He starts with the gods and the heroes. At the end of this part of the work, he tells the story of Orion and two wonder-stories of his mighty earth-works in Sicily. One tells how he aided Zanclus, the founder of Zancle (the former name for Messina), by building the promontory which forms the harbor.[219] The other, which Diodorus ascribes to Hesiod, relates that there was once a broad sea between Sicily and the mainland. Orion built the whole Peloris, the Punta del Faro, and the temple to Poseidon at the tip, after which he settled in Euboea. He was then "numbered among the stars of heaven and thus won for himself immortal remembrance".[220] The Renaissance historian and mathematician Francesco Maurolico, who came from Messina, identified the remains of a temple of Orion near the present Messina Cathedral.[221] Maurolico also designed an ornate fountain, built by the sculptor Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli in 1547, in which Orion is a central figure, symbolizing the Emperor Charles V, also a master of the sea and restorer of Messina;[222] Orion is still a popular symbol of the city.

Images of Orion in classical art are difficult to recognize, and clear examples are rare. There are several ancient Greek images of club-carrying hunters that could represent Orion,[223] but such generic examples could equally represent an archetypal "hunter", or indeed Heracles.[224] Some claims have been made that other Greek art represents specific aspects of the Orion myth. A tradition of this type has been discerned in 5th century BC Greek potteryJohn Beazley identified a scene of Apollo, Delian palm in hand, revenging Orion for the attempted rape of Artemis, while another scholar has identified a scene of Orion attacking Artemis as she is revenged by a snake (a counterpart to the scorpion) in a funerary group—supposedly symbolizing the hope that even the criminal Orion could be made immortal, as well as an astronomical scene in which Cephalus is thought to stand in for Orion and his constellation, also reflecting this system of iconography.[225] Also, a tomb frieze in Taranto (ca. 300 BC) may show Orion attacking Opis.[226] But the earliest surviving clear depiction of Orion in classical art is Roman, from the depictions of the Underworld scenes of the Odyssey discovered at the Esquiline Hill (50–40 BC). Orion is also seen on a 4th-century bas-relief,[227] currently affixed to a wall in the Porto neighborhood of Naples. The constellation Orion rises in November, the end of the sailing season, and was associated with stormy weather,[228] and this characterization extended to the mythical Orion—the bas-relief may be associated with the sailors of the city.

Interpretations

Renaissance

Apollo, Vulcan and Mercury conceive Orion in an allegory of the three-fathered "philosophical child". The artist stands at the left; Mars at right. Published in 1617.

Mythographers have discussed Orion at least since the Renaissance of classical learning; the Renaissance interpretations were allegorical. In the 14th century, Boccaccio interpreted the oxhide story as representing human conception; the hide is the womb, Neptune the moisture of semen, Jupiter its heat, and Mercury the female coldness; he also explained Orion's death at the hands of the moon-goddess as the Moon producing winter storms.[229] The 16th-century Italian mythographer Natalis Comes interpreted the whole story of Orion as an allegory of the evolution of a storm cloud: Begotten by air (Zeus), water (Poseidon), and the sun (Apollo), a storm cloud is diffused (Chios, which Comes derives from χέω, "pour out"), rises though the upper air (Aërope, as Comes spells Merope), chills (is blinded), and is turned into rain by the moon (Artemis). He also explains how Orion walked on the sea: "Since the subtler part of the water which is rarefied rests on the surface, it is said that Orion learned from his father how to walk on water."[230] Similarly, Orion's conception made him a symbol of the philosophical child, an allegory of philosophy springing from multiple sources, in the Renaissance as in alchemical works, with some variations. The 16th-century German alchemist Michael Maier lists the fathers as Apollo, Vulcan and Mercury,[231] and the 18th-century French alchemist Antoine-Joseph Pernety gave them as Jupiter, Neptune and Mercury.[232]

Modern

Modern mythographers have seen the story of Orion as a way to access local folk tales and cultic practices directly without the interference of ancient high culture;[모호한 표현][233] several of them have explained Orion, each through his own interpretation of Greek prehistory and of how Greek mythology represents it. There are some points of general agreement between them: for example, that the attack on Opis is an attack on Artemis, for Opis is one of the names of Artemis.[234]

There was a movement in the late nineteenth century to interpret all the Boeotian heroes as merely personifications of the constellations;[235] there has since come to be wide agreement since that the myth of Orion existed before there was a constellation named for him. Homer, for example, mentions Orion, the Hunter, and Orion, the constellation, but never confuses the two.[236] Once Orion was recognized as a constellation, astronomy in turn affected the myth. The story of Side may well be a piece of astronomical mythology. The Greek word side means pomegranate, which bears fruit while Orion, the constellation, can be seen in the night sky.[237] Rose suggests she is connected with Sidae in Boeotia, and that the pomegranate, as a sign of the Underworld, is connected with her descent there.[238]

The 19th-century German classical scholar Erwin Rohde viewed Orion as an example of the Greeks erasing the line between the gods and mankind. That is, if Orion was in the heavens, other mortals could hope to be also.[239]

The Hungarian mythographer Karl Kerényi, one of the founders of the modern study of Greek mythology, wrote about Orion in Gods of the Greeks (1951). Kerényi portrays Orion as a giant of Titanic vigor and criminality, born outside his mother as were Tityos or Dionysus.[240] Kerényi places great stress on the variant in which Merope is the wife of Oenopion. He sees this as the remnant of a lost form of the myth in which Merope was Orion's mother (converted by later generations to his stepmother and then to the present forms). Orion's blinding is therefore parallel to that of Aegypius and Oedipus.

In Dionysus (1976), Kerényi portrays Orion as a shamanic hunting hero, surviving from Minoan times (hence his association with Crete). Kerényi derives Hyrieus (and Hyria) from the Cretan dialect word ὕρον - hyron, meaning "beehive", which survives only in ancient dictionaries. From this association he turns Orion into a representative of the old mead-drinking cultures, overcome by the wine masters Oenopion and Oeneus. (The Greek for "wine" is oinos.) Fontenrose cites a source stating that Oenopion taught the Chians how to make wine before anybody else knew how.[241]

Joseph Fontenrose wrote Orion : the Myth of the Hunter and the Huntress (1981) to show Orion as the type specimen of a variety of grotesque hero. Fontenrose views him as similar to Cúchulainn, that is, stronger, larger, and more potent than ordinary men and the violent lover of the Divine Huntress; other heroes of the same type are Actaeon, Leucippus (son of Oenomaus), Cephalus, Teiresias, and Zeus as the lover of Callisto. Fontenrose also sees Eastern parallels in the figures of Aqhat, Attis, Dumuzi, Gilgamesh, Dushyanta, and Prajapati (as pursuer of Ushas).

In The Greek Myths (1955), Robert Graves views Oenopion as his perennial Year-King, at the stage where the king pretends to die at the end of his term and appoints a substitute, in this case Orion, who actually dies in his place. His blindness is iconotropy from a picture of Odysseus blinding the Cyclops, mixed with a purely Hellenic solar legend: the Sun-hero is captured and blinded by his enemies at dusk, but escapes and regains his sight at dawn, when all beasts flee him. Graves sees the rest of the myth as a syncretism of diverse stories. These include Gilgamesh and the Scorpion-Men, Set becoming a scorpion to kill Horus and the story of Aqhat and Yatpan from Ras Shamra, as well as a conjectural story of how the priestesses of Artemis Opis killed a visitor to their island of Ortygia. He compares Orion's birth from the bull's hide to a West African rainmaking charm and claims that the son of Poseidon should be a rainmaker.[242]

Cultural references

The ancient Greek and Roman sources which tell more about Orion than his being a gigantic huntsman are mostly both dry and obscure, but poets do write of him: The brief passages in Aratus and Vergil are mentioned above. Pindar celebrates the pancratist Melissus of Thebes "who was not granted the build of an Orion", but whose strength was still great.[243]

Cicero translated Aratus in his youth; he made the Orion episode half again longer than it was in the Greek, adding the traditional Latin topos of madness to Aratus's text. Cicero's Aratea is one of the oldest Latin poems to come down to us as more than isolated lines; this episode may have established the technique of including epyllia in non-epic poems.[244]

Orion is used by Horace, who tells of his death at the hands of Diana/Artemis,[245] and by Ovid, in his Fasti for May 11, the middle day of the Lemuria, when (in Ovid's time) the constellation Orion set with the sun.[246] Ovid's episode tells the story of Hyrieus and the three gods, although Ovid is bashful about the climax; Ovid makes Hyrieus a poor man, which means the sacrifice of an entire ox is more generous. There is also a single mention of Orion in his Art of Love, as a sufferer from unrequited love: "Pale Orion wandered in the forest for Side."[247]

Statius mentions Orion four times in his Thebaïd; twice as the constellation, a personification of storm, but twice as the ancestor of Dryas of Tanagra, one of the defenders of Thebes.[248] The very late Greek epic poet Nonnus mentions the oxhide story in brief, while listing the Hyrians in his Catalogue of the Boeotian army of Dionysius.[249]

Nicolas Poussin (1658) "Landscape with blind Orion seeking the sun"

References since antiquity are fairly rare. At the beginning of the 17th century, French sculptor Barthélemy Prieur cast a bronze statue Orion et Cédalion, some time between 1600 and 1611. This featured Orion with Cedalion on his shoulder, in a depiction of the ancient legend of Orion recovering his sight; the sculpture is now displayed at the Louvre.[250]

Nicolas Poussin painted Paysage avec Orion aveugle cherchant le soleil (1658) ("Landscape with blind Orion seeking the sun"), after learning of the description by the 2nd-century Greek author Lucian, of a picture of Orion recovering his sight; Poussin included a storm-cloud, which both suggests the transient nature of Orion's blindness, soon to be removed like a cloud exposing the sun, and includes Natalis Comes' esoteric interpretation of Orion as a storm-cloud.[251] Poussin need not have consulted Lucian directly; the passage is in the notes of the illustrated French translation of Philostratus' Imagines which Poussin is known to have consulted.[252] The Austrian Daniel Seiter (active in Turin, Italy), painted Diane auprès du cadavre d'Orion (c.1685) ("Diana next to Orion's corpse"), pictured above.

In Endymion (1818), John Keats includes the line "Or blind Orion hungry for the morn", thought to be inspired by Poussin. William Hazlitt may have introduced Keats to the painting—he later wrote the essay "On Landscape of Nicholas Poussin", published in Table Talk, Essays on Men and Manners (1821-2).[253] Richard Henry Horne, writing in the generation after Keats and Hazlitt, penned the three volume epic poem Orion in 1843.[254] It went into at least ten editions and was reprinted by the Scholartis Press in 1928.[255] Science fiction author Ben Bova re-invented Orion as a time-traveling servant of various gods in a series of five novels.

Italian composer Francesco Cavalli wrote the opera, "L'Orione", in 1653. The story is set on the Greek island of Delos and focuses on Diana's love for Orion as well as on her rival, Aurora. Diana shoots Orion only after being tricked by Apollo into thinking him a sea monster—she then laments his death and searches for Orion in the underworld until he is elevated to the heavens.[256] Johann Christian Bach ('the English Bach') wrote an opera, "Orion, or Diana Reveng'd", first presented at London's Haymarket Theatre in 1763. Orion, sung by a castrato, is in love with Candiope, the daughter of Oenopion, King of Arcadia but his arrogance has offended Diana. Diana's oracle forbids him to marry Candiope and foretells his glory and death. He bids a touching farewell to Candiope and marches off to his destiny. Diana allows him his victory and then kills him, offstage, with her arrow. In another aria, his mother Retrea (Queen of Thebes), laments his death but ultimately sees his elevation to the heavens.[257] The 2002 opera Galileo Galilei by American composer Philip Glass includes an opera within an opera piece between Orion and Merope. The sunlight, which heals Orion's blindness, is an allegory of modern science.[258] Philip Glass has also written a shorter work on Orion, as have Tōru Takemitsu,[259] Kaija Saariaho,[260] and John Casken.[261] David Bedford's late-twentieth-century works are about the constellation rather than the mythical figure; he is an amateur astronomer.[262]

The twentieth-century French poet René Char found the blind, lustful huntsman, both pursuer and pursued, a central symbol, as James Lawler has explained at some length in his 1978 work René Char: the Myth and the Poem.[263] French novelist Claude Simon likewise found Orion an apt symbol, in this case of the writer, as he explained in his Orion aveugle of 1970. Marion Perret argues that Orion is a silent link in T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land (1922), connecting the lustful Actaeon/Sweeney to the blind Teiresias and, through Sirius, to the Dog "that's friend to men".[264]

This illustration of the late-5th century BC Greek vase artwork Blacas krater shows a mythological interpretation of the rising Sun and other astronomical figures—the large pair on the left are Cephalus and Eos; Cephalus appears to be in the form of Orion's constellation, and the dog at his foot may represent Sirius.

See also

References

  • Giovanni Boccaccio; Genealogie Deorum Gentilium Libri. ed. Vincenzo Romano. Vol. X and XI of Opere, Bari 1951. The section about Orion is Vol XI, p. 557-560: Book IX §19 is a long chapter about Orion himself; §20–21 are single paragraphs about his son and grandson (and the genealogy continues through §25 about Phyllis daughter of Lycurgus).
  • Natalis Comes: Mythologiae siue explicationis fabularum libri decem; translated as Natale Conti’s Mythologiae, translated and annotated by John Mulryan and Steven Brown; Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. ISBN 978-0-86698-361-7 This is cited by the page number in the 1616 printing, followed by the page in Mulryan and Brown. The chapter on Orion is VIII, 13, which is pp. 457–9 Tritonius; II 751–5 Mulryan and Brown.
  • Joseph Fontenrose Orion: The Myth of the Hunter and the Huntress Berkeley : University of California Press (1981) ISBN 0-520-09632-0
  • E. H. Gombrich: "The Subject of Poussin's Orion" The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 84, No. 491. (Feb., 1944), pp. 37–41
  • Robert Graves, The Greek Myths Penguin 1955; ISBN 0-918825-80-6 is the 1988 reprint by a different publisher.
  • Karl Kerényi, Gods of the Greeks, tr. Norman Cameron. Thames and Hudson 1951. ISBN 0-500-27048-1 is a reprint, by the same publisher.
  • Karl Kerényi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life. Princeton University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-691-09863-8
  • David Kubiak: "The Orion Episode of Cicero's Aratea" The Classical Journal, Vol. 77, No. 1. (October–November, 1981), pp. 12–22.
  • Roger Pack, "A Romantic Narrative in Eunapius"; Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 83. (1952), pp. 198–204. JSTOR link. A practicing classicist retells Orion in passing.
  • H. J. Rose (1928). A Handbook of Greek Mythology, pp. 115–117. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. ISBN 0-415-04601-7.

External links

Orion
Constellation
Orion
Abbreviation Ori
Genitive Orionis
Pronunciation /ɒˈr.ən/
Symbolism Orion, the Hunter
Right ascension 5 h
Declination +5°
Quadrant NQ1
Area 594 sq. deg. (26th|List of constellations by area|26th)
Main stars 7
Bayer/Flamsteed
stars
81
Stars with planets 9
Stars brighter than 3.00m 8
Stars within 10.00 pc (32.62 ly) 8
Brightest star Rigel (β Ori) (0.12m)
Nearest star GJ 3379
(17.51 ly, 5.37 pc)
Messier objects 3
Meteor showers Orionids
Chi Orionids
Bordering
constellations
Gemini
Taurus
Eridanus
Lepus
Monoceros
Visible at latitudes between +85° and −75°.
Best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of January.
click on to see large image

Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It is one of the most conspicuous and most recognizable constellations in the night sky.[265] It was named after Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its brightest stars are Beta (Rigel) and Alpha (Betelgeuse), a blue-white and a red supergiant respectively. Many of the other brightest stars in the constellation are hot blue supergiant stars. The Orion nebulae is located south of Orion's belt.

History and mythology

Star formation in the constellation Orion as photographed in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

The distinctive pattern of Orion has been recognized in numerous cultures around the world, and many myths have been associated with it. It has also been used as a symbol in the modern world.

Mediterranean

Ancient Near East

The Babylonian star catalogues of the Late Bronze Age name Orion MULSIPA.ZI.AN.NA,[note 1] "The Heavenly Shepherd" or "True Shepherd of Anu" - Anu being the chief god of the heavenly realms.[266] The Babylonian constellation was sacred to Papshukal and Ninshubur, both minor gods fulfilling the role of 'messenger to the gods'. Papshukal was closely associated with the figure of a walking bird on Babylonian boundary stones, and on the star map the figure of the Rooster was located below and behind the figure of the True Shepherd—both constellations represent the herald of the gods, in his bird and human forms respectively.[267]

The stars of Orion were associated with Osiris, the sun-god of rebirth and afterlife, by the ancient Egyptians.[268][269][270]

Orion has also been identified with the Egyptian Pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty called Unas who, according to the Pyramid Texts, became great by eating the flesh of his mortal enemies and then slaying and devouring the gods themselves. This was based on a belief in contiguous magic whereby consuming the flesh of great people would bring inheritance of their power.[269] After devouring the gods and absorbing their spirits and powers, Unas journeys through the day and night sky to become the star Sahu, or Orion.[268] The Pyramid Texts also show that the dead Pharaoh was identified with the god Osiris, whose form in the stars was often said to be the constellation Orion.[268]

The Armenians identified their forefather Hayk with Orion. Hayk is also the name of the Orion constellation in the Armenian translation of the Bible.[271]

The Bible mentions Orion three times, naming it "Kesil" (כסיל, literally - fool). Though, this name perhaps is etymologically connected with "Kislev", the name for the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar (i.e. November–December), which, in turn, may derive from the Hebrew root K-S-L as in the words "kesel, kisla" (כֵּסֶל, כִּסְלָה, hope, positiveness), i.e. hope for winter rains.): Job 9:9 ("He is the maker of the Bear and Orion"), Job 38:31 ("Can you loosen Orion`s belt?"), and Amos 5:8 ("He who made the Pleiades and Orion"). In ancient Aram, the constellation was known as Nephîlā′, the Nephilim may have been Orion's descendants.[272]

Greco-Roman antiquity

Orion in the 9th century Leiden Aratea.

Orion's current name derives from Greek mythology, in which Orion was a gigantic, supernaturally strong hunter of primordial times,[273] born to Euryale, a nymph, and Poseidon (Neptune), god of the sea in the Greco-Roman tradition. One myth recounts Gaia's rage at Orion, who dared to say that he would kill every animal on the planet. The angry goddess tried to dispatch Orion with a scorpion, the reason that the constellations of Scorpius and Orion are never in the sky at the same time. However, Ophiuchus, the Serpent Bearer, revived Orion with an antidote, the reason that the constellation of Ophiuchus stands midway between the Scorpion and the Hunter in the sky.[274]

The constellation is mentioned in Horace's Odes (Ode 3.27.18), Homer's Odyssey (Book 5, line 283) and Iliad, and Virgil's Aeneid (Book 1, line 535)

Africa

In ancient Egypt, the constellation of Orion was known to represent Osiris, who, after being killed by his evil brother Set, was revived by his wife Isis to live immortal among the stars.[275]

Middle East

In medieval Muslim astronomy, Orion was known as al-jabbar "the giant".[출처 필요]

Asian antiquity

In China, Orion was one of the 28 lunar mansions Sieu (Xiu) (宿). It is known as Shen (參), literally meaning "three", for the stars of Orion's Belt. (See Chinese constellations)

The Chinese character 參 (pinyin shēn) originally meant the constellation Orion (중국어: 參宿, 병음: shēnxiù); its Shang dynasty version, over three millennia old, contains at the top a representation of the three stars of Orion's belt atop a man's head (the bottom portion representing the sound of the word was added later).[276]

The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga (The Deer).[277]

The Malay called Orion' Belt Bintang Tiga Beradik (the "Three Brother Star").[출처 필요]

European folklore

The constellation Orion as it can be seen by the naked eye.
The constellation Orion with the major stars labelled

In old Hungarian tradition, "Orion" is known as (magic) Archer (Íjász), or Reaper (Kaszás). In recently rediscovered myths he is called Nimrod (Hungarian "Nimród"), the greatest hunter, father of the twins "Hunor" and "Magor"). The "π" and "o" stars (on upper right) form together the reflex bow or the lifted scythe. In other Hungarian traditions, "Orion's belt" is known as "Judge's stick" (Bírópálca).[278]

In Scandinavian tradition, "Orion's belt" was known as Frigg's Distaff (Friggerock) or Freyja's distaff.[279]

The Finns call the Orion's belt and the stars below it as Väinämöisen viikate (Väinämöinen's scythe).[280] Another name for the asterism of Alnilam, Alnitak and Minkata is Väinämöisen vyö' (Väinämöinen's Belt) and the stars "hanging" from the belt as Kalevanmiekka (Kaleva's sword).

In Siberia, the Chukchi people see Orion as a hunter; an arrow he has shot is represented by Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri), with the same figure as other Western depictions.[281]

Americas

The Seri people of northwestern Mexico call the three stars in the belt of this constellation Hapj (a name denoting a hunter) which consists of three stars: Hap (mule deer), Haamoja (pronghorn), and Mojet (bighorn sheep). Hap is in the middle and has been shot by the hunter; its blood has dripped onto Tiburón Island.[282]

The same three stars are known in Spain and most of Latin America as "Las tres Marías" (Spanish for "The Three Marys").

The Ojibwa (Chippewa) Native Americans call this constellation Kabibona'kan, the Winter Maker, as its presence in the night sky heralds winter.[출처 필요]

To the Lakota Native Americans, Tayamnicankhu (Orion’s Belt) is the spine of a bison. The great rectangle of Orion are the bison's ribs; Orion's belt forms the bison's spine; The Pleiades star cluster in nearby Taurus is the bison’s head and Sirius in Canis Major, known as Tayamnisinte, is its tail.

Contemporary symbolism

The imagery of the belt and sword has found its way into popular western culture, for example in the form of the shoulder insignia of the 27th Infantry Division of the United States Army during both World Wars, probably owing to a pun on the name of the division's first commander, Major General John F. O'Ryan.[출처 필요]

The defunct film distribution company Orion Pictures used the constellation as its logo.[출처 필요]

In fiction

In J. R. R. Tolkien's mythology surrounding Middle-earth, Orion is known as Menelvagor, which is Sindarin for "The Swordsman in the Sky."[283]

In J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, one of the main Death Eater characters, Bellatrix Lestrange, is named after the gamma star in Orion.[출처 필요]

In the movie Blade Runner, the dying replicant Roy Batty introspectively delivers his tears in rain soliloquy:

I've... seen things you people wouldn't believe... Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched c-beams glitter in the dark near the Tannhäuser Gate. All those... moments... will be lost in time, like tears... in... rain. Time... to die...

In the sci-fi comedy entitled 'Men In Black', the last words declared by a dying alien disguised as a human were 'To prevent war, the Galaxy is on Orion's belt.' However, the galaxy is located on the collar of a cat whose name is 'Orion'.

Depictions

In artistic renderings, the surrounding constellations are sometimes related to Orion: he is depicted standing next to the river Eridanus with his two hunting dogs Canis Major and Canis Minor, fighting Taurus He is sometimes depicted hunting Lepus the hare. He also sometimes is depicted to have a lion's hide in his hand.

There are alternative ways to visualise Orion. From the Southern Hemisphere, Orion is oriented south-upward, and the belt and sword are sometimes called the saucepan or pot in Australia and New Zealand. Orion's Belt is called Drie Konings (Three Kings) or the Drie Susters (Three Sisters) by Afrikaans speakers in South Africa[284] and are referred to as les Trois Rois (the Three Kings) in Daudet's Lettres de Mon Moulin (1866). The appellation Driekoningen (the Three Kings) is also often found in 17th- and 18th-century Dutch star charts and seaman's guides. The same three stars are known in Spain and Latin America as "Las Tres Marías" (The Three Marys).

Even traditional depictions of Orion have varied greatly. Cicero drew Orion in a similar fashion to the modern depiction. The Hunter held an unidentified animal skin aloft in his right hand; his hand was represented by Omicron2 Orionis and the skin was represented by the 5 stars designated Pi Orionis. Kappa and Beta Orionis represented his left and right knees, while Eta and Lambda Leporis were his left and right feet, respectively. As in the modern depiction, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta represented his belt. His left shoulder was represented by Alpha Orionis, and Mu Orionis made up his left arm. Lambda Orionis was his head and Gamma, his right shoulder. The depiction of Hyginus was similar to that of Cicero, though the two differed in a few important areas. Cicero's animal skin became Hyginus's shield (Omicron and Pi Orionis), and instead of an arm marked out by Mu Orionis, he holds a club (Chi Orionis). His right leg is represented by Theta Orionis and his left leg is represented by Lambda, Mu, and Epsilon Leporis. Further Western European and Arabic depictions have followed these two models.[281]

Characteristics

Orion is bordered by Taurus to the northwest, Eridanus to the southwest, Lepus to the south, Monoceros to the east, and Gemini to the northeast. Covering 594 square degrees, Canis Minor ranks twenty-sixth of the 88 constellations in size. The constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 26 sides. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 04h 43.3m and 06h 25.5m, while the declination coordinates are between 22.87° and −10.97°.[285] The constellation's three-letter abbreviation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is "Ori".[286]

Orion is most visible in the evening sky from January to March,[287] winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and summer in the Southern Hemisphere. In the tropics (less than about 8° from the equator), the constellation transits at the zenith.

In the period May–July (summer in the Northern Hemisphere, winter in the Southern Hemisphere), Orion is in the daytime sky and thus not visible at most latitudes. However, for much of Antarctica in the Southern Hemisphere's winter months, the Sun is below the horizon even at midday. Stars (and thus Orion) are then visible at twilight for a few hours around local noon, low in the North. At the same time of day at the South Pole itself (Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station), Rigel is only 8° above the horizon, and the Belt sweeps just along it. In the Southern Hemisphere's summer months, when Orion is normally visible in the night sky, the constellation is actually not visible in Antarctica because the sun does not set at that time of year south of the Antarctic Circle.[288][289]

In countries close to the equator (e.g. Kenya, Indonesia, Colombia, Ecuador), Orion appears overhead in December around midnight and in the February evening sky.

Navigational aid

Using Orion to find stars in neighbor constellations

Orion is very useful as an aid to locating other stars. By extending the line of the Belt southeastward, SiriusCMa) can be found; northwestward, AldebaranTau). A line eastward across the two shoulders indicates the direction of ProcyonCMi). A line from Rigel through Betelgeuse points to Castor and PolluxGem and β Gem). Additionally, Rigel is part of the Winter Circle. Sirius and Procyon, which may be located from Orion by following imaginary lines (see map), also are points in both the Winter Triangle and the Circle.[290][291]

Major features

Orion as depicted in Urania's Mirror, a set of constellation cards published in London c.1825

Orion's seven brightest stars form a distinctive hourglass-shaped asterism, or pattern, in the night sky. Four stars—Rigel, Betelgeuse, Bellatrix and Saiph—form a large roughly rectangular shape, in the centre of which lie the three stars of Orion's Belt—Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka. Descending from the 'belt' is a smaller line of three stars (the middle of which is in fact not a star but the Orion Nebula), known as the hunter's 'sword'.

Many of the stars are luminous hot blue supergiants, with the stars of the belt and sword forming the Orion OB1 Association. Standing out by its red hue, Betelgeuse may nevertheless be a runaway member of the same group.

Stars

  • Betelgeuse, known alternatively by its Bayer designation Alpha Orionis, is a massive M-type red supergiant star nearing the end of its life. When it explodes it will even be visible during the day. It is the second brightest star in Orion, and is a semiregular variable star.[292] It serves as the "right shoulder" of the hunter it represents (assuming that he is facing the observer), and is the eighth brightest star in the night sky.[293]
  • Rigel, which is also known as Beta Orionis, is a B-type blue supergiant that is the sixth brightest star in the night sky. Similar to Betelgeuse, Rigel is fusing heavy elements in its core and will pass its supergiant stage soon (on an astronomical timescale), either collapsing in the case of a supernova or shedding its outer layers and turning into a white dwarf. It serves as the left foot of Orion, the hunter.[294]
  • Bellatrix was designated Gamma Orionis by Johann Bayer, but is known colloquially as the "Amazon Star". It is the twenty-seventh brightest star in the night sky.[295] Bellatrix is considered a B-type blue giant, though it is too small to explode in a supernova. Bellatrix's luminosity is derived from its high temperature rather than its radius,[296] a factor that defines Betelgeuse.[292] Bellatrix serves as Orion's left shoulder.[296]
  • Mintaka garnered the name Delta Orionis from Bayer, even though it is the faintest of the three stars in Orion's Belt.[297] Its name means "the Giant's belt".[291] It is a multiple star system, composed of a large B-type blue giant and a more massive O-type white star. The Mintaka system constitutes an eclipsing binary variable star, where the eclipse of one star over the other creates a dip in brightness. Mintaka is the westernmost of the three stars of Orion's Belt,[297] as well as the northernmost.[291]
Orion Constellation Map
  • Alnilam is designated Epsilon Orionis, a consequence of Bayer's wish to name the three stars in Orion's Belt (from north to south) in alphabetical order.[298] Also called Al Nathin, Alnilam is named for the Arabic phrase meaning "string of pearls".[291] Alnilam is a B-type blue supergiant; despite being nearly twice as far from the Sun as Mintaka and Alnitak, the other two belt stars, its luminosity makes it nearly equal in magnitude. Alnilam is losing mass quickly, a consequence of its size; it is approximately four million years old.[298]
  • Alnitak, meaning "the girdle",[291] was designated Zeta Orionis by Bayer, and is the easternmost star in Orion's Belt. It is a triple star some 800 light years distant, with the primary star being a hot blue supergiant and the brightest class O star in the night sky.
  • Saiph was designated Kappa Orionis by Bayer, and serves as Orion's right foot. It is of a similar distance and size to Rigel, but appears much fainter, as its hot surface temperature (46,000°F or 26,000°C) causes it to emit most of its light in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum.

Of the lesser stars, Hatsya (or Iota Orionis) forms the tip of Orion's sword, whilst Meissa (or Lambda Orionis) forms Orion's head. Iota Orionis is also called Nair al-Saif, Arabic for "the brightest in the sword".[291]

Proper
Name
Solar Radii Apparent
Magnitude
~Distance
(L Yrs)
  Betelgeuse     667       0.43    643
  Rigel     78       0.18    772
  Bellatrix     7.0       1.62    243
  Mintaka     ?       2.23 (3.2/3.3) / 6.85 / 14.0    900
  Alnilam     26       1.68    1359
  Alnitak     ?       1.70/~4/4.21    800
  Saiph     11       2.06    724

Belt

Orion's Belt
Closeup Image of Orion's Belt

Orion's Belt or The Belt of Orion is an asterism within the constellation. It consists of the three bright stars Zeta (Alnitak), Epsilon (Alnilam), and Delta (Mintaka). Alnitak is around 800 light years away from earth and, is 100,000 times more luminous than the Sun - much of its radiation is in the ultraviolet range, which the human eye cannot see.[299] Alnilam is approximately 1340 light years away from Earth, shines with magnitude 1.70, and with ultraviolet light is 375,000 times more luminous than the Sun.[298] Mintaka is 915 light years away and shines with magnitude 2.21. It is 90,000 times more luminous than the Sun and is a double star: the two orbit each other every 5.73 days.[297] Looking for Orion's Belt in the night sky is the easiest way to locate the constellation. In the Northern Hemisphere, Orion's Belt is best visible in the night sky during the month of January around 9:00 pm, when it is approximately around the local meridian.[265]

Just southwest of Alnitak lies Sigma Orionis, a multiple star system composed of five stars that have a combined apparent magnitude of 3.7 and lying 1150 light years distant. Southwest of Mintaka lies the quadruple star Eta Orionis.

Head

Three stars compose a small triangle that marks the head. The apex is marked by Meissa (Lambda Orionis), a hot blue giant of spectral type O8 III and apparent magnitude 3.54, which lies some 1100 light years distant. Phi-1 and Phi-2 Orionis make up the base. Also nearby is the very young star FU Orionis.

North Arrow

Together the 'Alnitak, Alnilam, & Mintaka', the 'Eta Orionis' form an arrow head, and with the 'M42, M43' at the lower end form the tail of an arrow. All together form an arrow that always points 'NORTH'. Therefore, it is used as navigational guide at night especially in the Sahara desert where there are not many natural signs.

Club

Stretching north from Betelgeuse are the stars that make up Orion's club. Mu Orionis marks the elbow, Nu and Xi mark the handle of the club, and Chi1 and Chi2 mark the end of the club. Just east of Chi1 is the Mira-type variable red giant U Orionis.

Shield

West from Bellatrix lie six stars all designated Pi Orionis (π1 Ori, π2 Ori, π3 Ori, π4 Ori, π5 Ori and π6 Ori) which make up Orion's shield.

Meteor showers

Around 20 October each year the Orionid meteor shower (Orionids) reaches its peak. Coming from the border with the constellation Gemini as many as 20 meteors per hour can be seen. The shower's parent body is Halley's Comet.[300]

Deep-sky objects

This view brings out many fainter features, such as Barnards loop

Hanging from Orion's belt is his sword, consisting of the multiple stars θ1 and θ2 Orionis, called the Trapezium and the Orion Nebula (M42). This is a spectacular object that can be clearly identified with the naked eye as something other than a star. Using binoculars, its clouds of nascent stars, luminous gas, and dust can be observed. The Trapezium cluster has many newborn stars, including several brown dwarfs, all of which are at an approximate distance of 1,500 light-years. Named for the four bright stars that form a trapezoid, it is largely illuminated by the brightest stars, which are only a few hundred thousand years old. Observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory show both the extreme temperatures of the main stars—up to 60,000 Kelvin—and the star forming regions still extant in the surrounding nebula.[301]

M78 (NGC 2068) is a nebula in Orion. With an overall magnitude of 8.0, it is significantly dimmer than the Great Orion Nebula that lies to its south; however, it is at approximately the same distance, at 1600 light-years from Earth. It can easily be mistaken for a comet in the eyepiece of a telescope. M78 is associated with the variable star V351 Orionis, whose magnitude changes are visible in very short periods of time.[302] Another fairly bright nebula in Orion is NGC 1999, also close to the Great Orion Nebula. It has an integrated magnitude of 10.5 and is 1500 light-years from Earth. The variable star V380 Orionis is embedded in NGC 1999.[303]

Another famous nebula is IC 434, the Horsehead Nebula, near ζ Orionis. It contains a dark dust cloud whose shape gives the nebula its name.

Besides these nebulae, surveying Orion with a small telescope will reveal a wealth of interesting deep-sky objects, including M43, M78, as well as multiple stars including Iota Orionis and Sigma Orionis. A larger telescope may reveal objects such as Barnard's Loop and the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), as well as fainter and tighter multiple stars and nebulae.

All of these nebulae are part of the larger Orion Molecular Cloud Complex, which is located approximately 1,500 light-years away and is hundreds of light-years across. It is one of the most intense regions of stellar formation visible in our galaxy.

Future

Orion is located on the celestial equator, but it will not always be so located due to the effects of precession of the Earth's axis. Orion lies well south of the ecliptic, and it only happens to lie on the celestial equator because the point on the ecliptic that corresponds to the June solstice is close to the border of Gemini and Taurus, to the north of Orion. Precession will eventually carry Orion further south, and by AD 14000 Orion will be far enough south that it will become invisible from the latitude of Great Britain.[304]

Further in the future, Orion's stars will gradually move away from the constellation due to proper motion. However, Orion's brightest stars all lie at a large distance from the Earth on an astronomical scale—much farther away than Sirius, for example. Orion will still be recognizable long after most of the other constellations—composed of relatively nearby stars—have distorted into new configurations, with the exception of a few of its stars eventually exploding as supernovae, for example Betelgeuse, which is predicted to explode sometime in the next million years.[305]

See also

Bibliography
  • Levy, David H. (2005). 《Deep Sky Objects》. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-361-0. 

External links

주해[편집]

  1. The determiner glyph for "constellation" or "star" in these lists is MUL (틀:Script). See Babylonian star catalogues.

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  72. euronews.net, Pyramid find to shed light on last pharaoh dynasty
  73. Lehner, Mark The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997)p. 154-5 ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  74. “Ancient Semitic Snake Spells Deciphered in Egyptian Pyramid”. 
  75. George Hart, The Routledge dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses, Psychology Press, 2005, via Google Books
  76. Goelet, Dr. Ogden; 외. (1994). 《The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day》. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. 
  77. notably by James Edward Quibell, Cecil Mallaby Firth, Jean-Philippe Lauer, Jean Sainte Fare Garnot, and Jean Leclant
  78. This feature can be explained by the fact that an earlier monument may not have been destroyed, preventing an alignment of different parts of the pyramid complex
  79. Lehner, Mark The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997)p. 156 ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  80. Excavations undertaken by the museum of the University of Pennsylvania, led by David P. Silverman
  81. Britannica, Ib
  82. Slider, Ab, Egyptian heart and soul conception
  83. "A Study of the Ba Concept In Ancient Egyptian Texts.", p. 162–163, Louis V. Žabkar, University of Chicago Press, 1968. [1]
  84. Oxford Guide: The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, James P. Allen, p. 28, Berkley, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
  85. Allen, James W. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7.  |제목=이(가) 없거나 비었음 (도움말)
  86. EGYPTOLOGY ONLINE, 2009
  87. Ancient Egyptian Religion: An Interpretation by Henri Frankfort, p. 100. 2000 edition, first copyright 1948. Google Books preview retrieved January 19, 2008.
  88. 26th Dynasty stela description from Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna
  89. George Hart, The Routledge dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses, Psychology Press, 2005, via Google Books
  90. Athenaeus does refer to Sanchuniathon in Deipnosophistae iii.100— essentially an "All You Need to Know in Order to Shine at a Banquet"— but he adds nothing he could not have found in Philo, M.J. Edwards notes, in "Philo or Sanchuniathon? A Phoenicean Cosmogony" The Classical Quarterly New Series, 41.1 (1991, pp. 213-220) p. 214. There is an entry in the Byzantine encyclopedia Suda that gives three display=inlines Edwards considers to have been excerpts of the Phoenician History: they are Philosophy of Hermes, The Egyptian Theology and an Aegyptiaca.
  91. "older, as they say, than the Trojan times" (Eusebius, I, ch. viii). Porphyry's actual text does not survive, however. "During the Hellenistic and Roman periods antiquity was the proof of national virtue," M. J. Edwards remarks, in "Philo or Sanchuniathon? A Phoenicean Cosmogony" p. 214.
  92. Porphyry, quoted by Eusebius.
  93. The "Ammoneans" or priests of Ammon.
  94. Quoted by H.W.F.S. reviewing O. Eissfeldt's Sanchunjaton von Berut und Ilumilku von Ugarit in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 17.2 (1955), p. 395.
  95. A review of the controversies surrounding Sanchuniathon is presented in J. Barr, "Philo of Bylos and his 'Phoenician History'", Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 57 (1974), pp 17-68.
  96. O. Eissfeldt, Sanchunjaton von Berut und Ilumilku von Ugarit (Halle: Niemeyer) 1952, and Taautos und Sanchuniathon (Berlin) 1952.
  97. This is the view of Baumgarten 1981.
  98. McCants, William F. (2011). Princeton University Press. 101쪽. ISBN 978-0-691-15148-9 http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xVmKib7i4IEC&pg=PA101&dq=Sanchuniathon&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BbsFT8D0MIOW8QO7voiZAg&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Sanchuniathon&f=false.  |제목=이(가) 없거나 비었음 (도움말)
  99. 《Dictionary.com》. Random House. 2012. 
  100. "Sex and booze figured in Egyptian rites", archaeologists find evidence for ancient version of ‘Girls Gone Wild’. From MSNBC, October 30, 2006
  101. Lichtheim, Miriam (2006) [1976]. Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume Two: The New Kingdom. University of California Press. pp. 197–199
  102. p.161. "Brazier." Richard H. Wilkinson. Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Painting and Sculpture.1992. Thames & Hudson. London, quoted in Hell's Pre-Christian Origins
  103. Pool or Lake of Fiery Water, painted red, with burning braziers and baboons, from the Book of the Dead. (plate 32, p.168 for accompanying text. Raymond Faulkner, et al, from Hell's Pre-Christian Origins
  104. p. 168, commentary to plate 32, Raymond Faulkner and Ogden Goelet. The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day. San Francisco. Chronicle Books. 1994. ISBN 0-8118-0767-3
  105. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (ed.), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia:K-P (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 1995 ISBN 0-8028-3783-2), p. 61, s.v. "Lake of fire"
  106. Cf. Revelation 11:7; 13:1-4; 13:11-18; 14:9-11; 15:2; 16:2; 16:10-13; 17:3-17; 19:19; 20:4
  107. Cf. Revelation 16:13
  108. The King James Version of Revelation 20:14-15 and the 21st Century King James Version have "hell" where some more-modern versions have "Hades" (a transliteration of the Greek word in the text).
  109. Cf. Revelation 2:11; 20:6
  110. "'The lake of fire'" appears as a place of punishment, of perpetual torment, not of annihilation (20:10). The beast (19:20); the pseudo-prophet (19:20; 20:10); the devil (20:10); the wicked of varying description (20:15; 21:8), are cast into it. When the same is affirmed of death and Hades (20:14), it is doubtful whether this is meant as a mere figure for the cessation of these two evils personified, or has a more realistic background in the existence of two demon-powers so named (compare Isaiah 25:8; 1 Corinthians 15:26,54; 2 Esdras 7:31)" (The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. III:1822)
  111. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text, by Gregory K. Beale (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999 ISBN 978-0-8028-2174-4, p. 1035]
  112. A Commentary on the Revelation of John, by George Eldon Ladd (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1972 ISBN 0-8028-1684-3, p. 258]
  113. The Last Things. A Survey of Biblical Eschatology (Kensington Theological Academy ISBN 1-4357-2224-8, p. 122
  114. All the Doctrines of the Bible: a study and analysis of major Bible doctrines, by Herbert Lockyer (Zondervan, 1988 ISBN 0-310-28051-6, p. 292
  115. Revelation Commentary
  116. Dr Grant C. Richison
  117. What Really Is Hell?
  118. Against Plato, On the Cause of the Universe, 1
  119. "To the lovers of iniquity shall be given eternal punishment. And the fire which is unquenchable and without end awaits these latter" (Against Plato, On the Cause of the Universe, 3).
  120. http://www.usccb.org/bible/mark/9/43
  121. Fatima In Lucia's Own Words, Lucia de Jesus (1995), The Ravengate Press, pp. 101, 104
  122. cf. E.A.Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians. Studies in Egyptian Mythology (London, 1904; republ.Dover Publications, New York, 1969)
  123. Meskell, Lynn Archaeologies of social life: age, sex, class et cetera in ancient Egypt Wiley Blackwell (20 Oct 1999) ISBN 978-0-631-21299-7 p.103
  124. C.Wolterman, "On the Names of Birds and Hieroglyphic Sign-List G 22, G 35 and H 3" in: "Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch genootschap Ex Oriente Lux" no.32 (1991-1992)(Leiden, 1993), p.122, note 8
  125. text: drs. Carles Wolterman, Amstelveen, Holland
  126. text: drs. Carles Wolterman, Amstelveen, Holland
  127. text: drs. Carles Wolterman, Amstelveen, Holland
  128. Niiya, Brian. Japanese American history: an A-to-Z reference from 1868 to the present. Facts on File, Inc., 1993, p. 352
  129. Primack, Joel; Nancy E. Abrams. (PDF) http://physics.ucsc.edu/cosmo/primack_abrams/InABeginningTikkun1995.pdf. 2008년 3월 14일에 확인함.  |제목=이(가) 없거나 비었음 (도움말)
  130. . Gramercy. 1995년 1월 23일. 576–582쪽. ISBN 978-0-517-12283-9.  |제목=이(가) 없거나 비었음 (도움말)
  131. Gardiner, Alan Henderson (1957). Oxford: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum. 509쪽. ISBN 0-900416-35-1.  |제목=이(가) 없거나 비었음 (도움말)
  132. Ewa Wasilewska, Creation Stories of the Middle East, Jessica Kingsley Publishers 2000, p.128
  133. Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.194
  134. George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary Of Egyptian Gods And Goddesses, p.100
  135. Ana Ruiz, The Spirit of Ancient Egypt, Algora Publishing 2001, p.8
  136. John D. Baines, Byron Esely Shafer, Leonard H. Lesko, David P. Silverman, Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice, Cornell University Press 1991, p.93
  137. 틀:Sourcetext
  138. Hugh Nibley, Abraham in Egypt, Maxwell Institute, chapter 12.
  139. Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.284
  140. Arthur Maurice Hocart, The Life-Giving Myth, Routledge 2004, p.209
  141. Book review of Timonthy Kendall, Genesis of the 'Ka' and Crowns?, Thames & Hudson 2003
  142. Cherine Badawi, Egypt, 2004, p.550
  143. Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.285
  144. Jill Kamil, The Ancient Egyptians: Life in the Old Kingdom, American Univ in Cairo Press 1996, p.61
  145. Britannica, Ib
  146. Slider, Ab, Egyptian heart and soul conception
  147. "A Study of the Ba Concept In Ancient Egyptian Texts.", p. 162–163, Louis V. Žabkar, University of Chicago Press, 1968. [2]
  148. Oxford Guide: The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, James P. Allen, p. 28, Berkley, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
  149. Allen, James W. 《Middle Egyptian : An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs》. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7. 
  150. EGYPTOLOGY ONLINE, 2009
  151. Ancient Egyptian Religion: An Interpretation by Henri Frankfort, p. 100. 2000 edition, first copyright 1948. Google Books preview retrieved January 19, 2008.
  152. 26th Dynasty stela description from Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna
  153. Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). 《The complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt》. London: Thames & Hudson. 152–153쪽. ISBN 0-500-05120-8. 
  154. Lichtheim, Miriam (2006). 《Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms》. Berkeley: University of California Press. 220–222쪽. ISBN 978-0-520-24842-7. 
  155. Armour, op.cit., p.116
  156. Erman, op.cit. vol. 3, 169.10
  157. McKechnie, Paul, and Philippe Guillaume. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. Leiden: Brill, 2008. page 133.
  158. Cotterell, op.cit., p.213
  159. Wilkinson, Toby, p. 286
  160. cf. the role of Heqet in the story of The Birth of the Royal Children from the Westcar Papyrus. Lichtheim, op.cit. p.220
  161. Franklin, op.cit., p.86
  162. Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 229
  163. Shier, Louise A. (1972). 《The Frog on Lamps from Karanis》. 《Medieval and Middle Eastern Studies》 (Brill). 357쪽. 
  164. Genitive case: Ὠρίωνος.
  165. The Latin transliteration Oarion of Ὠαρίων is found, but is quite rare.
  166. Il.Σ 486–489, on the shield of Achilles, and Χ 29, respectively.
  167. λ 572–577 (as a hunter); ε 273–275, as a constellation (= Σ 487–489); ε 121–124; λ 572–77; λ 309–310; Rose (A Handbook, p.117) notes that Homer never identifies the hunter and the constellation, and suggests that they were not originally the same.
  168. ll. 598, 623
  169. Eratosthenes, Catasterismi; translation in Evelyn-White, Hugh G. (1914). Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and Homerica by Hesiod - 프로젝트 구텐베르크 Whether these works are actually by Hesiod and Eratosthenes themselves is doubtful; pseudo-Eratosthenes does not specify the work of Hesiod he is summarizing, but the modern assumption that it is the same work which other authors call the Astronomy is not particularly controversial. It is certainly neither the Theogony nor the Works and Days.
  170. The summary of Hesiod simply says Euryale, but there is no reason to conflate her with Euryale the Gorgon, or to Euryale the Amazon of Gaius Valerius Flaccus; other ancient sources say explicitly Euryale, daughter of Minos.
  171. Apparently unrelated to the Merope who was one of the Pleiades.
  172. Scorpion is here a type of creature, Greek σκορπίος, not a proper name. The constellation is called Scorpius in astronomy; colloquially, Scorpio, like the related astrological sign — both are Latin forms of the Greek word. Cicero used Nepa, the older Latin word for "scorpion." See Kubiak's paper in the bibliography.
  173. Rose, A Handbook, p.116–117
  174. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Under "Apollodorus of Athens (6)" it describes the Bibliotheca as an uncritical forgery some centuries later than Apollodorus; it distinguishes "Hyginus (4)", the author of the Fabulae and Astronomy, from "Hyginus (1)", (C. Julius) adding of the former that the "absurdities" of this "abbreviated" compilation are "partly due to its compiler's ignorance of Greek." Under "Eratosthenes", it dismisses the surviving Catasterismi as pseudo-Eratosthenic. See Frazer's Loeb Apollodorus, and Condos's translation of the other two (as Star myths of the Greeks and Romans Phanes, 1997, ISBN 1-890482-92-7) for the editorial opinions.
  175. Euphorion of Chalcis, who wrote in the 2nd century BC. The MS is Allen's Venetus A, scholion to Σ 486 Dindorf Scholia in Iliadem II, 171, l.7-20; Erbse's Scholia at line cited (Vol.4).
  176. The ancient sources for this story all phrase it so that this could be either a bull or a cow; translations vary, although "bull" may be more common. A bull would be an appropriate sacrifice to male gods.
  177. Both are represented by the same Greek participle, ourion, thus explaining Orion's name; the version that has come down to us as [Pseudo]-Palaephatus, On Unbelievable Tales §51 uses apespermenan ("to spread seed") and ourēsai (the infinitive of ourion) in different sentences. The Latin translations by Hyginus are ambiguous. Ejaculation of semen is the more obvious interpretation here, and Kerenyi assumes it; but John Peter Oleson argued, in the note to p.28 of A Possible Physiological Basis for the Term urinator, "diver" (The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 97, No. 1. (Spring, 1976), pp. 22-29) that urination is intended here; Robert Graves compares this to an African raincharm including urination, as mentioned below.
  178. Literally, lunations; the Greeks spoke of ten lunations as the normal term for childbirth
  179. 틀:Es icon Cuenca, Luis Alberto de (1976). 《Euforion de Calcis; Fragmentos y Epigramas》. Madrid: Fundación Pastor de Estudios Clasicos. fr. 127, pp. 254–255쪽. ISBN 84-400-1962-9. 
  180. The Bibliotheke 1.4.3–1.4.5. This book has come down to us with the name of Apollodorus of Athens, but this is almost certainly wrong. Pherecydes from Fontenrose, Orion, p.6
  181. "Hyginus", de Astronomia 2.34; a shorter recension in his Fabulae 195. Paragraphing according to Ghislane Viré's 1992 Teubner edition. Modern scholarship holds that these are not the original work of Hyginus either, but latter condensations: a teacher's, possibly a student's, notes.
  182. Aristomachus of Soli wrote on bee-keeping (Oxford Classical Dictionary: "Bee-keeping").
  183. In the Astronomia; the Fabulae have Poseidon.
  184. Fontenrose, Orion.
  185. prope nimia conjunctum amicitia vixisse. Hyginus, Ast., 2.26
  186. Hyginus, Ast. 2.34, quoting Istrus. Robert Graves divides The Greek Myths into his own retelling of the myths and his explanations; in retelling Hyginus, Graves adds that Apollo challenged Artemis to hit "that rascal Candaon"; this is for narrative smoothness. It is not in his source.
  187. 2.21
  188. Hyginus, Astr. 2.33, 35–36; which also present these as the dogs of Procris.
  189. Natalis Comes, Mythologiae, translated by Mulryan and Brown, p. 457/II 752. Whatever his interpretations, he is usually scrupulous about citing his sources, which he copies with "stenographic accuracy". Here, however, he says merely commemorantur, adderunt, which have the implied subject "ancient writers". The dog's names mean "White-black" (or perhaps "gray"), "Sparkler", "Runner", "Yearned-for", "Shining", "Wolf-slayer", "Fear-eater"(?) and "Bear-slayer".
  190. Aeneis 10, 763–767
  191. Pack, p.200; giving Hyginus's etymology for Urion, but describing it as "fantastic". Oeneus from Kerenyi, Gods, citing Servius's note to Aeneid 10.763; which actually reads Oenopion; but this may be corruption.
  192. Mulryan and Brown, trans. of Natalis Comes, Vol II, p. 752. n 98. Cites Scholia in Aratum Vetera 322 (ed. Martin, Stuttgart, 1974; sch. to Hesiod, Op. Fr. 63. Gaisford, PMG1:194, respectively
  193. Apollodorus, Bibliotheke, and Frazer's notes. Artemis is called Opis in Callimachus Hymn 3.204f and elsewhere (Fontenrose, Orion, p. 13).
  194. Aratus, Phaenomena I, 634–646. quoted in Kubiak, p. 14.
  195. Nicander, Theriaca, lines 15-20.
  196. Zeus slew Aesculapius for his presumption in raising the dead, so there was only one subject.
  197. Pherecydes of Athens Testimonianze i frammenti ed. Paola Dolcetti 2004; frag. 160 = 35a Frag. Hist. Gr = 35 Fowler. She quotes the complete scholion (to Euripedes, Alcestis 1); the statement of Telesarchus may or may not be cited from Pherecydes.
  198. In a scholion to Pindar Pyth 3, as cited by Fontenrose, Orion, p. 26–27, note 9.
  199. Kerenyi, Gods of the Greeks, pp. 201–204; for Merope as the wife of Oenopion, he cites the scholiast on Nicander, Theriaca 15. Frazer's notes to Apollodorus.
  200. Parthenius, Love Romances XX; LCL, with Longus' Daphnis and Chloe. Unlike most of Parthenius' stories, no source is noted in the MS.
  201. Both are emendations of Parthenius's text, which is Haero; Aëro is from Stephen Gaselee's Loeb edition; Leiro "lily" is from J. L. Lightfoot's 1999 edition of Parthenius, p.495, which records the several emendations suggested by other editors, which include Maero and Merope. "Leiro" is supported by a Hellenistic inscription from Chios, which mentions a Liro as a companion of Oenopion.
  202. Lucian, De domo 28; Poussin followed this description, and A. B. Cook interprets all the mentions of Orion being healed by the Sun in this sense. Zeus I, 290 note 3. Fontenrose sees a combination of two stories: the lands of Dawn in the far east; and Hephaestus' smithy, the source of fire.
  203. Fowler, H. W. & Fowler F.G. translators (1905). "The Hall". In The Works of Lucian of Samosata, pp. 12–23. Clarendon press.
  204. Fontenrose, Orion, p.9–10; citing Servius and the First Vatican Mythographer, who is responsible for Minos. The comparison is Fontenrose's judgment
  205. Fontenrose, Orion, p. 26–27, note 9, citing the scholion to Germanicus' translation of Aratus, line 331 (p 93, l.2 Breysig's edition. It is so late that it uses caballus for "horse".
  206. Boccaccio, Genealogie, Book 11 §19–21. Vol XI pp. 559 l.22 – 560 l.25, citing Theodontius, who is known almost entirely from this work of Boccaccio. He may be the Roman author of this name once mentioned by Servius, he may be a 9th-century Campagnian, or Boccaccio may have made him up.
  207. A birth story is often a claim to the hero by a local shrine; a tomb of a hero is a place of veneration.
  208. 틀:Fr icon Knoeplfer, Denis. Épigraphie et histoire des cités grecques-Pausanias en Béotie (suite) : Thèbes et Tanagra. Collège de France, following Louis Robert's explanation of a Roman-era inscription. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  209. Pausanias, 9.20.3
  210. Roller, Duane W. (1974년 4월). “A New Map of Tanagra”. 《American Journal of Archaeology》 (Archaeological Institute of America) 78 (2): 152–156. doi:10.2307/502800. 
  211. Pausanias makes a practice of discussing places in geographical order, like a modern tour guide, and he puts Cerycius next after the tomb in his list of the sights of Tanagra.
  212. Bowra, Cecil Maurice (1938년 4월). “The Epigram on the Fallen of Coronea”. 《The Classical Quarterly》 32 (2): 80–88. 
  213. Loeb edition of Hesiod, introduction.
  214. Herbert Weir Smyth (Greek Melic Poets, p. 68 and notes on 338–339) doubts the interpretation, which comes down from antiquity, that this is Hyria, which Orion named Ouria after himself.
  215. Bowra, p. 84–85
  216. Powell, J. U. (1908년 9월). “Review: Berliner Klassikertexte, Heft V”. 《The Classical Review》 22 (6): 175–178. 
  217. Graves, Greek Myths, §143a, citing Hyginus, Fabulae 14.
  218. Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses §25.
  219. Diodorus Siculus iv.85.1 Loeb, tr. C.H. Oldfather. English translation
  220. Diodorus Siculus iv 85.5; the intervening passage deals with the opposite aetiology of the Straits of Messina: that Sicily was once connected to the mainland, and the sea (or an earthquake) broke them apart. Diodorus doesn't say what work of Hesiod; despite its differences from the other summary of Hesiod on Orion, Alois Rzach grouped this as a fragment of the Astronomy (Oldfather's note to the Loeb Diodorus, loc. cit.).
  221. Sicanicarum rerum compendium (1562), cited in Brooke, Douglas & Wheelton Sladen (1907). Sicily, the New Winter Resort: An Encyclopaedia of Sicily, p. 384 (specific book cited, p. 376). New York: E. P. Dutton.
  222. Sheila ffoliott, Civic Sculpture in the Renaissance; Montorsoli's Fountains at Messina, UMI Research Press, 1979 ISBN 0-8357-1474-8; the date is on p. 35; for the design see chapter 3, especially pp. 93, 131; it celebrates Charles V's victory in Tunisia in 1535.
  223. For example, Beazley, John; Humfry Payne (1929). “Attic Black-Figured Fragments from Naucratis”. 《The Journal of Hellenic Studies》 (The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies) 49 (2): 253–272. doi:10.2307/625639.  (75–78).
  224. For example, these three interpretations have been made of a metope panel at the Temple of Apollo at Thermon.
  225. Griffiths, Alan (1986). 'What Leaf-Fringed Legend...?' A Cup by the Sotades Painter in London”. 《The Journal of Hellenic Studies》 (The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies) 106: 58–70. doi:10.2307/629642. ; illustrated at end of text.
  226. Carter, Joseph Coleman (1975). “The Sculpture of Taras”. 《Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series》 (American Philosophical Society) 65 (7): 1–196. doi:10.2307/1006211.  The Esquiline depiction is in the footnote on p.76.
  227. 틀:It icon Orione ed il Seggio di Porto. Archeosando. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  228. Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1878 edition, p. 162.
  229. Boccaccio, Genealogie, Book 11 §19, pp. 558 l. 30 to p.559 l.11.
  230. Gombrich (1994); Natalis Comes, Mythologiae, translated by Mulryan and Brown, 459/II 754–755.
  231. Maier, Michael (1617). Atalanta fugiens.
  232. 틀:Fr icon Pernety, Antoine-Joseph (1737). Dictionaire Mytho-Hermetique.
  233. See for example, Rose, Greek Myths, pp. 116–117.
  234. Fontenrose, Orion, p.13 and note, but also Graves, Kerenyi and Rose.
  235. Farnell (Greek Hero Cults p. 21) doubts it, even of Orion.
  236. Fontenrose, Orion, p. 27; Graves; Kerenyi, Dionysus, several mentions; the observation on Homer is from Rose, A Handbook, p.117. The early nineteenth-century mythographer Karl Otfried Müller considered Orion the "only purely mythological figure in the heavens" and had also divided the myths into the original myths of the giant, and the figurative expressions of star lore after he was later identified with the constellation. Karl Otfried Müller: (1844 translation by John Leitch). Introduction to a Scientific System of Mythology, pp. 133–134. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
  237. Frazer's notes to Apollodorus, citing a lexicon of 1884. Fontenrose is unconvinced.
  238. Rose, A Handbook, p. 116
  239. Rohde, Erwin (1925). 《Psyche: the cult of souls and belief in immortality among the Greeks》. New York: Harcourt. 58쪽. OCLC 2454243. 
  240. Kerényi believes the story of Hyrieus to be original, and that the pun on Orion/ourion was made for the myth, rather than the other way around.
  241. Fontenrose, Orion, p. 9, citing Theopompus. 264 GH.
  242. Graves, Greek Myths, §41, 1–5
  243. Isthmian Odes 4.49; 3.67 for those who combine this Ode with the preceding one, also on Melissus. Quote from Race's Loeb translation.
  244. Kubiak, who quotes the passage. (33.418–435 Soubiran).
  245. Carmina 3.4.70. The Roman goddess Diana was identified very early with Artemis, and her name was conventionally used to translate Artemis into Latin by Horace's time. This system of translation continued to be used, in Latin and English, up through the nineteenth century, and this article will use it for Roman poetry and for the Renaissance. Hence Jupiter=Zeus; Neptune= Poseidon, and so forth. See Interpretatio Romana.
  246. P. Ovidii Nasonis Fastorum libri ed. Giovanni Baptista Pighi, Turin 1973, I 261 (text, Fasti V 495–535, English version); II 97, 169 (surviving texts of actual Roman Fasti; these indicate the setting of Orion, an astronomical event, but not a festival). Smith's A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1878 edition, p. 162 indicates that this is the setting of Betelgeuse; Rigel set on the 11th of April. (This is the very long entry on Astronomia, § on Orion.)
  247. Ars Amatoria, I 731. .
  248. Storm in Thebaïd III 27, IX 461, also Silvae I. 1.45; as ancestor (nepos, sanguinis auctor) VIII 355, IX 843.
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