- Gerald Leinwand (1986). 〈Prologue: In Search of History〉. 《The Pageant of World History》. Allyn & Bacon. 11~12쪽. ISBN 9780205086801.
By 2850 B.C., Lower Egypt (where the Nile Delta empties into the Mediterranean) and Upper Egypt (the Nile River Valley) were joined into one country. It was ruled by Pharaoh Menes.
- Menes (king of Egypt) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- Heagy, Thomas C. (2014), “Who was Menes?”, 《Archeo-Nil》 24: 59–92 (영어)