킨제이 척도

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Kinsey scale of sexual responses, indicating the varying degrees of bisexuality

킨제이 척도는 특정 시기의 개인의 성적 경험이나 반응에 대해 서술하는 척도로, 이성애-동성애 평가 척도라고도 불린다.[1] 전적인 이성애를 뜻하는 0에서부터 전적인 동성애를 뜻하는 6까지를 사용한다. 《킨제이 보고서》의 남성편과 여성편 모두에서 "X"로 표기한 추가적인 등급이 무성애를 표시하기 위해 사용되었다.[2][3] 앨프리드 킨제이, 와델 포머로이 등이 지은 《남성의 성생활》 (1948)에서 처음으로 출판되었으며, 뒤이은 《여성의 성생활》 (1953)에서도 나타났다.[1]

개요[편집]

킨제이 척도를 소개하며 앨프리드 킨제이는 다음과 같이 썼다.

Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. It is a fundamental of taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete categories... The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects.

While emphasizing the continuity of the gradations between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual histories, it has seemed desirable to develop some sort of classification which could be based on the relative amounts of heterosexual and homosexual experience or response in each history [...] An individual may be assigned a position on this scale, for each period in his life. [...] A seven-point scale comes nearer to showing the many gradations that actually exist.

Today, many sexologists see the Kinsey scale as relevant to sexual orientation but not comprehensive enough to cover all sexual identity issues. They suggest that sexual identity involves at least three different spectra, sexual orientation being only one of them (two others being biological sex and gender identity).[4]

There have been similar studies where the scale is from 0 to 10. In such studies, the person would be asked a question such as "If 0 is completely gay and 10 is completely hetero, what is your orientation number?".[5]

[편집]

킨제이 척도의 범위는 스스로를 배타적인(exclusively) 이성애자로 정체화하고, 동성과의 성적인 활동에 대한 경험도, 욕구도 없는 사람을 나타내는 0에서부터, 스스로를 배타적인 동성애자로 정체화하고, 이성과의 성적인 활동에 대한 경험도, 욕구도 없는 사람을 나타내는 6까지 있다. 1에서 5까지는 양쪽 성에 따라 다양한 성적 활동에 대한 욕구를 가진 사람을 표현하며, 순간적이거나 종종 동성에 대한 성적 욕구를 느끼는 것을 포함한다. The Kinsey scale ranges from 0, for those who would identify themselves as exclusively heterosexual with no experience with or desire for sexual activity with their same sex, to 6, for those who would identify themselves as exclusively homosexual with no experience with or desire for sexual activity with those of the opposite sex, and 1-5 for those who would identify themselves with varying levels of desire for sexual activity with either sex, including "incidental" or "occasional" desire for sexual activity with the same sex.[6]

척도 설명
0 배타적 이성애
1 이성애 우선적. 순간적인 동성애 경험
2 이성애 우선적. 순간적인 동성애보다 조금 더 동성애적
3 이성애와 동성애가 동등
4 동성애 우선적. 순간적인 이성애보다 조금 더 이성애적
5 동성애 우선적. 순간적인 이성애
6 배타적 동성애
X 비-성애[2][3]
Rating Description
0 Exclusively heterosexual
1 Predominantly heterosexual, only incidentally homosexual
2 Predominantly heterosexual, but more than incidentally homosexual
3 Equally heterosexual and homosexual
4 Predominantly homosexual, but more than incidentally heterosexual
5 Predominantly homosexual, only incidentally heterosexual
6 Exclusively homosexual
X Non-sexual[2][3]

Findings[편집]

킨제이 보고서[편집]

  • Men: 11.6% of white males aged 20–35 were given a rating of 3 for this period of their lives.[7] The study also reported that 10% of American males surveyed were "more or less exclusively homosexual for at least three years between the ages of 16 and 55" (in the 5 to 6 range).[7]
  • Women: 7% of single females aged 20–35 and 4% of previously married females aged 20–35 were given a rating of 3 for this period of their lives.[8] 2% to 6% of females, aged 20–35, were given a rating of 5[9] and 1% to 3% of unmarried females aged 20–35 were rated as 6.[10]

Alternate measures of sexual orientation[편집]

The Kinsey Scale does not address all possible sexual expressions. Others have stepped forward to define it further. In 1980, Michael Storms proposed a two dimensional chart with an X and Y axis.[11] This scale took into account the case of asexuality and the simultaneous expression of hetero-eroticism and homo-eroticism.[12] Fritz Klein, in his Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, included factors such as how orientation can change throughout a person's lifetime, as well as emotional and social orientation.

Kinsey, Storm, and Klein are only three of more than 200 scales to measure and describe sexual orientation.[13] For example there are scales that rate homosexual behaviors from 1 to 14, and measures for gender, masculinity, femininity, transsexualism and attitudes towards contraceptives.[14][15]

같이 보기[편집]

출처[편집]

  1. Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale. The Kinsey Institute. 8 September 2011에 확인.
  2. (Male volume, Table 141; Female volume, page 472)
  3. (2011) 《Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World》. Sage Pubns, 2016쪽. ISBN 1-4129-7685-5, 9781412976855. December 17, 2011에 확인.
  4. Sexual Orientation & Gender. Planned Parenthood. 2012년 9월 6일에 확인.
  5. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity (2006) - Janbell L Caroll
  6. http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/ak-hhscale.html
  7. Kinsey, et al. 1948. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Table 147, p. 651
  8. Kinsey, et al. 1953. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Table 142, p. 499
  9. Kinsey, et al. 1953. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, p. 488
  10. Kinsey, et al. 1953. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Table 142, p. 499, and p. 474
  11. Evaluation of Models of Sexual Orientation (PDF). University of Wisconsin–La Crosse. September 6, 2012에 확인.
  12. Graph of Michael Storm Scale versus Kinsey Scale. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 2012년 9월 6일에 확인.
  13. Clive M. Davis, William L. Yarber, Robert Bauserman, George Schreer, Sandra L. Davis (2000). 《Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures》. Sage. ISBN 978-1-4129-1336-2
  14. Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale. The Kinsey Institute. September 6, 2012에 확인.
  15. Clive M. Davis, William L. Yarber, Robert Bauserman, George Schreer, Sandra L. Davis (2000). 《Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures》. Sage, 137쪽. ISBN 978-1-4129-1336-2

바깥 고리[편집]