iNaturalist

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
둘러보기로 가기 검색하러 가기

INaturalist
150px
웹사이트inaturalist.org
영리여부비영리
사이트 종류시민참여형 과학
회원 가입필수
사용 언어알바니아어, 아랍어, 바스크어, 브르타뉴어, 체코어, 영어, 에스토니아어, 덴마크어, 핀란드어, 프랑스어, 갈리시아어, 독일어, 그리스어, 인도네시아어, 이탈리아어, 스페인어
소유자캘리포니아 과학 아카데미[1]
시작일2008년
(11년 전)
(2008)[1]
현재 상태운영 중

iNaturalist2008년에 설립된 자연과학자, 생물학자와 시민을 위한 시민참여형 과학(Citizen science) 프로젝트 및 온라인 소셜 네트워크이며, 전 세계에 걸쳐 생물 다양성 관측을 매핑하고 공유한다.[2] iNaturalist는 웹사이트와 모바일 앱을 통해 접속할 수 있다.[3][4] iNaturalist에 기록된 관찰 자료는 과학 연구 프로젝트, 보존 기관, 기타 조직 및 사람들에게 귀중한 공용 데이터를 제공한다.[5][6][7] 이 프로젝트는 "a standard-bearer for natural history mobile applications."라고 불려왔다.[8]

역사[편집]

iNaturalist.org는 2008년 UC 버클리 School of Information Master's final project of Nate Agrin, Jessica Kline, and Ken-ichi Ueda.[1] Nate Agrin and Ken-ichi Ueda continued work on the site with Sean McGregor, a web developer. In 2011, Ueda began collaboration with Scott Loarie, a research fellow at Stanford University and lecturer at UC Berkeley. Ueda and Loarie are the current co-directors of iNaturalist.org. The organization merged with the California Academy of Sciences on April 24, 2014.[9] In 2014, iNaturalist celebrated its one millionth observation.[10] In 2017, iNaturalist became a joint initiative between the California Academy of Sciences and the National Geographic Society.[11]

Observations[편집]

The iNaturalist platform is based on crowdsourcing of data. An iNaturalist observation records an encounter with an individual organism at a particular time and place.[12] In addition to recording actual audio and photos of the organism, an iNaturalist observation may also record evidence of an organism, such as animal tracks, nests, and scat, but the scope of iNaturalist excludes natural but inert subjects such as geologic or hydrologic features. Users typically upload photos as evidence of their findings, though audio recordings are also accepted and such evidence is not a strict requirement. Users may share observation locations publicly, "obscure" them to display a less precise location, or make the locations private.

On iNaturalist, other users add identifications to each other’s observations in order to confirm or improve the "community identification." Observations are classified as "casual," "needs ID" (needs identification), or "research grade" based on the quality of the data provided and the community identification process. "Research grade" observations are incorporated into other online databases such as The Global Biodiversity Information Facility.[6] Users have the option to license their observations, photos, and audio recordings in several ways, including for the public domain, Creative Commons, or with all rights reserved.

iNaturalist 을 사용하는 사람들

Automated species identification[편집]

In addition to observations being identified by others in the community, iNaturalist includes an automated species identification computer vision tool, called "Computer Vision."[13] Images can be identified via an artificial intelligence model which has been trained on the large database of the "research grade" observations on iNaturalist. A broader taxon such as a genus or family is typically provided if the model cannot decide what the species is. If the image has poor lighting, is blurry, or contains multiple subjects, it can be difficult for the model to determine the species and it may decide incorrectly. Multiple species suggestions are typically provided, with the one the software believes the image is most likely of at the top of the list.

Participation[편집]

2018년 10월 4일 (2018-10-04) 기준, iNaturalist users contributed over 15,900,000 observations of plants, animals, and other organisms worldwide, with over 88,000 users active in the previous 30 days.[14] iNaturalist is the preferred application for crowd-sourced biodiversity data in Mexico and southern Africa.[15][16]

Users have created and contributed to thousands of different projects on iNaturalist.[17] The platform is commonly used to record observations during bioblitzes, which are biological surveying events that attempt to record all the species that occur within a designated area, and a specific project type on iNaturalist.[18][19][20] Other project types include collections of observations by location or taxon, or documenting specific types of observations such as animal tracks and signs,[21] the spread of invasive species, roadkill,[22] fishing catches, or discovering new species.[23] In 2011, iNaturalist was used as a platform to power the Global Amphibian and Global Reptile BioBlitzes, in which observations were used to help monitor the occurrence and distribution of the world's reptiles and amphibian species.[24] The US National Park Service partnered with iNaturalist to record observations from the 2016 National Parks BioBlitz. That project exceeded 100,000 observations in August 2016.[18] In 2017, the United Nations Environment Programme teamed up with iNaturalist to celebrate World Environment Day.[25]

The City Nature Challenge

In 2016, Lila Higgins from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and Alison Young from the California Academy of Sciences co-founded the City Nature Challenge. In the first City Nature Challenge, naturalists in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area documented over 20,000 observations with the iNaturalist platform.[26] In 2017, the challenge expanded to 16 cities[27] across the United States and collected over 125,000 observations of wildlife in 5 days.

In 2018, the challenge expanded to a global audience, with 68 cities participating from 19 countries, with some cities using community science platforms other than iNaturalist to participate.[19] In 4 days, over 17,000 people cataloged over 440,000 nature observations in urban regions around the world.[28]

플랫폼[편집]

Users can access iNaturalist data or add their observations to iNaturalist in several ways: via the iNaturalist.org website, through two apps: iNaturalist (iOS/Android)[3][4] and Seek (iOS only December 2018년 기준),[29][30] or through partner organizations such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility website.[6] On the primary iNaturalist app, users can contribute nature observations to the public, online dataset, though on Seek, which was designed for children and families, all observations remain private and are not uploaded to the dataset.[30] The automated species recognition feature is included in both apps.[31][32] Seek incorporates features of gamification such as providing list of nearby organisms to find and encouraging the collection of badges.[32]

같이 보기[편집]

각주[편집]

  1. “About”. 2013년 8월 5일. 2013년 8월 7일에 확인함. 
  2. “San Francisco’s Parks Scoured in Wildlife Inventory”. 2014년 5월 7일. 2015년 1월 31일에 확인함. 
  3. “iNaturalist application (iTunes Store)”. 2013년 6월 25일. 2013년 8월 7일에 확인함. 
  4. “iNaturalist application (Google Play)”. 2013년 6월 4일. 2013년 8월 7일에 확인함. 
  5. “Encyclopedia of Life and iNaturalist work together to support citizen science”. 2012년 6월 18일. 2013년 8월 7일에 확인함. 
  6. Bowser, A., Wiggins, A., Shanley, L., Preece, J., & Henderson, S. (2014). “Sharing data while protecting privacy in citizen science” (PDF). 《Interactions》 21 (1): 70–73. doi:10.1145/2540032. 
  7. Pimm, S.; 외. (2014년 5월 30일). “The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection”. 《Science》 344: 1246752. doi:10.1126/science.1246752. PMID 24876501. 2015년 1월 31일에 확인함. 
  8. Goldsmith, G. R. (2015년 8월 6일). “The field guide, rebooted”. 《Science》 349 (6248): 594–594. doi:10.1126/science.aac7810. 
  9. “California Academy of Sciences Acquires iNaturalist”. 2014년 5월 14일. 2014년 5월 17일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2014년 5월 14일에 확인함. 
  10. Hance, Jeremy (2014년 11월 10일). “Citizen scientist site hits one million observations of life on Earth”. 《Mongabay》. 
  11. “About”. 2018년 5월 7일. 2018년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  12. “Getting Started”. 《iNaturalist.org》 (영어). 2018년 6월 12일에 확인함. 
  13. “iNaturalist Computer Vision Explorations”. 《iNaturalist.org》. 2017년 7월 27일. 2017년 8월 12일에 확인함. 
  14. “iNaturalist.org Stats”. 《inaturalist.org》. 2018년 10월 4일. 2018년 10월 5일에 확인함. 
  15. Pimm, S. L.; Jenkins, C. N.; Abell, R.; Brooks, T. M.; Gittleman, J. L.; Joppa, L. N.; Raven, P. H.; Roberts, C. M.; Sexton, J. O. (2014). “The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection” (PDF). 《Science》 344 (6187): 1246752–1246752. doi:10.1126/science.1246752. PMID 24876501. 
  16. “Citizen science”. 《biodiversityadvisor.sanbi.org》. 2018년 10월 5일에 확인함. 
  17. “Projects”. 《inaturalist.org》. 2017년 1월 28일. 2017년 1월 28일에 확인함. 
  18. Seltzer, Carrie (2016년 8월 25일). “Citizen scientists give NPS 100,000+ biodiversity records for 100th birthday”. 《National Geographic Society (blogs)》. 2016년 9월 17일에 확인함. 
  19. “CityNatureChallenge.org”. 2018. 2018년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  20. Catling, Paul M.; Kostiuk, Brenda; Heron, Jennifer; Jimenez, Runel; Chapman, Monique; Gamiet, Sharmin; Sterenberg, Velma (2018년 6월 5일). “Highlights from the Northwest Territories BioBlitzes”. 《The Canadian Field-Naturalist》 131 (4): 386. doi:10.22621/cfn.v131i4.2099. 2018년 10월 5일에 확인함. 
  21. “North American Animal Tracking Database”. 《inaturalist.org》. 2018년 10월 5일. 2018년 10월 5일에 확인함. 
  22. “Adventure Scientists Wildlife Connectivity Study”. 《inaturalist.org》. 2018년 10월 5일. 2018년 10월 5일에 확인함. 
  23. “Managing Projects”. 《inaturalist.org》. 2018년 10월 5일. 2018년 10월 5일에 확인함. 
  24. Holtz, Debra Levi (2011년 10월 10일). “Reptile, amphibian BioBlitzes tap social media”. 《San Francisco Chronicle》. 
  25. “App brings marvels of tech and nature together to keep the world connected”. 《worldenvironmentday.global》. 2017년 10월 19일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 2월 3일에 확인함. 
  26. “City Nature Challenge 2016 iNaturalist Project”. 2018. 2018년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  27. “City Nature Challenge 2017 iNaturalist Project”. 2018. 2018년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  28. Higgins, Lila (2018년 5월 4일). “City Nature Challenge 2018: A Win For Urban Nature Around the World”. 《Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County》. 
  29. “Seek by iNaturalist on the App Store”. 《App Store》. 2018년 12월 3일에 확인함. 
  30. “Seek App - iNaturalist.org”. 《iNaturalist.org》 (영어). 2018년 12월 3일에 확인함. 
  31. Jabr, Ferris (2017년 12월 6일). “Letter of Recommendation: iNaturalist”. 《New York Times Magazine》 (영어). 2018년 12월 3일에 확인함. 
  32. Elbein, Asher (2018년 3월 21일). “This New App Is Like Shazam for Your Nature Photos”. 《Earther》. 2018년 12월 3일에 확인함. 

외부 링크[편집]