APA 양식(APA style, APA 스타일)은 미국심리학회(American Psychological Association: APA)가 정한 문헌 작성 양식이다. 주로 사회과학 분야(심리학, 교육학 등)에서 많이 사용하며, 일부 자연과학 분야(생물학, 식물학, 지구과학)에서도 사용한다. 본문에는 저자-연도 형식으로 인용하고, 논문 끝의 참고문헌 목록을 이름 순으로 정리하는 것이 특징이다.
APA 양식 논문은 보통 다음과 같은 구획으로 구성되며, 각각은 새 쪽으로 시작한다.
- 제목 쪽
- 표 (표마다 새 쪽)
- 그림 캡션
- 그림 (그림마다 새 쪽)
수준별 제목 형식은 다음과 같다. (한글에는 대소문자가 없고 기울임체도 잘 쓰이지 않기 때문에 제목 형식을 따르는 경우는 별로 없다.)
- 1수준: Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
- 2수준: Ideal Institute of Technology
- 3수준: Engineering college
- 4수준: Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
- 5수준: CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING
본문 중에 저자명, 간행연도, 페이지 등을 괄호로 묶어 표시하고(예: 홍길동, 2000), 논문 끝의 참고문헌에서 찾아볼 수 있도록 한다.
- 저자 1명
- A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2005).
- Pauling (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
- 저자 2명
- A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling & Liu, 2005).
- Pauling and Liu (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
- 저자 3~5명
- A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, Liu, & Guo, 2005).
- Pauling, Liu, and Guo (2005) conducted a study that discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
- Pauling et al. (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
- A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling et al., 2005).
- 저자 6명 이상
- Pauling et al. (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
- 직접 인용
- When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said, "I think it's the reinforcement" (Pauling, 2004, p. 69).
Abramovitch, R., & Grusec, J. E. (1978). Peerimitation in anaturalsetting ChildDevelopment. 49, 60-65. Baker, J. A. (2006). Contributions of teacher-child relationships to positive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 211-229. Berk, L. E. (2006). Child Development(7th). New York: Pearson Education. Allyn & Bacon. Bagwell, C. L., Newcomb, A. F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1998). Preadolescent friendship and peer rejection as predictors of adult adjustment. Child Development. 69(1), 140-153. Berger, C. R. (1985). Social power and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp, & G. R. Miller(Eds). Handbook of interpersonal communication Sage. Bronson(2000). Self-regulation in early childhood: Nature and nurture. N. Y: The guilford press. Brownell, C., Etheridge, W., & Hugerford, A. (1997). Socialization of self-regneulation: Continuity and discontinuity. Berk, L.(1985). Relationship of caregiver education to child-oriented attitudes, job satisfaction, and behaviors toward children. Child Care Quarterly 14(2), 103-129. Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children's early school adjustment, journal of School Psychology, 35(1), 61-79 Block, J. H. & Block, J. (1980). The rold of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, 13, 39-101. Bohlin, L. C. (2000). Determinants of young children's leadership and dominance strategies during play. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. Calkins, S, D. (1994). Origin and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox(eds). The Development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerrations. Monograpbs of the Society for Reserch in child Development, 59(2-3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Doll, B. (1996). Children without friends: Implication for practice and policy. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 165-183. Eisenberg, N., & Mussen, P.H.. (1989). The roots of prosocial behavior in children, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., Blacher, J. (2007). Early student-teacher relationships of children with and without intellectual disability: Contribution of behavioral, social, and self-regulatory competence. Journal of School Psychology, 45(4), 363-383. Fukada, S., Fukada H., & Hicks. J. (1994). Structure of leadership among pre-school children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(4), 389-395. Fukada, S., Fukada H., & Hicks. J. (1997). The Relationships between leadership and sociometric status among preschool children. The Journal Psychology, 158(4), 481-586. Harmre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early student-teacher relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625-638 Hartup, W. W. (1983). Peer relationships. In E. M. Hetherington(Ed), P. Mussen (Series Ed.), Socialization, personality, and social development. New York: Wiley, Handbook of Child Psychlogy : Vol. 4. 103-196. Hatch, J. A. (1987a). Status and social power in a kindergarten peer group. The Elementary School Journal, 88, 79-82.
(1987b). Peer interaction and the development of sociol competence. Child Study Journal, 17, 169-183.
Howes, C., & Smith,E. (1995). Relation among child care quality, behavior, children's play activities, emotional security, and congnitive activity in child care. Early Childhood Reserarch Quarterly, 10, 381-404. Hughes, J. N., Luo, W., Kwok, O. & Loyd, L. K. (2008). Teacher-student support, effortful engagement, and achievement: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 1-14. Humphrey, L. L. (1982). Children's and teacher's perspective on children's self-control: the development of two rating scales, Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 50, 624-633. Jones, D. C., Rikel, A. U., & Smith, R. L(1980). Maternal child-rearing Jordan, E., Cowan, A., & Robert, J. (1995). Knowing the rules: Discursive strategies in young children's power struggles. Early Childhood Reserch Quarterly, 10, 339-358. Kendall, P. C. & Wilcox, L. E. (1979). Self- control in children: Development of a rating scale. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47(6). 1020-1029. Ladd, G. W., & Burgess, K. B. (2001). Do relational risks and projective factors moderrate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment? Child Development, 72, 1579-1601. Ladegaard, H. (2004). Politenss in young children's speech: context, peer group influeence and pragmatic competence Journal of Pragmatics, 36, 2003-2022. Mitchell, C. J. R. (1996). Child-teacher attachment and social competence. Pro Quet-Disseration Abstracts, AAC 9621496(George Mason University, MAI-A 57-03, 1018).
achievement: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 1-14.
Paterson, G. R.(1982). Coercive family process, Eugene, Oregon: Castalia Publishing co. Pianta, R. C. & Steinberg, M. (1992). Teacher-child relationships and the process of adjustment to school. New Directions for Child Development, 57, pp 61-80 Pianta, R. C. (1991). The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale. Unpublished, University of Virginia. Pianta, R. C. (2001),Teacher-student support, effortful engagement, and Pianta., R. C.. & Nimettz, S.L., & Bennett, E.(1997). Mother-child relationship, teacher-child relationship, and social outcomes in preschool and Kindergarten. Early Childhood Reserarch Quarterly, 12, 263-280. Rose, A., (1991), The relationship of self-controlling to personal and social adjust in elementary school-aged children, doctorial dissertation, Biola University. Savin-Williams, R. C. (1979). Dominance hierarchies in groups of early adolesscents. Child Development, 50, 923-935. Shaffer, D.R.(1999). Chilhood and adolescence: Developmental psychology(5th). California:Brooks/Cole. Shantz, C. U(1987). Conflict between children. Child Development, 58, 283-305. Shantz, C. U., & Hobart, C. J. (1989). Social conflect and development, In T. J. Berndt, & G. W. Ladd, Peer relationship in child development. John Wiley, & Sons. 71-94. Slucken, A, M., & Smith, P, K. (1977). Tow approaches to the concept of dominance in preschool children. Child Development, 48, 917-923. strayer, F. (1995). Child ethology and the study of preschool social relations. In H. C. Foot, A. J. Champman, & J. R. Strayer, F. F. & Chapeskie, T. R., & Strayer, J. (1978). The perception of preschool social dominance. Aggressive Behavior. 4, 183-192. Strayer, F. F. & Strayer, J. (1976). An ethological analysis of social agonism and dominance relations among preschool children. Child Development, 47, 980-989. Trawick-Smith, J. (1988). Let's say you're the baby, OK? : Play ledership and following behavior of young children. Young Children. 43(5). 51-59. Vaughn, B., & Waters, E. (1980). Attention structure, sociometric status, and dominance: Interrelations, behavioral correlates, and relationships to social competence. Development Psychology. 17, 275-288. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962).Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: M. I. T. Press. William., D. E., & Schaller, K. A. (1993). Peer Persuasion: A Study of children's dominance strategies. Early Child Development and Care, 88, 31-41.
- 1명이 저술한 책
- Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead.
- 2명 이상이 저술한 책
- Smith, J., & Peter, Q. (1992). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Press.
- 편집된 책의 기사
- Mcdonalds, A. (1993). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). London: OtherWorld Books.
- 학술지에 실린, 개별적으로 쪽이 매겨진 논문
- Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God's long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.
- 학술지에 실린, 연속적으로 쪽이 매겨진 논문
- Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66-146.
- 주간지 기사
- Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28–31.
- 신문 기사
- Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). "Never Gonna Give You Up" says Mayor. Toronto Sol, p. 4.
- 정부 문서
- Revenue Canada. (2001). Advanced gouging: Manual for employees (MP 65–347/1124). Ottawa: Minister of Immigration and Revenue.
- 인쇄물이 원본인 인터넷 문서 (원본 형식 그대로인 것)
- Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white [Electronic version]. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–124.
- 인쇄물이 원본인 인터넷 문서 (원본과 형식이 다른 것)
- Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–124. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from http://www.pointlessjournal.com/colour_vs_black_and_white.html
- 인터넷판만 있는 저널의 논문
- Blofeld, E. S. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through Persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from http://journals.f+f.org/spectre/vblofeld-0046g.html
- 인터넷판만 있는 신문의 기사
- Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., et al. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update. Off the Beaten Path, 7 (3). Retrieved October 3, 1999, from http://www.newsletter.offthebeatenpath.news/otr/complaints.html
- 저자 및 작성일이 표시되지 않은 독자적 인터넷 문서
- What I did today. (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.cc.mystory.life/blog/didtoday.html [Fictional entry.]
- 대학교 교육 프로그램 웹사이트의 문서
- Rogers, B. (2078). Faster-than-light travel: What we've learned in the first twenty years. Retrieved August 24, 2079, from Mars University, Institute for Martian Studies Web site, http://www.eg.spacecentraltoday.mars/university/dept.html [Fictional entry.]
- 저널 논문의 전자복제본, 3~5명 저자, retrieved from database
- Costanza, G., Seinfeld, J., Benes, E., Kramer, C., & Peterman, J. (1993). Minutiæ and insignificant observations from the nineteen-nineties. Journal about Nothing, 52, 475–649. Retrieved October 31, 1999, from NoTHINGJournals database. [Fictional entry.]
- 전자우편 또는 기타 개인적인 의견교환
- (A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001)
- CD 책
- Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]. New York: Random House/Listening Library.
- 테이프 책
- Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]. New York: Random House/Listening Library.
- Gilby, A. (Producer), & Schlesinger, J. (Director). (1995). Cold comfort farm [Motion picture]. Universal City, CA: MCA Universal Home Video.
- APA 양식에서는 웹사이트(website) 대신 웹 사이트(Web site)로 표기한다.