유대인의 역사의 일부
대박해(大迫害, 러시아어: погром 포그롬[*], 영어: pogrom)란 특정 민족 또는 종교 집단에 대하여 학살과 약탈이 수반되어 일어나는 폭력적인 폭동이다. 본시 러시아어 "포그롬"이라는 단어에서 유래하였으며, 이는 그 자체로 박해라는 뜻을 갖는다. 이 표현은 영어로 수입되어 19세기에서 20세기 사이에 러시아 제국에서 발생한 반유대주의 폭동, 특히 오늘날의 벨로루시 및 우크라이나 지역의 강제거주구역인 체르타 오세들로스티에서 발생한 폭동을 가리키는 고유명사가 되었고, 그 뒤에는 같은 시기에 유럽 곳곳에서 발생한 반유대주의 폭동까지 의미가 확장되었다.
- "Pogrom", Encyclopædia Britannica. "pogrom, (Russian: "devastation," or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries."
- “The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789”. 15 February 2015에 확인함.
- John Klier (2011). Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882. Cambridge University Press. p. 58."By the twentieth century, the word "pogrom" had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence before the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life."
- For this definition and a review of scholarly definitions see Wilhelm Heitmeyer and John Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) pp 352–55 online
- Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal "No doubt many will contend that history suggests the need for a serious attempt to clarify what a pogrom is or is not. In the event, however, no such clarification is possible, for "pogrom" is not a pre-existing natural category but an abstraction created by human beings in order to divide complex and infinitely varies social phenomena into manageable units of analysis. As a result, in the absence of universal agreement concerning the specific behaviours to which the word refers or of some supreme authority to whom the power of definition has been delegated, there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label. "Engel states that although there are no "essential defining characteristics of a pogrom", the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms "took place in divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both) served as significant definers of both social boundaries and social rank, ... involved collective violent applications of force by members of what perpetrators believed to be a higher-ranking ethnic or religious group against members of what they considered a lower-ranking or subaltern group, ... appliers of the decisive force tended to interpret the behaviour of victims according to stereotypes commonly applied to the groups to which they belonged, ... perpetrators expressed some complaint about the victims' group, ... [and] a fundamental lack of confidence on the part of those who purveyed decisive violence in the adequacy of the impersonal rule of law to deliver true justice in the event of a heinous wrong."
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|이 글은 민족에 관한 토막글입니다. 서로의 지식을 모아 알차게 문서를 완성해 갑시다.|