사용자:Sacha S /야자수
- to civilians for outstanding services rendered to the State,
- to members of the armed forces for exemplary service,
- to those who promoted friendship and cooperation between peoples and in strengthening peace, and
- for other meritorious services to the Soviet state and society
From 1944 to 1957, before the institution of specific length of service medals, the Order of Lenin was also used to reward 25 years of conspicuous military service.
Those who were awarded the titles "Hero of the Soviet Union" and "Hero of Socialist Labor" were also given the order as part of the award. It was also bestowed on cities, companies, factories, regions, military units and ships.
Design of the decoration[편집]
The first design of the Order of Lenin was made of silver with some lightly gold-plated features. It was a round badge with a central disc featuring Vladimir Lenin's profile surrounded by smokestacks, a tractor and a building, possibly a power plant. A thin red-enamelled border and a circle of wheat panicles surrounded the disc. At the top was a gold-plated "hammer and sickle" emblem, and at the bottom were the Russian initials for "USSR" (СССР) in red enamel. Only about 800 of this design were minted.
The second, final design was awarded in 1934 and onwards. This was a solid-gold badge, featuring an enamelled disc bearing Lenin's portrait . The disc is surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat, and a red flag with "LENIN" in Cyrillic script (ЛЕНИН). A red star is placed on the left and the "hammer and sickle" emblem at the bottom, both in red enamel.
The badge was originally worn by screwback on the left chest without ribbon. Later it was worn as a medal suspended from a red ribbon with pairs of yellow stripes at the edges (see image above). The ribbon bar is of the same design.
The portrait of Lenin was originally a riveted silver piece. For a time it was incorporated into a one-piece gold badge, but finally returned as a separate platinum piece until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.
The first Order of Lenin was awarded to the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda on 23 May 1930. Also among the first ten recipients were five industrial companies, three pilots, and the Secretary to the Central Executive Committee Avel Enukidze. The first person to be awarded a second Order of Lenin was the pilot Valery Chkalov in 1936. Another pilot, Vladimir Kokkinaki, became the first to receive a third Order in 1939.
The first five foreign recipients, a German and four Americans (one of the Americans was Frank Bruno Honey—on May 17, 1932), received the award for helping in the reconstruction of Soviet industry and agriculture in 1931–1934.
The record for most Orders of Lenin received by a single person is held by Nikolay Patolichev, long-time Minister for Foreign Trade of the USSR, who was awarded 12 times. Other numerous repeat awardees are:
- Dmitry Ustinov, Defence Minister in 1976-1984
Among organisations and geographical objects, three Orders of Lenin were awarded to:
- 콤소몰, the Young Communist League
- LOMO, Leningrad Optical-Mechanical Corporation
- ZIL, automobile manufacturer
- Kryvorizhstal, Massively successful and profitable Steel Mill
- Azerbaijani, Armenian, Kazakh and Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republics
- Moscow Region
- 15개의 모든 소비에트 공화국
- Komsomolskaya Pravda (일간지)
- Sergey Afanasiev (Soviet "Space Minister", awarded 7 times)
- Aziz Aliyev (Azerbaijani and Dagestani politician and scientist, awarded 2 times)
- Clyde Armistead and William Latimer Lavery (American air mechanics awarded for participation in search and rescue operations of the steamship Cheliuskin)
- Emilian Bukov (Soviet writer for the Moldavian SSR, awarded 2 times)
- 피델 카스트로 (쿠바의 지도자)
- Sripat Amrit Dange (Indian Communist leader who had strongly endorsed pro-Soviet views.) 
- 세르게이 에이젠시타인 (film director)
- Muhammed Faris (Syrian Research Cosmonaut, July 30, 1987)
- 유리 가가린 (코스모노트)
- Israel Gelfand (Soviet mathematician, awarded 3 times)
- Armand Hammer (American businessman and philanthropist)
- 세르게이 일류신 (소련의 파일럿이자 비행기 디자이너, 8회 수상)
- 미하일 칼라시니코프 (AK-47 돌격 소총의 발명자)
- 니키타 흐루시초프 (Chief Director of the Soviet Union)
- Igor Kurchatov (Physicist, leader of the Soviet atomic bomb project, awarded 5 times)
- Yanka Kupala - Belarusian poet, for the book «Ад сэрца» (Hell of heart).
- Vladimir Konovalov (Sub-commander, and admiral, awarded 3 times)
- Fariza Magomadova (Chechen boarding school director and pioneer for women's education)
- Kirill Mazurov (Belarusian Soviet politician)
- Boris Mikhailov (Soviet Ice Hockey Team Captain in 1970s and 80s)
- Shoista Mullodzhanova, Bukharian Jewish Shashmakom singer
- Alexander Morozov, designer of the T-64 tank
- Yelena Mukhina (Gymnast 1960-2006)
- 가말 압델 나세르 (이집트의 대통령)
- Vilyam Genrikhovich Fisher (소련의 스파이)
- Fyodor Okhlopkov (제2차 세계대전 영웅)
- Nikolai Ostrovsky (Soviet author, 1904-1936)
- Lyudmila Pavlichenko (Soviet sniper World War II)
- Yevgeny Pepelyaev, fighter pilot in the Korean war
- Kim Philby (British/Soviet double agent)
- Arnold Rüütel (Estonian communist leader, later president of the independent Estonia)
- Anatoly Sagalevich (underwater explorer, creator of the MIR DSV)
- Dmitri Shostakovich (Soviet Composer, awarded three times)
- Ivan Sidorenko (Soviet sniper World War II)
- Nikolay Sutyagin, Fighter pilot in World War II and Korean war
- Semyon Timoshenko (World War II General, awarded 5 times)
- 요시프 브로즈 티토 (유고슬라비아의 대통령 1945-1980)
- Gherman Titov (Cosmonaut, awarded twice)
- Vladislav Tretiak (Soviet ice hockey goaltender)
- Aleksandr Vasilevsky (Soviet marshal, awarded 8 times)
- Pyotr Vershigora (Soviet major general and writer, a leader of the Soviet partisans during WWIII)
- Pham Tuan (Vietnamese cosmonaut)
- Vladislav Volkov (Cosmonaut)
- Kliment Voroshilov (소련군 원수? Marshall of Soviet Union)
- Lev Yashin (Soviet Football Goalkeeper)
- Vasily Grigoryevich Zaitsev (Soviet sniper during the Battle of Stalingrad)
- Yakov Zel'dovich (Soviet physicist)
- 게오르기 주코프 (Marshal of the Soviet Union)
- Lyudmila Zykina (Folk singer)
References in popular culture[편집]
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- In the 1990 film The Hunt for Red October Dr. Petrov (Tim Curry), upon hearing Captain Marko Ramius' (Sean Connery) order to scuttle the ship rather than let it fall into American hands, proclaims "...you'll receive the Order of Lenin for this, Sir!".
- In the video game Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, the Soviet scientist Aleksandr Leonovitch Granin shows off his various awards including the Order of Lenin and boasts about being given the title of 'Hero of Socialism' for his development of the mobile ballistic missile system known as SS-1C (better known as Scud).
- James Bond receives the order in the 1985 film A View to a Kill. It is awarded by General Anatol Gogol, for saving the American microchip industry (and thus, by implication of heavy espionage, the Soviet microchip industry), which was going to be destroyed by the main villain Max Zorin. In the movie, Bond is said to be the first non-Soviet citizen to receive the award, though this is not historically accurate. Various other villains and characters in the James Bond movie series have worn the order on their uniforms, usually in the form of a ribbon bar.
- In The West Wing episode Somebody's Going to Emergency, Somebody's Going to Jail, Sam Seaborn, while investigating the false accusation of a Soviet spy, is informed by National Security Advisor, Dr. Nancy McNally, the accused individual had in fact received the Order of Lenin.
- In the 2008 film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Colonel Doctor Irina Spalko mentions that she has received three Orders of Lenin for 'knowing things before everyone else'.
- McDaniel & Schmitt, The Comprehensive Guide to Soviet Orders and Medals.
- "One American, Frank Bruno Honey, received the Order of Lenin for his work." Dana G. Dalrymple, The American Tractor Comes to Soviet Agriculture: The Transfer of a Technology, Technology and Culture, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Spring, 1964), pp. 191–214 
- 틀:Ru icon Order of Lenin - history of establishment, evolution and varieties by Valery Durov
- The Junior Aircraft Year Book, 1935, p.8.
- Obituary reference in the Indian Parliament
- Tito's Home Page - With world leaders Bot generated title