사무엘 M. 즈웨머

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사무엘 M. 즈웨머
출생 1867년 4월 12일
Vriesland, Michigan, United States
사망 1952년 4월 2일
New York City, New York, United States
성별 남성
국적 미국

사무엘 M. 즈웨머(Samuel Marinus Zwemer, 1867년 4월 12일 - 1952년 4월 2일)는 별명이 이슬람사도이며 미국의 선교사, 여행가, 그리고 학자이다. 그는 미시간주 브레스랜드에서 태어났다. 미시간 홀랜드에 있는 호프 칼리지를 졸업하고 뉴브런즈윅 신학교를 졸업하고 호프 칼리지, 럿거스 대학교에서 명예학 박사를 받았다. 

미국 개혁교회 아바비아 선교의 창설멤버들, 제임스 캔틴, 랜싱, 그리고 사무엘 즈웨머

생애[편집]

신학 [편집]

즈웨머는 부모의 칼빈주의 따른 신학으로 모든 것들에서 하나님의 주권을 강조하였다[1].[2] 성경은 그의 믿음과 사역의 사고에 실제적으로 작동하게 했다.[3] 그는 신론을 공부하고 성경하나님과 대조적인 것을 알았지만 좀더 토착화하였다.[4] 그래서 이슬람의 신의 개념은 동양의 칼빈주의적 개념에서 이해가 되었다.[5][6]

선교학[편집]

즈웨머의 선교의 최고의 목적은 사람들의 구원이 아니라 하나님의 영광이었다.[7] 그는 칼빈이 본 것처럼 이 세상은 하나님의 영광의 극장인데 하나님의 복음이 전파됨으로써 그의 영광의 극장이 된다고 보았다.[8] 결국 그의 선교학이란 하나님의 주권이 기초이며 하나님의 영광이 목표이며 하나님의 의지가 동기가 된다.[9]

작품[편집]

  • Arabia, the Cradle of Islam (1900)[10]
  • Topsy Turvy Land (1902), with his wife, Mrs. Amy E. Zwemer[11]
  • Raymond Lull (1902)[12]
  • Moslem Doctrine of God (1906)
  • The Mohammedan World of Today (1906)
  • Islam: a challenge to faith: studies on the Mohammedan religion and the needs and opportunities of the Mohammedan world[13] (1907)
  • Our Moslem sisters: a cry of need from lands of darkness interpreted by those who heard it,[14] (1907) — edited with Annie van Sommer[15]
  • The Moslem World (1908)[16]
  • The Nearer and Farther East: Outline studies of Moslem lands, and of Siam, Burma, and Korea[17] (1908), with Arthur Judson Brown[18]
  • The Unoccupied Mission Fields (1910)
  • Islam and missions: being papers read at the second Missionary conference on behalf of the Mohammedan world at Lucknow, January 23-28, 1911[19] (1911)
  • The Moslem Christ[20] (1911)
  • The Unoccupied Mission Fields of Africa and Asia (1911)[21]
  • Daylight In The Harem: A New Era For Moslem Women[22] (1911) — Papers on present-day reform movements, conditions and methods of work among Moslem women read at the Lucknow Conference
  • Zigzag Journeys in the Camel Country (1912)[23]
  • Childhood in the Moslem World[24] (1915)[25]
  • Mohammed or Christ? An account of the rapid spread of Islam in all parts of the globe, the methods employed to obtain proselytes, its immense press, its strongholds, & suggested means to be adopted to counteract the evil (1916)[26]
  • The Disintegration of Islam (1916) — student lectures on missions at Princeton TS[27]
  • A Moslem Seeker after God: Showing Islam at its best in the life and teaching of al-Ghazali, mystic and theologian of the eleventh century (1920)[28]
  • The Influence of Animism on Islam : An Account of Popular Superstitions (1920)[29]
  • The Moslem World, Volume 4[30] (1914)
  • The Moslem World, Volume 8[31] (1918)
  • The Moslem World, Volume 9[32] (1919)
  • The Moslem World, Volume 10[33] (1919)
  • The Moslem World, Volume 11[34] (1919)
  • The Moslem World, Volume 12[35] (1919)[36]
  • The Law of Apostasy in Islam[37] (1924)
  • Moslem Women (1926), with his wife, Mrs. Amy E. Zwemer
  • The Glory of the Cross[38] (1928)
  • Across the world of Islam[39] (1929)
  • The exalted name of Christ (1932), translated from Arabic by Oskar Hermansson and Gustaf Ahlbert, assisted by Abdu Vali Akhond
  • Thinking Missions with Christ (1934)
  • Taking hold of God : studies on the nature, need and power of prayer (1936)[40]
  • It's Hard To Be A Christian: Some Aspects of the Fight for Character in the Life of the Pilgrim (1937)
  • The Solitary Throne, addresses Given at the Keswick Convention on the Glory and Uniqueness of the Christian Message[41] (1937)
  • The Golden Milestone : Reminiscences of Pioneer Days Fifty Years in Arabia (1938), with James Cantine[42]
  • Dynamic Christianity and the World Today (1939)
  • Studies in Popular Islam: A Collection of papers dealing with the Superstitions & Beliefs of the Common People (1939)
  • The Glory of the Manger: Studies on the Incarnation[43] (1940)
  • The Art of Listening to God (1940)
  • The Cross Above the Crescent (1941)
  • Islam in Madagascar (1941)
  • Into All the World (1943)
  • Evangelism Today: Message Not Method (1944)
  • The Origin of Religion: Evolution or Revelation (1945) — based on the Smyth Lectures 1935
  • Heirs of the Prophets (1946)
  • A factual survey of the Moslem world with maps and statistical tables (1946)
  • The Glory of the Empty Tomb[44] (1947)
  • How Rich the Harvest (1948)
  • Sons of Adam: Studies of Old Testament characters in New Testament light (1951)
  • Social And Moral Evils Of Islam (2002) — reprint of an earlier work

함께보기[편집]

  • San Geronimo
  • William Borden 화이팅

최근 작품들[편집]

참고문헌[편집]

  • Wilson, J. Christy, Apostle to Islam. A biography of Samuel M. Zwemer, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1952.
  • Wilson, J. Christy, Flaming Prophet: The Story of Samuel Zwemer, New York: Friendship Press, 1970.
  • Greenway, Roger S. (Editor), Islam and the Cross: Selections from "The Apostle to Islam", P and R Publishing, 2002.
  • Ipema, P. (Peter), The Islam interpretations of Duncan B. Macdonald, Samuel M. Zwemer, A. Kenneth Cragg and Wilfred C. Smith, Thesis (Ph.D.) - Hartford Seminary Foundation, 1971.
  • The vital forces of Christianity and Islam: Six studies by missionaries to Moslems / with an introduction by the Rev. S. M. Zwemer, and a concluding study by Professor Duncan B. Macdonald, Oxford University Press, 1915.
  • Janet & Geoff Benge, Samuel Zwemer: The Burden of Arabia . YWAM Publishing,2013

각주[편집]

  1. ‘His father taught him the Heidelberg Catechism as a boy and he remembered many of the answers all his life.’ Wilson Sr. Apostle, 241.
  2. ‘His theology was conservative Calvinism and he believed with all his heart in the whole of the Bible as the Word of God, and in the Reformed Faith.’ J. Christy Wilson Sr. Apostle to Islam: a biography of Samuel M. Zwemer (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1952), 241.
  3. ‘The Bible was so much a part of his life that thought and word seemed naturally to take the form of Biblical phrase’ J. Christy Wilson Sr. Apostle to Islam: a biography of Samuel M. Zwemer (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1952), 241.
  4. Hubers, ‘Samuel Zwemer’, 118. See Samuel Zwemer, Arabia: The Cradle of Islam, (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1900), 171 and then Samuel Zwemer, ‘The Allah of Islam and the God of Jesus Christ’, The Moslem World 36/4 (1946): 66-67. e.g. ‘The ninety-nine excellent names of Allah can also (with one or two exceptions) be found as attributes of Jehovah in the Old Testament Scriptures.’
  5. Samuel Zwemer, ‘Calvinism and the Missionary Enterprise’, ThTo 7/2 (1950): 212-214.
  6. Zwemer, ‘Editorial’, The Moslem World 1/2, (1911): 97. He wrote: ‘there is a sense in which Christianity is as intolerant as Islam;’
  7. Samuel Zwemer, Thinking Missions with Christ, (London: Marshall, Organ & Scott, 1934), 67. See Vander Werff, Christian Mission to Muslims, 260.
  8. Calvin quoted by Zwemer in ‘Calvinism’, 208.
  9. Zwemer, ‘Calvinism and the Missionary Enterprise’. Theology Today 7:2 (1950): 214.
  10. Rev. S. M.Zwemer (1900년 1월 1일). “Arabia The Cradle Of Islam”. 
  11. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1902년 1월 1일). “Topsy-turvy land;”. New York, Chicago [etc.] F. H. Revell company. 
  12. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1902년 1월 1일). “Raymond Lull : first missionary to the Moslems”. New York : Funk & Wagnalls. 
  13. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/islam_challenge/islam_challenge.pdf
  14. “Project Gutenberg”. 
  15. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/moslem_sisters/moslem_sisters.pdf
  16. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1908년 1월 1일). “The Moslem world”. New York, Young people's missionary movement of the United States and Canada. 
  17. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus; Brown, Arthur Judson (1908년 1월 1일). “The nearer and farther East: outline studies of Moslem lands and of Siam, Burma, and Korea”. Macmillan. 
  18. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus; Brown, Arthur Judson (1909년 1월 1일). “The nearer and farther East; outline studies of Moslem lands and of Siam, Burma, and Korea”. New York, Macmillan. 
  19. Wherry, Elwood Morris; Zwemer, Samuel Marinus; Mylrea, C. G. (1911년 1월 1일). “Islam and Missions: Being Papers Read at the Second Missionary Conference on Behalf of the Mohammedan World at Lucknow, January 23-28, 1911”. Fleming H. Revell Company. 
  20. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/moslem_christ.pdf
  21. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1911년 1월 1일). “The unoccupied mission fields of Africa and Asia”. London, Marshall Brothers, Ltd. 
  22. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/daylight_harem/daylight_harem_illustrations.pdf
  23. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus; Zwemer, Amy E. (Wilkes) (1911년 1월 1일). “Zigzag journeys in the camel country; Arabia in picture and story”. New York, Chicago [etc.] Fleming H. Revell company. 
  24. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/moslem_childhood_illustrations.pdf
  25. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1915년 1월 1일). “Childhood in the Moslem World”. Fleming H. Revell Company. 
  26. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus. “Mohammed or Christ; an account of the rapid spread of Islam in all parts of the globe, the methods employed to obtain proselytes, its immense press, its strongholds, & suggested means to be adopted to counteract the evil”. New York, London Fleming H. Revell. 
  27. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1916년 1월 1일). “The disintegration of Islam”. New York ; Toronto : F.H. Revell. 
  28. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus. “A Moslem seeker after God : showing Islam at its best in the life and teaching of al-Ghazali, mystic and theologian of the eleventh century”. New York : Fleming H. Revell. 
  29. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1920년 1월 1일). “The influence of animism on Islam; an account of popular superstitions”. London : Central Board of Missions and Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
  30. Hartford Seminary Foundation. “The Muslim world”. Hartford [etc.] Hartford Seminary Foundation [etc.] 
  31. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1918년 1월 1일). “The Moslem World”. Nile Mission Press. 
  32. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1919년 1월 1일). “The Moslem World”. Nile Mission Press. 
  33. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1920년 1월 1일). “The Moslem World”. Nile Mission Press. 
  34. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1921년 1월 1일). “The Moslem World”. Nile Mission Press. 
  35. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1922년 1월 1일). “The Moslem World”. Nile Mission Press. 
  36. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus (1922년 1월 1일). “The Moslem World”. Nile Mission Press. 
  37. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/apostasy.pdf
  38. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/glory_cross.pdf
  39. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/across_world_islam/across_world_islam.pdf
  40. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus. “Taking Hold of God : studies in Prayer”. London : Marshall, Morgan & Scott. 
  41. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/solitary_throne.pdf
  42. Zwemer, Samuel Marinus; Cantine, James. “The golden milestone [microform] ; reminiscences of pioneer days fifty years ago in Arabia”. New York [etc.] : Fleming H. Revell. 
  43. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/glory_manger.pdf
  44. http://muhammadanism.org/Zwemer/glory_tomb.pdf