자크 르페브르 데타플

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자크 르페브르 데타플(Lefèvre d'Étaples)

자크 르페브르 데타플(Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, 1450 ?~1537)는 프랑스의 인문주의자이자 신학자이다. 피카다리의 에타플에서 출생하였다. 파리대학교를 마친 후 이탈리아의 플로렌스, 로마, 그리고 베니스에서 수학하였으며, 인문주의자들과 교류하였다, 파리대학으로 돌아와서 레모네 추기경 대학의 교수가 되었다. 그의 제자로 바타블, 찰스 더 보베르, 칼뱅제네바로 이끌었던 종교개혁가 기욤 파렐이 있다. 성경은 유일한 규범이며 오직 믿음으로 의롭게된다고 주장하였다. 아리스토텔레스 철학의 연구와 병행하여 고대 문예와 그리스도교 신앙의 조화를 꾀하여 성서의 원전을 연구하였다. 초기 인문주의자들이 즐긴 엄격한 언어학적 방법을 써서 바울의 편지·복음서·《사도행전》 등의 석의와 주해서를 저술하였다. 《3인의 마리아론(論) Dissertation sur les trois Maries》(1517~1519)은 소르본대학 신학부가 이단이라고 단정했으나 연구를 계속하여 최초로 신약성서의 프랑스어(語) 번역을 완성하였다. 한편 교회제도의 평화적 개혁을 위한 실천운동을 벌이기도 하였으나 그 개혁적 경향 때문에 국내의 사상 탄압이 격화하여 1530년 나바르로 추방당하였다[1]. 성경번역과 신학과 관련하여 에라스무스와 긴장관계를 조금 가지고 있었다.[2] 종교 개혁가들의 신학에 큰 영향을 주었다.


작품[편집]

Aristotelian works (selected)
  • Paraphrases of the Whole of Aristotle's Natural Philosophy [Johannes Higman:] Parisii, 1492[3]
  • Introduction to the Metaphysics (1494)
  • Introduction to the Nicomachean Ethics (1494)
  • Logical Introductions (1496)
  • Politics (1506)
Boethius

The publication, with critical apparatus, of Boetius, De Arithmetica. Paris: Johannes Higman and Wolfgang Hopyl, 22 July 1496.

Biblical translations

He was a prolific translator of the Bible. He completed a translation of the Old Testament in 1528, and was famous for his French translation of the Psalms and the Pauline epistles, which he finished early in his career. His completed translation of the entire Christian Bible, published in 1530, was the first in the French language.

  • Psalterium quintuplex ; gallicum, romanum, hebraicum, vêtus, conciliatum, 1509 and 1515, published by Henri Estienne, fol. with footnotes
  • Commentaires sur saint Paul, avec une nouvelle traduction latine, Paris, 1512 and 1531. This work, in which one notices the lack of progress which had been made in criticism, was criticised by Erasmus for the grammatical section, and by Beda for the theological section, however this did not prevent it from being valued and studied
  • Commentaires sur les Évangiles, Meaux, 1525; his doctrine appears here to be very orthodox on the points disputed by the innovators, although the syndic Beda reproached him for errors in this respect
  • Commentaires sur les épitres canoniques, Meaux, 1525; all his commentaries on the New Testament were put on the Index by the Roman inquisitors, under Pope Clement VIII. He distanced himself from ancient barbarism
  • Traduction française du Nouveau Testament, Paris, Colines, 1523, 5 vols. 8vo, anonymous extremely rare, particularly the last volume. The translation was made from the Vulgate, because he intended it for the use of the faithful. It appeared again in his complete version of the Bible, Antwerp, fol.; later editions 1529 and 1532, 4 vol. 4to.; 1528, 4 vol. 8vo. The edition revised by the doctors of Louvain is the most correct and also the rarest because it was suppressed as was the edition of 1511. It is remarkable that while the Cordeliers of Meaux attacked Lefèvre because of his translations, those of Antwerp approved it in 1528, for printing and for sale. It is true that they did not have in their edition l'Épitre exhortatoire, which principally displeased the doctors of Paris
  • Exhortations en français sur les évangiles et les épitres des dimanches, Meaux, 1525, condemned by the Parlement
Music theory
  • Musica libris demonstrata quattuor, published together with Nemorarius, Arithmetica decem libris demonstrata and Boethius, De Arithmetica, Paris: Johannes Higman and Wolfgang Hopyl, 22 July 1496[4] Full text of 1551 edition
Other works
  • Arithmetica decem libris demonstrata, the De elementis arithmetice artis of Jordanus Nemorarius (Jordanus de Nemore) with commentary and demonstrations, published together with Musica libris demonstrata quattuor and Boethius, De Arithmetica, Paris: Johannes Higman and Wolfgang Hopyl, 22 July 1496
  • Traduction latine des livres de la foi orthodoxe de saint Jean de Damas ; the first translation of this work
  • De Maria Magdalena, 1517, followed in 1519 by another entitled: De tribus et unica Magdalena. This work is well done; the author retracts several points from the first work, for example his having said that these three women all bore the name of Magdalene
  • Rithmimachie ludus, qui et pugna numerorum appellatur, Paris, Henri Estienne, 1514, 4to.; opusculum of five pages, printed at the end of the second edition of the Arithmetica of Jordanus Nemorarius. Here Lefèvre gives a very curious description of this ancient Pythagorean game, but with such little detail that cannot understand it properly except by joining it to the extended notice which Boissière gave to the same game
  • The Opera omnia of Nicholas of Cusa, Paris, 1514[5]

[편집]

  1. [1]
  2. Chapter 1, p. 19 ff, of Lindberg, Carter.
  3. Begin. [fol. 1 verso:] [Iacobi Fabri Stapulen̄: Philosophie Paraphrases ad grauissimū patrē: Ambrosiū de Cambray, etc.] [fol. 2 recto:] Littere librorum P C G M A S MR SV L P. Liber physicorum. C. Liber de celo – mūdo. G. Liber de generatione – corruptione. M. Liber metheororum. A. Liber de anima. S. Liber de sensu – sensato. MR. Liber de memoria – reminiscentia. SV. Liber de somno et vigilia. L. Liber de longitudine et breuitate vite. [A paraphrase on the above books of Aristotle by Jacobus Faber.] [fol. 269 recto:] Dialogus Iacobi. F. Stapulen̄. in Physicam introductionem. [fol. 288 recto:] Dialogus Iacobi F. Stapulen̄ difficiliū Physicalium introductorius
  4. Lesure Volume 1 p.492
  5. The Prefatory Epistles of Jacques Lefévre D'Etaples and Related Texts, ed. Eugene F. Rice, New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.