Black vine weevil
Growing degree day 생육도일(生育度日)
Royal Botanical Gardens (RBG) is headquartered in Burlington and also include lands in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the major tourist attractions between Niagara Falls and Toronto, as well as a significant local and regional horticultural, education, conservation and scientific resource. On 31 July 2006, Royal Botanical Gardens was selected as the National Focal Point for the Global strategy for plant conservation (GSPC) by Environment Canada.
The 980 hectares (2,422 acres) of nature sanctuary owned by Royal Botanical Gardens is considered the plant biodiversity hotspot for Canada, with a very high proportion of the wild plants of Canada in one area; is an Important Bird Area according to Bird Studies Canada; and is part of the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve. More than 1,100 species of plants grow within its boundaries including the Bashful Bulrush (Trichophorum planifolium) which is found nowhere else in Canada, and the largest remaining population of Canada's most endangered tree, the Red Mulberry (Morus rubra). Both of these plants are listed as Endangered in Canada under the Species at Risk Act. In 2008, RBG was designated as an Important Amphibian and Reptile Area by CARCNET, the Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network.
온타리오 주 내 소수의 인구가 농업에 종사하고 있다. 농가 수는 1991년 68,633호에서 2001년 59,728호로 감소 추세에 있다. 하지만 점차 기계화가 진행되면서 농장 규모는 커지고 있다. 2001년 온타리오 주의 인구 센서스를 보면 목축, 낙농업, 소규모 작물 재배가 주를 이루고 있다. 포도 재배로 대표되는 과일 농장들과 채소 농장, 담배 농장들은 주로 나이아가라 반도와 이리 호를 따라 형성되어있다. 현재 이 지역 담배의 생산량이 현재 감소하는 추세이다. 대신에 인삼이나 헤이즐넛 등 다른 작물들을 많이 재배하고 있다. 온타리오 주는 한때 세계에서 가장 큰 농기구 생산업체였던 메시-퍼거슨 사(Massey-Ferguson Ltd.)가 탄생한 곳이기도 한다. 이는 한때 캐나다 경제에 농업이 얼마나 중요했는지 의미한다.
Southern Ontario's limited supply of agricultural land is going out of production at an increasing rate. Urban sprawl and farmland severances contribute to the loss of thousands of acres of productive agricultural land in Ontario each year. Over 2,000 farms and 150,000 acres (610 km2) of farmland in the GTA alone were lost to production in the two decades between 1976 and 1996. This loss represented approximately 18% of Ontario's Class 1 farmland being converted to urban purposes. In addition, increasing rural severances provide ever-greater interference with agricultural production.
Tuesdays with Morrie is a bestselling nonfiction book by American writer Mitch Albom, published in 1997 (ISBN 0-385-48451-8). The story was later adapted by Thomas Rickman into a television movie (directed by Mick Jackson), which aired on 5 December 1999 and starred Hank Azaria.
It tells the true story of Morrie Schwartz and his relationship with his student, Mitch Albom. Both the film and the book chronicle the lessons about life that Mitch learns from his professor, who is dying from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease.
After five years in hardcover, it was released as a trade paperback in October 2002. It was re-released as a mass-market paperback by Anchor Books in January 2006. According to this edition, 11 million copies of Tuesdays with Morrie are in print worldwide.
II. Parasitoids: Parasitoids are another kind of desirable natural pest control. Parasitoids are different from parasites in several important ways. Most importantly for our purposes, a parasitoid always kills its host, while a parasite usually weakens its host but rarely kills it. Rather than changing hosts as some parasites do in order to complete the life cycle, parasitoids develop on or within a single host.
In some parasitoid-host systems, the parasitoid is close to the same size (as a full-grown larva) as its host whereas a parasite is much smaller than its host. In contrast, other parasitoids are very small in size compared to their host's size. The adult stage of most parasitoids are small to tiny, such as members of the braconid wasp family. Braconid wasps do not pose any threat to humans as they do not sting.
The life cycle of a parasitoid is unusual. Most of the time, it begins when the adult female lays her eggs in or on the host. When the eggs hatch, the larvae consume the host gradually, ensuring that their unsuspecting prey stays alive until the larval parasitoid pupates and is able to survive without the host. Parasitoids tend to be highly host-specific. They choose one species as a host or, in some cases, a group of closely related species on which to raise their young.
I. Predators: Predators are insects and other beneficials that hunt for a living. They catch, kill and eat other insects. In general, predators are free-living and as large as or larger than their prey. Predators are typically general feeders: they consume several or numerous prey over the course of their lives and they may feed on a wide variety of prey.
Some types of predators, such as hover or syrphid flies, are predatory only as immatures or larvae. Hover fly larvae tend to prey primarily on aphids, mealybugs, scale insects and other soft-bodied insects. In contrast, adult hover flies feed on the nectar and pollen from flowers and may serve as pollinators.
Other types of predators start hunting as soon as they hatch into larvae and continue their predatory role throughout adulthood. Common examples of this group are lady beetles, some species of lacewings and ground beetles. Many predators are generalists; they eat a wide variety of prey, such as assassin bugs and the praying mantis. A few are specialists and will dine on only one species or on a few closely related species.
Spiders can also serve a vital role as predators. Spiders are abundant and widespread and, best of all, a natural controller of insect populations. Spiders are beneficial predators that reduce pest populations. They oftentimes play a primary role in biological control of pests in and around homes, yards, gardens and crops.
Lizards make up one of the most diverse and successful groups of modern reptiles. Several types of lizards occur and none are harmful to humans or pets. In fact, these lizards are beneficial, as they prey on a wide variety of small insects such as crickets, cockroaches, moths, grubs, beetles, flies and grasshoppers. They do not chew their food but swallow it whole.