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- Appia teritur regina longarum viarum
- 아피아 테리투르 레지나 론가룸 비아룸
- "아피아 가도는 도로의 여왕이다."
도로 건설의 필요[편집]
로마 군대는 전장에서 퇴각할 경우[출처 필요] 에 군대를 재정비하고 다시 전투를 준비할 수 있는 기지에 의존했다. 이 기지는 전장에서 바로 공격할 기회를 기다릴 수 있도록 많은 수의 로마 병사를 수용할 수 있었다. 하지만 이런 기지들은 수도인 로마에서부터 연결되어 출입이 쉽고 물자 공급이 수월한 좋은 도로를 필요로 했다. 이 때문에 기원전 4세기 중반, 아피아 가도는 군사적 물자 교류를 위한 메인 도로로 건설되었다.
아피아 가도는 엄밀히 말해서, 군사 교류 목적으로 로마의 영역 (이는 로마 제국과는 다르며, 초기의 로마 공화국을 말한다.) 을 벗어나서 건설된 최초의 도로가 되었다. 에트루리아 인들이 지배했던 초기의 로마 시대에 지어진 몇몇 도로들은 대개 로마를 벗어나서 에트루리아를 이어주었다. 공화정 시대부터 로마인들은 도로 건설의 주역이 되어 이탈리아 내의 도로들을 확장했다. 이러한 도로들은 이티네라리움 (Itinerarium) 을 통해 목적지를 결정하고 계획하여 도로들을 로마 시에서 그들의 영토 경계선까지 확장되었다. 이 시대에 "모든 길은 로마로 통한다." 라는 속담이 생기게 되었다.
폰티네 습지의 성벽[편집]
제 1차 삼니움 전쟁(343–341 BC)에서, 로마인들은 늪지 건너의 삼니움인들에 맞서 평원에서 군대를 지원하거나 재공급할 수 없음을 알았는데다가, 더욱이 라틴 동맹의 반란은 그들의 자원을 빼내었다. 그들은 미수에 그친 연합을 포기했고 삼니움인들을 진정시켰다.
동남부 지역의 식민지화[편집]
The Romans were only biding their time while they looked for a solution. The first answer was the colonia, a "cultivation" of settlers from Rome, who would maintain a permanent base of operations. The Second Samnite War (327–304 BC) erupted when Rome attempted to place a colony at Cales in 334 BC and again at Fregellae in 328 on the other side of the marshes. The Samnites, now a major power after defeating the Greeks of Tarentum, occupied Neapolis to try to ensure its loyalty. The Neapolitans appealed to Rome, which sent an army and expelled the Samnites from Neapolis.
Colonies alone apparently were not the answer. In 321 BC, a Roman army was trapped in the mountain passes north of Capua, at Caudium. At the Battle of the Caudine Forks they were kept penned in without supplies, especially water, until the Senate bought their release in exchange for a half-year treaty [출처 필요] the Romans considered humiliating, by which they provided hostages and gave up the colonies. Rome used the time to defeat the Italic tribes around Samnium. In 316 BC, at the end of the treaty, Samnium again opened hostilities against Rome, defeating her at the Battle of Lautulae in 315 BC. By 312 BC, the situation was bleak for Rome and became bleaker when, in 311 BC, the Etruscans in Etruria and Campania defected to the Samnites.
아피우스 클라우디우스의 작업이 시작되다[편집]
In 312 BC, Appius Claudius Caecus became censor at Rome. He was of the gens Claudia, who were patricians descended from the Sabines taken into the early Roman state. He had been given the name of the founding ancestor of the gens. He was a populist, i.e., an advocate of the common people. A man of inner perspicacity, in the years of success he was said to have lost his outer vision and thus acquired the name caecus, "blind".
Without waiting to be told what to do by the Senate, Appius Claudius began bold public works to address the supply problem. An aqueduct (the Aqua Appia) secured the water supply of the city of Rome. By far the best known project was the road, which ran across the Pontine Marshes to the coast northwest of Naples, where it turned north to Capua. On it, any number of fresh troops could be sped to the theatre of operations, and supplies could be moved en masse to Roman bases without hindrance by either enemy or terrain. It is no surprise that, after his term as censor, Appius Claudius became consul twice, subsequently held other offices, and was a respected consultant to the state even during his later years.
The road achieved its purpose. The outcome of the Second Samnite War was at last favorable to Rome. In a series of blows the Romans reversed their fortunes, bringing Etruria to the table in 311 BC, the very year of their revolt, and Samnium in 304. The road was the main factor that allowed them to concentrate their forces sufficiently rapidly and keep them adequately supplied to become a formidable opponent.
The main part of the Appian Way was started and finished in 312 BC.
The road began as a leveled dirt road upon which small stones and mortar were laid. Gravel was laid upon this, which was finally topped with tight fitting, interlocking stones to provide a flat surface. Some of the stones were said to fit so well that you could not slide a knife into the cracks.The road was crested in the middle (for water runoff) and had ditches on either side of the road which were protected by retaining walls.
로마부터 알바노 호수까지[편집]
The road began in the Forum Romanum, passed through the Servian Wall at the porta Capena, went through a cutting in the clivus Martis, and left the city. For this stretch of the road, the builders used the via Latina. The building of the Aurelian Wall centuries later required the placing of another gate, the Porta Appia. Outside of Rome the new via Appia went through well-to-do suburbs along the via Norba, the ancient track to the Alban hills, where Norba was situated. The road at the time was a via glarea, a gravel road. The Romans built a high-quality road, with layers of cemented stone over a layer of small stones, crowned, drainage ditches on either side, low retaining walls on sunken portions, and dirt pathways for sidewalks. The via Appia is believed to have been the first Roman road to feature the use of lime cement. The materials were volcanic rock. The surface was said to have been so smooth that you could not distinguish the joints. The Roman section still exists and is lined with monuments of all periods, although the cement has eroded out of the joints, leaving a very rough surface.
The road concedes nothing to the Alban hills, but goes straight through them over cuts and fills. The gradients are steep. Then it enters the former Pomptine Marshes. A stone causeway of about 19 miles led across stagnant and foul-smelling pools blocked from the sea by sand dunes. Appius Claudius planned to drain the marsh, taking up earlier attempts, but he failed. The causeway and its bridges subsequently needed constant repair. No one enjoyed crossing the marsh. In 162 BC, Marcus Cornelius Cathegus had a canal constructed along the road to relieve the traffic and provide an alternative when the road was being repaired. Romans preferred using the canal.
The via Appia picked up the coastal road at Tarracina. However, the Romans straightened it somewhat with cuttings, which form cliffs today. From there the road swerved north to Capua, where, for the time being, it ended. Caudine Forks was not far to the north. The itinerary was Aricia (Ariccia), Tres Tabernae, Forum Appii, Tarracina (Terracina), Fundi (Fondi), Formiae (Formia), Minturnae (Minturno), Sinuessa (Mondragone), Casilinum and Capua, but some of these were colonies added after the Samnite Wars. The distance was 132 miles. The original road had no milestones, as they were not yet in use. A few survive from later times, including a first milestone near the porta Appia.
The Third Samnite War (298–290 BC) is perhaps misnamed. It was an all-out attempt by all the neighbors of Rome: Italics, Etruscans and Gauls, to check the power of Rome. The Samnites were the leading people of the conspiracy. Rome dealt the northerners a crushing blow at the Battle of Sentinum in Umbria in 295 BC. The Samnites fought on alone. Rome now placed 13 colonies in Campania and Samnium. It must have been during this time that they extended the via Appia 35 miles beyond Capua past the Caudine forks to a place the Samnites called Maloenton, "passage of the flocks". The itinerary added Calatia, Caudium and Beneventum (not yet called that). Here also ended the via Latina.
아풀리아와 칼라브리아까지의 확장[편집]
By 290 BC, all was over for the sovereignty of the Samnites. The heel of Italy lay open to the Romans. The dates are somewhat uncertain and there is considerable variation in the sources, but during the Third Samnite War the Romans seem to have extended the road to Venusia, where they placed a colony of 20,000 men. After that they were at Tarentum.
Roman expansion alarmed Tarentum, the leading city of the Greek presence (Magna Graecia) in southern Italy. They hired the mercenary king King Pyrrhus of Epirus in neighboring Greece to fight the Romans on their behalf. In 280 BC the Romans suffered a defeat at the hands of Pyrrhus at the Battle of Heraclea on the coast west of Tarentum. The battle was costly for both sides, prompting Pyrrhus to remark "One more such victory and I am lost." Making the best of it, the Roman army turned on Greek Rhegium and effected a massacre of Pyrrhian partisans there.
Rather than pursue them, Pyrrhus went straight for Rome along the via Appia and then the via Latina. He knew that if he continued on the via Appia he could be trapped in the marsh. Wary of such entrapment on the via Latina also, he withdrew without fighting after encountering opposition at Anagni. Wintering in Campania, he withdrew to Apulia in 279 BC, where, pursued by the Romans, he won a second costly victory at the Battle of Asculum. Withdrawing from Apulia for a Sicilian interlude, he returned to Apulia in 275 and started for Campania up the nice Roman road.
Supplied by that same road, the Romans successfully defended the region against Pyrrhus, crushing his army in a two-day fight at the Battle of Beneventum in 275 BC. The Romans renamed the town from "Maleventum" (ill wind) to Beneventum (beneficial wind) as a result. Pyrrhus withdrew to Greece, where he died in a street fight in Argos in 272 BC. Tarentum fell to the Romans that same year, who proceeded to consolidate their rule over all of Italy.
The Romans pushed the via Appia to the port of Brundisium in 264 BC. The itinerary from Benvenutum was now Venusia, Silvium, Tarentum, Uria and Brundisium. The Roman Republic was the government of Italy, for the time being. Appius Claudius died in 273, but in extending the road a number of times, no one has tried to displace his name upon it.
The emperor Trajan built the Via Traiana, an extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum, reaching Brundisium via Canusium and Barium rather than via Tarentum. This was commemorated by an arch at Beneventum.
스파르타쿠스와 그의 부하들의 처형[편집]
Spartacus defeated many Roman armies in a conflict that lasted for over two years. While trying to escape from Italy at Brundisium he unwittingly moved his forces into the historic trap in Apulia/Calabria. The Romans were well acquainted with the region. Legions were brought home from abroad and Spartacus was pinned between armies.
On his defeat the Romans judged that the slaves had forfeited their right to live. In 71 BC, 6,000 were crucified along the 200-kilometer Via Appia from Rome to Capua.
제 2차 세계 대전[편집]
In 1943, during World War II, the Allies fell into the same trap Pyrrhus had retreated to avoid, in the Pomptine fields, the successor to the Pomptine marshes. The marsh remained, despite many efforts to drain it, until engineers working for Benito Mussolini finally succeeded. (Even so, the fields were infested with malarial mosquitos until the advent of DDT in 1950s.)
Hoping to break a stalemate at Monte Cassino, the Allies landed on the coast of Italy at Nettuno, ancient Antium, which was midway between Ostia and Terracina. They found that the place was undefended. They intended to move along the line of the via Appia to take Rome, outflanking Monte Cassino, but they did not do so quickly enough. The Germans occupied Mounts Laziali and Lepini along the track of the old Via Latina, from which they rained down shells on Anzio. Even though the Allies expanded into all the Pomptine region, they gained no ground. The Germans counterattacked down the via Appia from the Alban hills in a front four miles wide, but could not retake Anzio. The battle lasted for four months, one side being supplied by sea, the other by land through Rome. In May 1944, the Allies broke out of Anzio and took Rome. The German forces escaped to the north of Florence.
1960년 하계 올림픽[편집]
- Sylvae, 2.2
- Povoledo, Elisabetta, “Past Catches Up With the Queen of Roads”, 《뉴욕 타임즈》, 2008년 4월 5일 작성. 2008년 4월 5일 확인. “고대의 아피아 가도는 로마에서 이탈리아 남부에 있는 브린디시까지 이어졌으며, '도로의 여왕'이라는 뜻의 '레지나 비아룸'이란 뜻으로 통했다. 그러나 요즈음에는 교통 밀집, 반달, 관리인들의 불만, 불법 개발 등의 문제로 그 명색이 조금씩 녹슬고 있는 실정이다. (In ancient times the Appian Way, which links Rome to the southern city of Brindisi, was known as the regina viarum, the queen of the roads. But these days its crown appears to be tarnished by chronic traffic congestion, vandalism and, some of its guardians grumble, illegal development.)”
- See The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, p.66
- 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 80-81.
- 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 1. pp. 117-8.