표준 온도 압력

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어떤 물질의 열역학량을 정의하기 위해서는 표준적인 상태를 정해야 할 필요가 있다. 이 표준을 표준 온도 압력(標準 溫度 壓力)이라고 한다.

SATP(Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure)와 STP(Standard Temperature and Pressure)의 두가지 종류가 있는데, SATP가 보다 널리 쓰인다.

  • SATP: 온도 25°C(298.15K), 기압 1 bar(100000 Pa)
  • STP: 온도 0 °C(273.15K), 기압 1 atm(101325 Pa)

현재의 사용[편집]

표 1: 현재 사용의 표준 참조 조건

온도 절대 압력 상대 습도 제정 단체
°C kPa % RH
0 100.000   IUPAC (현재 정의)[1]
0 101.325   IUPAC (이전 정의),[1] NIST,[2] ISO 10780[3]
15 101.325 0 [4], [5] ISA,[4] ISO 13443,[5] EEA,[6] EGIA[7]
20 101.325   EPA,[8] NIST[9]
25 101.325   EPA[10]
25 100.000   SATP[11]
20 100.000 0 CAGI[12]
15 100.000   SPE[13]
°F psia  % RH
60 14.696   SPE,[13] OSHA,[14] SCAQMD[15]
60 14.73   EGIA,[7] OPEC,[16] EIA[17]
59 14.503 78 Army Standard Metro[18]
59 14.696 60 ISO 2314, ISO 3977-2[19]
°F in Hg  % RH
70 29.92 0 AMCA,[20] 대기 밀도 = 0.075 lbm/ft³

참조[편집]

  1. "Compendium of Terminology", 2nd Edition, 1997, IUPAC Secretariat, Research Triangle Park, P.O. Box 13757, NC, USA (former and present definitions)  IUPAC Compendium
  2. "NIST Standard Reference Data Base 7 Users Guide", December 1969, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA  NIST Data Base 7
  3. "Stationary source emissions – Measurement of velocity and volume flow rate of gas streams in ducts", ISO 10780, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland  ISO
  4. "Handbook of Physics and Chemistry", 56th Edition, pp.F201-F206, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
  5. "Natural gas – Standard reference conditions", ISO 13443, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland  ISO
  6. "Extraction, First Treatment and Loading of Liquid & Gaseous Fossil Fuels", Emission Inventory Guidebook B521, Activities 050201 - 050303, September 1999, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark  Emission Inventory Guidebook
  7. "Electricity and Gas Inspection Act", SOR/86-131 (defines a set of standard conditions for Imperial units and a different set for metric units)  Canadian Laws
  8. "Standards of Performance for New Sources", 40 CFR--Protection of the Environment, Chapter I, Part 60, Section 60.2, 1990  New Source Performance Standards
  9. "Design and Uncertainty for a PVTt Gas Flow Standard", Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol.108, Number 1, 2003  NIST Journal
  10. "National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards", 40 CFR--Protection of the Environment, Chapter I, Part 50, Section 50.3, 1998  National Ambient Air Standards
  11. "Table of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties", National Bureau of Standards (NBS), Journal of Physics and Chemical Reference Data, 1982, Vol. 11, Supplement 2.
  12. "Glossary", 2002, Compressed Air and Gas Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA  Glossary
  13. "The SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard (Notes for Table 2.3 on page 25)", June 1982, Richardson, TX, USA (defines standard cubic foot and standard cubic meter)  SPE
  14. "Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases" and "Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia", 29 CFR--Labor, Chapter XVII--Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Part 1910, Sect. 1910.110 and 1910.111, 1993  Storage/Handling of LPG
  15. "Rule 102, Definition of Terms (Standard Conditions)", Amended December 2004, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Los Angeles, California, USA  SCAQMD Rule 102
  16. "Annual Statistical Bulletin", 2004, Editor-in-chief: Dr. Omar Ibrahim, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna, Austria  OPEC Statistical Bulletin
  17. "Natural Gas Annual 2004", DOE/EIA-0131(04), December 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington, D.C., USA  Natural Gas Annual 2004
  18. "Effects of Altitude and Atmospheric Conditions", Exterior Ballistics Section, Sierra's "Rifle and Handgun Reloading Manual, 5th Edition", Sedalia, MO, USA  Exterior Ballistics
  19. "Gas turbines – Procurement – Part 2: Standard reference conditions and ratings", ISO 3977-2:1997 and "Gas turbines - Acceptance tests", ISO 2314:1989, Edition 2, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland ISO
  20. ANSI/AMCA Standard 210, "Laboratory Methods Of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating", as implied here: http://www.greenheck.com/pdf/centrifugal/Plug.pdf when accessed on October 17, 2007

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