중국의 종교

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.







CFPS 2014 기준 중국의 종교[1][2][note 1]

  무교/중국 전통 종교 (73.56%)
  불교 (15.87%)
  기타 종교 (7.62%)
  기독교 (2.51%)

중국 정부는 공식적으로 국가 무신론을 표방하고 있지만[3] 중국 문명은 역사적으로 오랫동안 전 세계도교, 불교는 중국 문화의 기틀을 마련한 삼교를 이룬다. 이 종교 체계 간 명확한 경계는 없다.

기독교와 이슬람교는 7세기 중국에 다다랐다. 20세기 초 기독교 커뮤니티가 성장했으나 1949년 이후 외부 선교사들이 내쫓기면서 교회는 정부 통제 기관 하에 들어갔다. 1970년대 말 이후 기독교인을 위한 종교 자유가 개선되어 새로운 중국계 단체들이 등장하였다.[4]:508, 532

지역 분포[편집]

주요 성, 도시, 자치 지역별 종교 (최신 데이터 기준)[5]:13
Chinese
ancestorism
[6]
불교[7] 기독교[7] 이슬람교[8]
푸젠성 31.31% 40.40% 3.97% 0.32%
저장성 23.02% 23.99% 3.89% <0.2%
광시 좡족 자치구 40.48% 10.23% 0.15% <0.2%
광둥성 43.71% 5.18% 0.68% <0.2%
윈난성 32.22% 13.06% 0.68% 1.52%
구이저우성 31.18% 1.86% 0.49% 0.48%
장쑤성 16.67% 14.17% 2.67% <0.2%
장시성 24.05% 7.96% 0.66% <0.2%
산둥성 25.28% 2.90% 1.54% 0.55%
충칭시 26.63% 0.85% 0.28% <0.2%
후난성 20.19% 2.44% 0.49% <0.2%
산시성 (산서성) 15.61% 3.65% 1.55% <0.2%
허난성 7.94% 5.52% 4.95% 1.05%
지린성 7.73% 8.23% 3.26% <0.2%
안후이성 4.64% 7.83% 4.32% 0.58%
간쑤성 3.51% 5.80% 0.28% 7.00%
헤이룽장성 7.73% 4.39% 3.63% 0.35%
산시성 (섬서성) 7.58% 6.35% 1.66% 0.4%
랴오닝성 7.73% 5.31% 2.00% 0.64%
쓰촨성 10.6% 2.06% 0.30% <0.2%
후베이성 6.5% 2.09% 1.71% <0.2%
허베이성 5.52% 1.59% 1.13% 0.82%
하이난성 0.48%[6] <0.2%
베이징시 11.2%[9] 0.78%[6] 1.76%
상하이시 10.30% 1.88% 0.36%
톈진시 0.43% <0.2%
티베트 19.4% ~80%[10] 0.10% 0.40%
신장 위구르 자치구 1.0%[6] 58%
닝샤 후이족 자치구 1.17%[6] 34%
칭하이성 0.76%[6] 17.51%
내몽골 자치구 2.36% 12.1%[11] 2.0%[6] 0.91%
중화인민공화국 16%[12] 15%[2] 2.5%[2] 2%[5]:13

같이 보기[편집]

각주[편집]

  1. For China Family Panel Studies 2017 survey results see release #1 (archived) and release #2 (archived). The tables also co~ntain the results of CFPS 2012 (sample 20,035) and Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) results for 2006, 2008 and 2010 (samples ~10.000/11,000). Also see, for comparison CFPS 2012 data in 2014, 13쪽, reporting the results of the CGSS 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, and their average (fifth column of the first table).
  2. Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina. “Statistics on Religions and Churches in the People's Republic of China – Update for the Year 2016” (PDF). 《Religions & Christianity in Today's China》 VII (2). 26–53면. 2017년 7월 22일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서. 
  3. Dillon, Michael (2001). 《Religious Minorities and China》 (영어). Minority Rights Group International. 
  4. Blainey, Geoffrey (2011). 《A Short History of Christianity》. 
  5. China Family Panel Studies 2012. Reported and compared with Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Lu (2014)
  6. Data from the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2010 for Chinese ancestorists, and from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009 for Christians. Reported in Wang, Xiuhua (2015). “Explaining Christianity in China: Why a Foreign Religion has Taken Root in Unfertile Ground” (PDF). Baylor University. 15면. 2015년 9월 25일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서. 
  7. Data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012. Reported in Gai, Rong Hua; Gao, Jun Hui (2016년 12월 22일). “Multiple-Perspective Analysis on the Geological Distribution of Christians in China”. 《PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences》 2 (1). 809–817면. doi:10.20319/pijss.2016.s21.809817. ISSN 2454-5899. 
  8. Data from Yang, Zongde (2010). “Study on Current Muslim Population in China” (PDF). 《Jinan Muslim》 (2). 2017년 4월 27일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서.  Reported in Min, Junqing (2013). “The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China” (PDF). 《JISMOR》 (8). 2017년 6월 24일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서.  p. 29.
  9. Lai, Hongyi (2016). 《China's Governance Model: Flexibility and Durability of Pragmatic Authoritarianism》. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317859529.  p. 167.
  10. “Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012” (PDF). US Government.  p. 20, quoting: "Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although a sizeable minority practices Bon, an indigenous religion, and very small minorities practice Islam, Catholicism, or Protestantism. Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400,000 Bon followers across the Tibetan Plateau. Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5,000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR".
  11. Wu, Jiayu; Fang, Yong (January 2016). “Study on the Protection of the Lama Temple Heritage in Inner Mongolia as a Cultural Landscape”. 《Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering》 15 (1). 2017년 9월 24일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서.  Note that the article, in an evident mistranslation from Chinese, reports 30 million Tibetan Buddhists in Inner Mongolia instead of 3 million.
  12. 2010 Chinese Spiritual Life Survey, Purdue University's Center on Religion and Chinese Society. Data reported in Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina; Strait, David (2012). “People's Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011” (PDF). 《Religions & Christianity in Today's China》 II (3). 29–54면. ISSN 2192-9289. 2017년 4월 27일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서. 
  1. CFPS 2014 surveyed a sample of 13,857 families and 31,665 individuals.[2]:27, note 4 As noted by Katharina Wenzel-Teuber of China Zentrum, German institute for research on religion in China, compared to CFPS 2012, CFPS 2014 asked the Chinese about personal belief in certain conceptions of divinity (i.e. "Buddha", "Tao", "God of the Christians/Jesus", "Heavenly Lord of the Catholics") rather than membership in a religious group.[2]:27 It also included regions, such as those in the west of China, that were excluded in CFPS 2012,[2]:27, note 3 and unregistered Christians.[2]:28 For these reasons, she concludes that CFPS 2014 results are more accurate than 2012 ones.
  2. CFPS 2014 surveyed predominantly people of Han ethnicity. This may have resulted in an underestimation of Muslims. CGSS 2006–2010 surveys found an average 2-3% of the population of China declaring to be Muslim.