유레카

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유레카(Eureka)는 뜻 밖의 발견을 했을 때 외치는 단어이다. 아르키메데스가 목욕을 할 때 물이 넘쳤을 때 외친 것을 기원으로 보고 있다.

어원[편집]

고 대 그리스 낱말 εὕρηκα heúrēka에서 유래한다. "유레카" 의 의미는 "나는 (그것)을 찾았었다" 이다. 즉 한 명의 첫 번째 사람이 외치는 동사 εὑρίσκω heuriskō는 "나는 찾는다."의 뜻을 가진다. [1] 그것은 추론, 문제 해결, 학습, 그리고 검색에 대한 경험과 밀접 하게 관련이 있다. 영어 단어의 강세는 제2음절에, 라틴어 악센트 규칙을 따르고 있다. 어떤 경우 장모음이 어미로부터 두번째의 음절(음절next-to-last)이 설비되어 있어야 한다고 요구한다. 그러나, 그리스 발음에서는 첫번째 음절에 강세가 있다. 왜냐하면 그리스 발음에서는 마지막 발음이 장모음이기 때문이다. 고대 그리스어 규칙에 따르면 강세는 항상 어미 뒤의 두번째 모음에 있지 않는다. 처음 2음절에 있는 긴 모음은 영어처럼 강세 같은 것이 들릴 수 있다. 그리스어는 스페인어, 네덜란드어와 영어를 포함하여 몇몇 유럽 언어이지만 다른언어 즉 핀란드어, 덴마크어, 독일어 등과 같이 보존물이 많다.

Archimedes[편집]

16th-century illustration of Archimedes in the bath, with Hiero's crown at bottom right

The exclamation 'Eureka!' is famously attributed to the ancient Greek scholar Archimedes. He reportedly proclaimed "Eureka!" when he stepped into a bath and noticed that the water level rose—he suddenly understood that the volume of water displacement (fluid) must be equal to the volume of the part of his body he had submerged. (This relation is not what is known as Archimedes' principle—that deals with the Buoyancy experienced by a body immersed in a fluid. He then realized that the volume of irregular objects could be measured with precision, a previously intractable problem. He is said to have been so eager to share his discovery that he leapt out of his bathtub and ran through the streets of Syracuse, Italy naked.

Archimedes' insight led to the solution of a problem posed by Hiero II|Hiero of Syracuse, on how to assess the Carat (purity) of an irregular golden votive crown; he had given his goldsmith the pure gold to be used, and correctly suspected he had been cheated, by the goldsmith removing gold and adding the same weight of silver. Equipment for weighing objects already existed, and now that Archimedes could also measure volume, their ratio would give the object's density, an important indicator of purity.

This story first appeared in written form in Vitruvius's De architectura, two centuries after it supposedly took place. Some scholars have doubted the accuracy of this tale, saying among other things that the method would have required precise measurements that would have been difficult to make at the timeGalileo Galilei himself weighed in on the controversy, suggesting a design for a hydrostatic balance that could be used to compare the dry weight of an object with the weight of the same object submerged in water For the problem posed to Archimedes, though, there is a simple method which requires no precision equipment: balance the crown against pure gold in air, and then submerge the scale with crown and gold in water to see if they still balance

California[편집]

The expressions is also quote as the state motto of California, referring to the momentous discovery of gold near Sutter's Mill in 1848. The California State Seal has included the word "eureka" since its original design by Robert S. Garnett in 1850; the official text from that time describing the seal states that this word's meaning applies "either to the principle involved in the admission of the State or the success of the miner at work". In 1957, the state legislature attempted to make "In God We Trust" the state motto, but this attempt did not succeed, and "Eureka" became the official motto in 1963. The city of Eureka, California, founded in 1850, uses the California State Seal as its official seal. Eureka is a considerable distance from Sutter's Mill, but was the jumping off point of a smaller gold rush in nearby Trinity County, California in 1850. It is the largest of at least eleven remaining US cities and towns named for the exclamation, "eureka!". As a result of the extensive use of the exclamation dating from 1849, there were nearly 40 locales so named by the 1880s in a nation that had none in the 1840s.

Australia[편집]

"Eureka" was also associated with a gold rush in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. The Eureka Stockade was a revolt in 1854 by gold miners against unjust mining license fees and a brutal administration supervising the miners. The rebellion demonstrated the refusal of the workers to be dominated by unfair government and laws. The Eureka Stockade has often been referred to as the "birth of democracy" in Australia.

Mathematics[편집]

Another mathematician, Carl Friedrich Gauss, echoed Archimedes when in 1796 he wrote in his diary, "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ! num = Δ + Δ + Δ", referring to his discovery that any positive integer could be expressed as the sum of at most three triangular numbers. This result is now known as Gauss' Eureka theorem

and is a special case of what later became known as the Fermat polygonal number theorem.