↑Hennig, Jean-Luc (1995). 《The rear view: A brief and elegant history of bottoms through the ages》. London: Souvenir. ISBN0-285-63303-1.
↑“Police.”. 《The Times》 (London). 22 March 1894. "Mr. Curtis Bennett deprecated caning on the hands and boxing the ears, and said they were exceedingly dangerous forms of punishment. Nature provided a special place for boys to be punished upon and it should be used.