From 위키백과
Jump to navigation Jump to search

원문 주소 : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS_denialism

Electron micrograph of the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS denialism disputes the existence of HIV or its role in causing AIDS.

AIDS denialism refers to the views of a loosely connected group of individuals and organizations who deny that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AIDS denialists prefer the terms "rethinker" or "dissident". Some denialist groups reject the existence of HIV, while others accept that HIV exists but argue that it is a harmless passenger virus and not the cause of AIDS.

에이즈 부정론은 인체 면역 결핍 바이러스 (HIV)가 후천성 면역 결핍 증후군 (AIDS)의 원인이라는 것을 부정하는 개인과 조직의 견해를 말한다. HIV/AIDS 부정론자는 "다시 생각해 보는 사람"이나 "반체체자"라는 말을 좋아한다. HIV의 존재를 인정하지만 무해한 일과성 바이러스라고 하는 그룹이 있는 반면 HIV의 존재를 부인하는 부정론자 그룹도 있다.

The causative role of HIV in the development of AIDS has been established and is the subject of scientific consensus.[1][2] Denialist arguments are considered to be the result of cherry-picking and misrepresentation of predominantly outdated scientific data,[3] with the potential to endanger public health by dissuading people from utilizing proven treatments.[4][5][6][2][7][8] With the rejection of these arguments by the scientific community, AIDS denialist material is currently spread largely through the Internet.[8]

AIDS의 발생에서 HIV가 원인이라고 입증되어져 왔고 이는 과학적 합의이다. 부정론자의 주장은 증명된 치료법을 사용하는 사람들을 만류하여 공공 건강을 위험에 빠뜨릴 가능성이 있으며 특정 부분만 골라낸 결과이고 오래된 과학적 자료에 대한 와전된 설명으로 생각된다. 과학 사회가 이 주장을 부정한 것과 함께 에이즈 부정론자의 주장이 인터넷을 통해 널리 퍼지고 있다.


사건의 진행[edit]

  • 1983: A group of scientists and doctors at the Pasteur Institute in France, led by Luc Montagnier, discovers a new virus in a patient with signs and symptoms that often precede AIDS.[9] They name their discovery lymphadenopathy-associated virus, or LAV, and send samples to Robert Gallo's team in the United States.
  • 1983년 : Luc Montagnier이 이끄는 프랑스 Pasteur Institute의 과학자와 의사 그룹은 에이즈 전에 가끔씩 나타나는 징후와 증상이 있는 환자에게서 새로운 바이러스를 발견하였다. 이 바이러스를 림프선증-연합 바이러스 (LAV)라 이름 붙이고 샘플을 미국에 있는 Robert Gallo의 팀에게 보냈다.
  • 1984: On April 23, at a Washington press conference held after the relevant scientific publications have been peer reviewed and slated for publication in Science, Margaret Heckler, Secretary of Health and Human Services, announces that Gallo and his co-workers have discovered a virus that is the "probable" cause of AIDS. This virus is initially named HTLV-III.[10]
  • 1984: Casper Schmidt responds to Gallo's papers by writing "The Group-Fantasy Origins of AIDS", which is published by the Journal of Psychohistory.[11] He posits that AIDS is an example of "epidemic hysteria" in which groups of people are subconsciously acting out social conflicts, and compares it to documented cases of epidemic hysteria in the past which were mistakenly thought to be infectious. Schmidt himself died of AIDS in 1994.[12]
  • 1986: The viruses discovered by Montagnier and Gallo, having been found to be genetically indistinguishable, are renamed HIV.[13]
  • 1987: Peter Duesberg questions the HIV theory of AIDS for the first time in his paper "Retroviruses as Carcinogens and Pathogens: Expectations and Reality", published in the journal Cancer Research.[14] This publication coincides with the start of major public health campaigns and the promotion of AZT as a treatment.
  • 1988: A group of denialists based in Perth, Australia ("Perth Group"), led by Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, publishes in the non-peer-reviewed journal Medical Hypotheses their first article questioning aspects of HIV/AIDS research.[15] They conclude that there is "no compelling reason for preferring the viral hypothesis of AIDS to one based on the activity of oxidising agents."
  • 1989. Duesberg exercises his right, as a member of the National Academy of Sciences, to publish his arguments in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) without peer review. The editor of PNAS initially resists, but ultimately allows Duesberg to publish, saying: "If you wish to make these unsupported, vague, and prejudicial statements in print, so be it. But I cannot see how this would be convincing to any scientifically trained reader."[16]
  • 1990: Robert Root-Bernstein publishes his first peer-reviewed article detailing his objections to the mainstream view of AIDS and HIV, entitled "Do we know the cause(s) of AIDS?"[17] In it, he questions both the mainstream view and the dissident view as potentially inaccurate.
  • 1994, 28 October: Robert Willner, a physician whose medical license was revoked for, among other things, treating an AIDS patient with ozone therapy, publicly jabs his finger with blood he says is from an HIV-infected patient.[6] Willner dies the following year of a heart attack.[20]
  • 1995: The denialist group Continuum places an advertisement in The Pink Paper offering a £1,000 reward to "the first person finding one scientific paper establishing actual isolation of HIV" (according to their specific set of rules).[21]
  • 1996: Various scientists, including Duesberg, dismiss the Continuum challenge, asserting that HIV doubtlessly exists.[21]
  • 1998: Valerie Emerson, of Bangor, Maine, prevails in court in Maine for her right to refuse to give AZT to her 4-year-old son Nikolas Emerson, after she witnessed the death of her daughter Tia, who died at the age of 3 in 1996.[22] Nikolas Emerson died eight years later. [23]
  • 2000: South Africa's President, Thabo Mbeki, invites several HIV/AIDS denialists to join his Presidential AIDS Advisory Panel.[24] The scientific community responds with the Durban declaration, a document affirming that HIV causes AIDS, signed by over 5,000 scientists and physicians.[7]
  • 2006: Celia Farber, a journalist and prominent AIDS denialist, publishes an essay in the March issue of Harper's entitled Out of Control: AIDS and the Corruption of Medical Science, in which she summarizes a number of arguments for AIDS denialism and alleges incompetence, conspiracy, and fraud on the part of the medical community.[25] Leading scientists and AIDS activists extensively criticized the article as inaccurate, misleading, and poorly fact-checked.[26]
  • 2007: Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos and Valendar Francis Turner testify at an appeals hearing for Andre Chad Parenzee, stating that HIV is harmless. The judge concluded: "I reject the evidence of Ms Papadopulos-Eleopulos and Dr Turner. I conclude...that they are not qualified to give expert opinions" [27]

The AIDS denialist community[edit]

People critical of the scientific consensus on AIDS include HIV-positive persons, government employees, scientists, doctors, and activists in several countries. One of the most famous and influential AIDS denialist scientist is Peter Duesberg, professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California, Berkeley, who has been contesting the mainstream view of AIDS causation since 1987.[14] Other scientists include David Rasnick (who worked with proteases and is co-holder of several patents on protease inhibitors similar to those used in the treatment of AIDS)[28] and Rodney Richards (who worked at Amgen during the development of some of the first commercial HIV antibody tests).[29][30] Nobel Prize winner Kary Mullis, inventor of PCR, has expressed sympathy for dissident theories.[31]

Other notable AIDS denialists include Australian academic ethicist Hiram Caton, the late mathematician Serge Lang[32], Professor Emeritus of Chemistry & Science Studies at Virginia Tech Henry Bauer, journalist Celia Farber and activist Christine Maggiore.

Nate Mendel, bassist with the rock band Foo Fighters, expressed support for AIDS dissident ideas and organized a benefit concert in January 2000 for the AIDS denialist organization Alive & Well AIDS Alternatives.[33] The Foo Fighters no longer list Alive & Well AIDS Alternatives among the causes they support.[34]

Organizations of AIDS denialists include the Perth Group (started by several Australian denialists in Perth, Australia), and the Group for the Scientific Reappraisal of the HIV-AIDS Hypothesis.

AIDS denialism has received some support from some political conservatives in the United States. Duesberg's work has been published by the conservative Heritage Foundation and Regnery Press, as has Tom Bethell's book The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science, which endorsed AIDS denialism. Phillip E. Johnson has accused the Centers for Disease Control of "fraud" in relation to HIV/AIDS.[35] Describing the political aspects of the AIDS denialism movement, Steven Epstein wrote in Impure Science that "...the appeal of Duesberg's views to conservatives—certainly including those with little sympathy for the gay movement—cannot be denied."[36]p. 158 Paleolibertarian "anti-state/pro-market" blog LewRockwell.com has published articles supportive of AIDS denialism.[37]

Critics question the qualifications of dissidents, including those with scientific credentials that have never worked with HIV. Nicoli Nattrass points out that Peter Duesberg has never conducted any scientific research on HIV, and has never presented any evidence that support his claims to a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Nattrass also asserts a lack of understanding of the scientific process on the part of dissidents, such as the Perth Group's Valendar Turner's assertion that that HIV had not been isolated because it had been identified only via the detection of reverse transcription, the process of writing RNA into DNA, which is not unique to retroviruses. Robert Gallo points out that HIV was identified as a retrovirus through the detection of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme unique to retroviruses, and not reverse transcription. Gallo also has criticized Valendar for having conducted no experiments on HIV.[38]

Former dissidents[edit]

Several prominent scientists who once voiced doubts about HIV/AIDS science have since changed their views and accepted the idea that HIV plays a role in causing AIDS, in response to an accumulation of newer studies and data.[39] Robert Root-Bernstein, author of Rethinking AIDS: The Tragic Cost of Premature Consensus and formerly a critic of the causative role of HIV in AIDS, has since distanced himself from the AIDS denialist movement, saying, "Both the camp that says HIV is a pussycat and the people who claim AIDS is all HIV are wrong...The denialists make claims that are clearly inconsistent with existing studies. When I check the existing studies, I don’t agree with the interpretation of the data, or, worse, I can’t find the studies [at all]."[40]

Joseph Sonnabend, who until the late 1990s regarded the issue of AIDS causation as unresolved, has reconsidered in light of the success of newer antiretroviral drugs, stating, "The evidence now strongly supports a role for HIV... Drugs that can save your life can also under different circumstances kill you. This is a distinction that denialists do not seem to understand."[40] Sonnabend has also criticized AIDS denialists for falsely implying that he supports their position, saying:

Some individuals who believe that HIV plays no role at all in AIDS have implied that I support their misguided views on AIDS causation by including inappropriate references to me in their literature and on their web sites. Before HIV was discovered and its association with AIDS established, I held the entirely appropriate view that the cause of AIDS was then unknown. I have successfully treated hundreds of AIDS patients with antiretroviral medications, and have no doubt that HIV plays a necessary role in this disease.[41]

Both Sonnabend and Root-Bernstein now favor a less controversial hypothesis, suggesting that cofactors in addition to HIV are necessary to cause AIDS.

Walter Gilbert, winner of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, once expressed skepticism about the role of HIV in AIDS. Like Sonnabend, he has since changed his mind in response to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment.[42]

As of May 2008, denialist websites continue to claim that Root-Bernstein, Sonnabend [43] and Gilbert doubt the role of HIV in AIDS.[44]

Death of HIV-positive denialists[edit]

In 2007, aidstruth.org, a website run by HIV researchers to counter denialist claims,[45] published a partial list of AIDS denialists who had died of apparently AIDS-related causes. For example, the magazine Continuum, run by HIV-positive denialists, shut down when its editors all died of AIDS-related causes. It was noted that in every case, the AIDS denialist community has attributed the deaths to unknown causes, secret drug use, or stress.[46] Similarly, several HIV-positive former dissidents have reported being ostracized by the AIDS-denialist community after they developed AIDS and decided to pursue effective antiretroviral treatment.[47]

AIDS denialists claims[edit]

Although members of the AIDS denialist community are united by their disagreement with the concept that HIV is the cause of AIDS, the specific positions taken by various groups differ.

Denialist arguments have centered around claims that HIV does not exist or has not been adequately isolated,[48] that the virus does not fulfill Koch's postulates,[49] that HIV testing is inaccurate,[50] or that antibodies to HIV neutralize the virus and render it harmless.[51] Suggested alternative causes of AIDS include recreational drugs, malnutrition and the very antiretroviral drugs used to treat the syndrome.[52] Denialists claim that these drugs are exceptionally toxic and cause the very symptoms they are supposed to delay.[53] To support this claim, they cite two studies from the late 1980s whose authors said they found it difficult to distinguish adverse events possibly associated with administration of Retrovir (AZT) from underlying signs of HIV disease or intercurrent illnesses.[54]

Such claims have been examined extensively in the peer-reviewed medical and scientific literature; a scientific consensus has arisen that denialist claims have been convincingly disproved, and that HIV does indeed cause AIDS.[2][55][56] In the cases cited by Duesberg where HIV "cannot be isolated", PCR or other techniques demonstrate the presence of the virus,[57] and many denialist claims of HIV test inaccuracy result from an incorrect or outdated understanding of how HIV antibody testing is performed and interpreted.[58][59] Further, the accumulating evidence of the significant benefits of anti-HIV medication is seen as further confirmation of HIV's role in AIDS.[60] This evidence has been a major factor in convincing some denialist scientists to accept the causative role of HIV in AIDS.[61]

Impact beyond the scientific community[edit]

AIDS denialist claims have failed to attract support in the scientific community, where the evidence for the causative role of HIV in AIDS is considered conclusive. However, the AIDS denialist movement has had a significant impact outside of scientific spheres, making the debate a civil and political as well as a public health issue.

Impact in North America and Europe[edit]

Skepticism about HIV as the cause of AIDS began almost immediately after the discovery of HIV was announced. One of the earliest prominent skeptics was the journalist John Lauritsen, who argued in his writings for The New York Native that AIDS was in fact caused by amyl nitrite poppers, and that the government had conspired to hide the truth.[62]

The publication of Peter Duesberg's first AIDS paper in 1987 provided further support for denialist theories. Shortly afterwards, the journal Science reported that Duesberg's remarks had won him "a large amount of media attention, particularly in the gay press where he is something of a hero."[63] However, Duesberg's support in the gay community dried up as he made a series of statements perceived as homophobic; in an interview with the Village Voice in 1988, Duesberg stated his belief that the AIDS epidemic was "caused by a lifestyle that was criminal twenty years ago."[36], p. 118

In the following few years, others became skeptical of the HIV theory as researchers initially failed to produce an effective treatment or vaccine for AIDS.[64] Journalists such as Neville Hodgkinson and Celia Farber regularly promoted denialist ideas in the American and British media; several television documentaries were also produced to increase awareness of the alternative viewpoint.[65] In 1992-1993, The Sunday Times, where Hodgkinson served as scientific editor, ran a series of articles arguing that the AIDS epidemic in Africa was a myth. These articles stressed Duesberg's claims and argued that antiviral therapy was ineffective, that HIV testing was unreliable, and that AIDS was not a threat to heterosexuals. The Sunday Times coverage was heavily criticized as slanted, misleading, and potentially dangerous; the scientific journal Nature took the unusual step of printing a 1993 editorial calling the paper's coverage of HIV/AIDS "seriously mistaken, and probably disastrous."[66]

Finding difficulty in publishing his arguments in the scientific literature, Duesberg exercised his right as a member of the National Academy of Sciences to publish in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) without going through the peer review process. However, Duesberg's paper raised a "red flag" at the journal and was submitted by the editor for non-binding review. All of the reviewers found major flaws in Duesberg's paper; the reviewer specifically chosen by Duesberg noted the presence of "misleading arguments", "nonlogical statements", "misrepresentations", and political overtones.[16] Ultimately, Duesberg's article was published in PNAS;[67] its editor wrote to Duesberg:

If you wish to make these unsupported, vague, and prejudicial statements in print, so be it. But I cannot see how this would be convincing to any scientifically trained reader.[16]

With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996-1997, the survival and general health of people with HIV improved significantly.[60] The positive response to treatment with anti-HIV medication provides further evidence of HIV's causative role in AIDS, and has led several prominent AIDS denialists to accept the causative role of HIV.[40] Nevertheless, these theories continue to exert a significant influence in some communities; a survey conducted at minority gay pride events in four American cities in 2005 found that 33% of attendees doubted that HIV caused AIDS.[68]

AIDS activists have expressed concern that denialist arguments about HIV's harmlessness may be responsible for an upsurge in HIV infections. According to Stephen Thomas, director of the University of Pittsburgh Center for Minority Health:[69]

People are focusing on the wrong thing. They’re focusing on conspiracies rather than protecting themselves, rather than getting tested and seeking out appropriate care and treatment.

While denialist arguments have been rejected by the scientific community on the basis of overwhelming evidence, AIDS denialist ideas are propagated largely via the Internet. A 2007 article in PLoS Medicine noted:

Because these denialist assertions are made in books and on the Internet rather than in the scientific literature, many scientists are either unaware of the existence of organized denial groups, or believe they can safely ignore them as the discredited fringe. And indeed, most of the HIV deniers' arguments were answered long ago by scientists. However, many members of the general public do not have the scientific background to critique the assertions put forth by these groups, and not only accept them but continue to propagate them.[8]

Impact in South Africa[edit]

AIDS denialist claims have had a major political, social, and public health impact in South Africa. The government of President Thabo Mbeki has been sympathetic to the views of AIDS denialists; critics charge that denialist influence has been responsible for a slow and ineffective governmental response to the country's massive AIDS epidemic.

Durban Declaration[edit]

In 2000, when the International AIDS Conference was held in Durban, Mbeki convened a Presidential Advisory Panel containing a number of AIDS denialists, including Peter Duesberg and David Rasnick.[70] The Advisory Panel meetings were closed to the general press; an invited reporter from the Village Voice wrote that Rasnick advocated that HIV testing be legally banned and denied that he had seen "any evidence" of an AIDS catastrophe in South Africa, while Duesberg "gave a presentation so removed from African medical reality that it left several local doctors shaking their heads."[24]

In his address to the International AIDS Conference, Mbeki reiterated his view that HIV was not wholly responsible for AIDS, leading hundreds of delegates to walk out on his speech.[71] Mbeki also sent a letter to a number of world leaders likening the mainstream AIDS research community to supporters of the apartheid regime.[70] The tone and content of Mbeki's letter led diplomats in the U.S. to initially question whether it was a hoax.[72][73]

AIDS scientists and activists were dismayed at the president's behavior and responded with the Durban declaration, a document affirming that HIV causes AIDS, signed by over 5,000 scientists and physicians.[7][71]

Criticism of governmental response[edit]

South African health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang has also attracted heavy criticism, as she has often promoted nutritional remedies such as garlic, lemons and olive oil to people suffering from AIDS,[74][75][76] while emphasizing possible toxicities of antiretroviral drugs, which she has referred to as "poison".[77] The South African Medical Association has accused Tshabalala-Msimang of "confusing a vulnerable public".[78] In September 2006, a group of over 80 scientists and academics called for "the immediate removal of Dr. Tshabalala-Msimang as minister of health and for an end to the disastrous, pseudoscientific policies that have characterized the South African government's response to HIV/AIDS."[79] In December 2006, deputy health minister Nozizwe Madlala-Routledge described "denial at the very highest levels" over AIDS.[80] She was subsequently fired by Mbeki.[81]

Mbeki's government has been widely criticized for delaying the rollout of programs to provide antiretroviral drugs to people with advanced HIV disease and to HIV-positive pregnant women. The national treatment program began only after the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) brought a legal case against Government ministers, claiming they were responsible for the deaths of 600 HIV-positive people a day who could not access medication.[82][70] South Africa was one of the last countries in the region to begin such a treatment program, and roll-out has been much slower than planned.[77]

At the XVI International AIDS Conference, Stephen Lewis, U.N. special envoy for AIDS in Africa, attacked Mbeki's government for its slow response to the AIDS epidemic and reliance on denialist theories:

It [South Africa] is the only country in Africa ... whose government is still obtuse, dilatory and negligent about rolling out treatment... It is the only country in Africa whose government continues to promote theories more worthy of a lunatic fringe than of a concerned and compassionate state.[79]

In 2002, Mbeki requested that AIDS denialists no longer use his name in denialist literature, and requested that denialists stop signing documents with "Member of President Mbeki's AIDS Advisory Panel".[70]

In early 2005, former South African president Nelson Mandela announced that his son had died of complications of AIDS. Mandela's public announcement was seen as both an effort to combat the stigma associated with AIDS, and as a "political statement designed to... force the President [Mbeki] out of his denial."[83][84]

Potential harm from AIDS denialism[edit]

Many AIDS experts and activists have alleged that the AIDS denialist movement endangers lives by persuading people to abandon safer sex or forego HIV testing and treatment.[69][85][86] In particular, the Durban declaration stated that:

HIV causes AIDS. It is unfortunate that a few vocal people continue to deny the evidence. This position will cost countless lives.[7]

In response to such accusations, the denialist Perth Group has denied encouraging unsafe sex or drug use; indeed, they contend that passive anal sex and drug use increase risk of AIDS and should be avoided.[87] Duesberg argues that although HIV itself is harmless, HIV-infected people are treated with medications which he claims cause AIDS symptoms; therefore, he argues, condom use will "protect people who have an average of 1,000 sexual contacts with HIV-positives from infection, and thus from AIDS caused by anti-HIV medication."[88]

See also[edit]

Other reading[edit]

See also Pieter Fourie, "The Political Management of HIV and AIDS in South Africa: One burden too many?" Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, ISBN 0230006671

Annotated selected bibliography about AIDS Reappraisal in scientific journals[edit]


Scientific consensus[edit]


By Peter Duesberg

By the Perth Group

  • Multifactorial etiology for AIDS: In 1994 Montagnier published the book "Virus" (Original title "Des virus et des hommes"), where he argued for the possible existence of mycoplasmas, virus, bacteria (pages 177) and oxidative stress (pages 184-186) as possible AIDS cofactors [89]. The Perth Group asked Montagnier a clarification on this concept.

By others


Almost all the more than 72000 articles listed at PubMed to the search AIDS HIV support or assume the scientific consensus position that AIDS is caused by HIV.


  1. Confronting AIDS: Update 1988, a report from the Institute of Medicine of the United States National Academy of Sciences, published in 1988. On page 2 of the Executive Summary, the panel writes that "...the evidence that HIV causes AIDS is scientifically conclusive."
  2. The Evidence that HIV Causes AIDS: a fact sheet from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Accessed February 29 2008. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "niaid" defined multiple times with different content
  3. “Denying science”. 《Nat. Med.》 12 (4): 369. 2006. doi:10.1038/nm0406-369. PMID 16598265. To support their ideas, some AIDS denialists have also misappropriated a scientific review in Nature Medicine which opens with this reasonable statement: "Despite considerable advances in HIV science in the past 20 years, the reason why HIV-1 infection is pathogenic is still debated." 
  4. Watson J. (2006). “Scientists, activists sue South Africa's AIDS 'denialists'”. 《Nat Med.》 12 (1): 6. doi:10.1038/nm0106-6a. PMID 16397537. 
  5. "Discredited doctor's 'cure' for Aids ignites life-and-death struggle in South Africa", by Sarah Boseley. Published in The Guardian on May 14 2005. Accessed 9 Feb 2007.
  6. The Duesberg Phenomenon, by Jon Cohen. Science (1994) 266:5191, pp. 1642-1644. PMID 7992043.
  7. “The Durban Declaration”. 《Nature》 406 (6791): 15–6. 2000. PMID 10894520.  — full text available here.
  8. Smith TC, Novella SP (2007년 8월). “HIV denial in the Internet era”. 《PLoS Med.》 4 (8): e256. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040256. PMID 17713982. 2008년 5월 6일에 확인함. 
  9. Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann J, Rey F, Nugeyre M, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vézinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W, Montagnier L (1983). “Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)”. 《Science》 220 (4599): 868–71. doi:10.1126/science.6189183. PMID 6189183. 
  10. Sarngadharan MG, DeVico AL, Bruch L, Schüpbach J, Gallo RC (1984). “HTLV-III: the etiologic agent of AIDS”. 《Int. Symp. Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res. Fund》 15: 301–8. PMID 6100648. 
  11. Schmidt C (1984). “The group-fantasy origins of AIDS.”. 《J Psychohist》 12 (1): 37–78. PMID 11611586. 
  12. AIDS Denialists Who Have Died, from aidstruth.org. Accessed July 14 2007.
  13. Coffin J, Haase A, Levy J, Montagnier L, Oroszlan S, Teich N, Temin H, Toyoshima K, Varmus H, Vogt P. “What to call the AIDS virus?”. 《Nature》 321 (6065): 10. PMID 3010128. 
  14. Duesberg P (1987). “Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens: expectations and reality.”. 《Cancer Res》 47 (5): 1199–220. PMID 3028606. 
  15. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E (1988). “Reappraisal of AIDS--is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause?”. 《Med Hypotheses》 25 (3): 151–62. doi:10.1016/0306-9877(88)90053-9. PMID 3285143. 
  16. Booth W (1989). “AIDS paper raises red flag at PNAS”. 《Science》 243 (4892): 733. doi:10.1126/science.2916121. PMID 2916121. 
  17. Root-Bernstein R (1990). “Do we know the cause(s) of AIDS?”. 《Perspect Biol Med》 33 (4): 480–500. PMID 2216658. 
  18. Baumann E, Bethell T, Bialy H, Duesberg P, Farber C, Geshekter C, Johnson P, Maver R, Schoch R, Stewart G (1995). “AIDS proposal. Group for the Scientific Reappraisal of the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis.”. 《Science》 267 (5200): 945–6. PMID 7863335. 
  19. [Inventing the AIDS virus, by Peter Duesberg. ISBN 0895263998,Page 401]
  20. Bugl, Paul. “The Rise of HIV/AIDS”. Department of Mathematics, University of Hartford. 2007년 1월 22일에 확인함. 
  21. Isolated facts about HIV A Response to Claims by AIDS Dissidents That HIV Doesn't Exist by Edward King
  22. Boy Is Healthy Without Drug For H.I.V., Mother Says - New York Times
  23. Nikolas Emerson, 11; case led to legal fight over HIV - The Boston Globe
  24. "Debating the Obvious: Inside the South African Government's Controversial AIDS Panel", by Mark Schoofs. Published in the Village Voice, 5-11 July 2000. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  25. "Out of Control: AIDS and the Corruption of Medical Science", by Celia Farber. Published in Harper's, March 2006. Accessed 27 Feb 2007.
  26. An Article in Harper's Ignites a Controversy Over H.I.V., by Lia Miller. Published in the New York Times on March 13 2006, accessed April 25 2008.
  27. Brisbane Times "Shadow of doubters"
  28. Search for "Rasnick" and "protease" in the United States Patent and Trademark Office database
  29. [1] Accessed 20 July 2007.
  30. Interview with Rodney Richards on the AIDS dissident site virusmyth.com. Accessed 27 Feb 2007.
  31. "Dancing Naked in the Mind Field" by Kary Mullis. Chapter 18 & 19. Excerpt re-printed in Penthouse Magazine September 1998.
  32. Serge Lang, 78, a Gadfly and Mathematical Theorist, Dies The New York Times
  33. "Foo Fighters, HIV Deniers", Mother Jones magazine, published 25 February 2000. Accessed 21 Oct 2006.
  34. [2] Accessed 25 April 2008.
  35. “HIV & AIDS - Statement About CDC Fraud”. 2008년 3월 18일에 확인함. 
  36. Steven Epstein. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1996. ISBN 0-520-20233-3.
  37. Search at lewrockwell.com about the issue
  38. Nattrass, Nicoli; "AIDS Denialism vs. Science"; Skeptical Inquirer; Volume 31, No. 5; September/October 2007; Pages 31 - 37
  39. "HIV, AIDS, and the Distortion of Science. By Martin Delaney. Accessed 1 Dec 2006.
  40. "Dead Certain?" by Bob Lederer. Published in POZ magazine April 2006. Accessed 31 Oct 2006.
  41. Statement by Joseph Sonnabend, MD, from aidstruth.org. Accessed July 6 2007.
  42. Nobel Denial?, Ken Witwer, June 2007. Accessed 1 May 2008: "Walter Gilbert has long been named by the denialist community as one of “its” Nobelists. But if Walter Gilbert was ever a denialist, does he remain so today? Apparently not: correspondence between Walter Gilbert and Richard Jefferys was published on the Internet in 2006, demonstrating that, whatever Gilbert once thought about HIV, he now recognizes the virus as the cause of AIDS."
  43. virusmyth.com WHISTLE BLOWERS, Accessed 1 May 2008
  44. "List of Rethinkers": List of people who are claimed to subscribe to AIDS denialist beliefs; some of the listed individuals did not sign the list or have since changed their minds. Accessed 1 May 2008.
  45. Cohen J (2007). “HIV/AIDS. AIDSTruth.org Web site takes aim at 'denialists'”. 《Science》 316 (5831): 1554. doi:10.1126/science.316.5831.1554. PMID 17569834. 
  46. AIDS Denialists Who Have Died, from aidstruth.org. Accessed July 19 2007.
  47. Bad science: They once thought HIV was harmless. Now, they say, AIDS has forced them to reconsider, by Bruce Mirken. Published in the San Francisco Bay Guardian on February 2 2000; accessed May 9 2008.
  48. Turner V. (1999) E-Mail Correspondence Between Val Turner and Robin Weiss
  49. Duesberg P (1989). “Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation”. 《Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A》 86 (3): 755–64. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.3.755. PMID 2644642. 
  50. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, Papadimitriou J (1993). “Is a positive western blot proof of HIV infection?”. 《Biotechnology (N Y)》 11 (6): 696–707. doi:10.1038/nbt0693-696. PMID 7763673. 
  51. HealToronto.com, dissident website, claiming to provide 10 reasons why HIV cannot cause AIDS. Accessed 28 September 2006.
  52. Duesberg P, Koehnlein C, Rasnick D (2003). “The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition”. 《J Biosci》 28 (4): 383–412. doi:10.1007/BF02705115. PMID 12799487. 
  53. Articles on AZT hosted by Peter Duesberg
  54. Virusmyth.net: HIV & AIDS - AZT, Zidovudine, Retrovir - Product Information
  55. Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS, from the Centers for Disease Control. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  56. World Health Organization HIV and AIDS Programme, from the World Health Organization website. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  57. O'Brien SJ, Goedert JJ. (1996). “HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled.”. 《Curr Opin Immunol.》 8: 613–618. PMID 8902385. 
  58. HIV Science and Responsible Journalism
  59. How Immunoassays Work: The Curious Case of AIDS Denialist Roberto Giraldo and his Ignorance of the Basics
  60. Major studies confirming the benefits and effectiveness of modern anti-HIV therapy include, but are not limited to:
    • Lima V, Hogg R, Harrigan P, Moore D, Yip B, Wood E, Montaner J (2007). “Continued improvement in survival among HIV-infected individuals with newer forms of highly active antiretroviral therapy”. 《AIDS》 21 (6): 685–92. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32802ef30c. PMID 17413689. 
    • Jordan R, Gold L, Cummins C, Hyde C (2002). “Systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence for increasing numbers of drugs in antiretroviral combination therapy”. 《BMJ》 324 (7340): 757. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7340.757. PMID 11923157. full text
    • Ivers L, Kendrick D, Doucette K (2005). “Efficacy of antiretroviral therapy programs in resource-poor settings: a meta-analysis of the published literature”. 《Clin Infect Dis》 41 (2): 217–24. doi:10.1086/431199. PMID 15983918. 
    • Mocroft A, Ledergerber B, Katlama C, Kirk O, Reiss P, d'Arminio Monforte A, Knysz B, Dietrich M, Phillips A, Lundgren J (2003). “Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study.”. 《Lancet》 362 (9377): 22–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13802-0. PMID 12853195. 
    • Sterne J, Hernán M, Ledergerber B, Tilling K, Weber R, Sendi P, Rickenbach M, Robins J, Egger M. “Long-term effectiveness of potent antiretroviral therapy in preventing AIDS and death: a prospective cohort study.”. 《Lancet》 366 (9483): 378–84. PMID 16054937. 
  61. Schüklenk U (2004년 2월). “Professional responsibilities of biomedical scientists in public discourse”. 《J Med Ethics》 30 (1): 53–60; discussion 61–2. PMID 14872076. 
  62. Biography of John Lauritsen at Virusmyth.com, a dissident website. Accessed 7 Sept 2006.
  63. Booth W. (1988) A rebel without a cause of AIDS. Science 239(4847), 1485-8 PMID 3281251
  64. Burkett, E (1996) The Gravest Show on Earth (Chapter 2) ISBN 0-312-14607-8
  65. VirusMyth, a dissident website, accessed June 2, 2006.
  66. British Paper and Science Journal Clash on AIDS, by William E. Schmidt. Published in the New York Times on December 10 1993; accessed April 25 2008.
  67. Duesberg PH (1989). “Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation”. 《Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.》 86 (3): 755–64. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.3.755. PMID 2644642. 
  68. Hutchinson A.B., Begley E.B. et al. (2005) Mistrust and Conspiracy Beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Participants in Minority Gay Pride Events. 2005 National HIV Prevention Conference Abstract TP-011
  69. "The HIV Disbelievers", by David France. Published in Newsweek on August 19 2000.
  70. "The Politics of HIV/AIDS in South Africa": a Journ-AIDS Fact Sheet. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  71. "Controversy dogs AIDS forum, from the BBC. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  72. Proof Positive: How African Science Has Demonstrated That HIV Causes AIDS, by Mark Schoof. Published in the Village Voice, July 5-11 2000 issue. Accessed April 20 2007.
  73. "South African President Escalates AIDS Feud", by Barton Gellman. Published in the Washington Post on April 19 2000. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  74. "Beetroot battle at world AIDS conference", by Anso Thom. Published on Health-e on August 21 2006. Accessed March 9 2007.
  75. 'Dr Beetroot' hits back at media over Aids exhibition, article in the Mail & Guardian Online. Accessed 20 Sept 2006.
  76. Manto again angers AIDS activists, from AEGIS.com. Accessed 20 Sept 2006.
  77. AIDS, Science and Governance
  78. PRESS RELEASE: SAMA calls for end to misrepresentation on treatment of AIDS, issued August 29 2006. From the South African Medical Association website, accessed March 12 2007.
  79. "Scientists Rip S. African AIDS Policies", by Terry Leonard. Published in the Washington Post on September 6 2006. Accessed 5 March 2007.
  80. "African Minister Ends Decade of Denial over AIDS", from The Daily Telegraph. Published online November 12 2006. Accessed 5 March 2007.
  81. Sacked S Africa Minister Hits Out, from the BBC. Published August 10 2007; accessed August 11 2007.
  83. "No Place for Denial", by Simon Robinson. Published in Time magazine on January 9 2005. Accessed 26 Feb 2007.
  84. "Mandela's Eldest Son Dies of AIDS", by Tom Happold. Published in The Guardian on January 6 2005. Accessed March 9 2007.
  85. HIV Science and Responsible Journalism, presented at the XVI International AIDS Conference, accessed 7 Sept 2006.
  87. Perth Group Response to Professor Moore
  88. Duesberg.com Frequently Asked Questions
  89. Virus, by Luc Montagnier. ISBN 0393039234

External links[edit]

Scientific consensus[edit]


틀:Conspiracy theories 틀:AIDS