|장르||헤비 메탈, 하드 락|
|레이블||리노 엔터테인먼트, RCA 레코드, EMI|
|관련 활동||미하엘 솅커 그룹, 울리히 로스, UFO,|
|See: 이전 구성원 목록|
스콜피온스(Scorpions)는 독일의 하노버 출신 독일인 헤비 메탈/하드 락 밴드이다. 1980년대 락 음악 "Rock You Like a Hurricane" 과 싱글 "No One Like You", "Send Me an Angel, "Still Loving You", "Wind of Change"로 알려져 있다. 이 밴드는 VH1의 최고의 하드 락 아티스트(Greatest Artists of Hard Rock) 프로그램에서 46위로 선정되었다 . 또한, "Rock You Like a Hurricane"은 VH1의 최고의 하드 락 음악 100(100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs) 목록에서 18위로 선정되었다. 이 락 밴드는 45년간의 활동 이후, 2010년 1월 14일, 새 앨범 Sting in the Tail의 투어를 마치고 은퇴하겠다고 선언했다. 스콜피온스는 전세계적으로 1억에서 1억 5천만 장 정도의 앨범을 판매했다.
- 1 역사
- 2 Band members
- 3 Discography
- 4 Tours
- 5 In Other Media
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
형성과 초기 역사(1965–1973)[편집]
1965년, 이 밴드의 리듬 기타리스트인 루돌프 솅커가 밴드를 형성했다. 처음에는 밴드가 박자의 영향을 받았고 솅커 스스로 보컬을 하기도 하였다. 1969년에 셍커의 동생 미햐엘과 보컬 클라우스 마이네가 밴드에 참여하면서 시작되었다. 1972년에는 그들의 데뷔 앨범 Lonesome Crow를 녹음하고 발표했으며, 베이스에 로타 하임베르크, 드럼에 볼프강 지오니가 참여했다. Lonesome Crow 투어 활동 기간에 스콜피온스는 새로운 영국 밴드 UFO를 공개했다. 투어가 거의 끝날 즈음에 UFO의 멤버들은 기타리스트 미햐엘 솅커에게 리드 기타 자리를 제안했고, 그는 곧 받아들였다. 그 후 솅커 형제의 친구였던 울리히 로스가 투어를 마치기 위해 일시적으로 불러들여졌다.
미햐엘 솅커가 떠나면서 이 밴드가 해체되었다. 1973년, 그 대신에 Lonesome Crow 투어 활동을 완결하는 것을 도와주었던 울리히 로스가 리드 기타 자리를 제안받았으나, 다른 밴드 Dawn Road에 남아 있길 선호하면서 거절했다. 결국 루돌프 솅커가 로스와 일하고 싶다고 결정하게 되었으나 전 스콜피온스 라인업의 부활을 원하지는 않았다. 그는 Dawn Road의 몇몇 리허설에 참가해 마침내 로스, 프랜시스 부흐홀츠 (베이스), 아힘 커슈닝 (키보드), 위어겐 로젠탈 (드럼)로 구성되어 있었던 그 밴드에 참여하기로 결정했다. 로스와 부흐홀츠는 루돌프 솅커에게 클라우스 마이네를 보컬 자리에 참여시키길 설득했고, 그는 곧 받아들였다. 밴드에는 스콜피온스보다 Dawn Road의 멤버수가 더 많았지만 스콜피온스라는 이름이 독일 하드 락 계에서 잘 알려져 있었고 앨범이 그 이름으로 발표되었기 때문에 스콜피온스로 이름이 결정되었다.
명성을 얻기 시작 (1974–1978)[편집]
1974년, 스콜피온스의 새로운 라인업이 Fly to the Rainbow를 발표했다. 이 앨범은 Lonesome Crow보다 성공적이었고, "Speedy's Coming"과 앨범의 타이틀 송과 같은 노래들은 스콜피온스 특유의 음악을 정립하는 기초가 되었다. 한편, 아힘 커슈닝은 녹음 이후에 밴드를 떠나기로 결정했다. 또한, 위어겐 로젠탈이 군입대로 팀을 떠나야 했다. 그 후 1976년, 그는 Eloy라는 독일 프로그레시브 락 밴드에 들어갔고 그들과 3장의 앨범을 녹화했다. 그는 벨기에인 드러머, 루디 렌너스로 교체되었다.
1975년, 스콜피온스는 In Trance의 발매로 그들의 페이스를 되찾았다. 이것은 독일인 프로듀서 디이터 디어크스와 스콜피온스의 긴 협동의 시작이었다. 그 앨범은 그들의 큰 성과이자, 그들만의 하드 락 형식을 확고히 세우는 계기가 되었다. 밴드는 동시에 독일 국내와 국외의 폭넓은 팬 계층을 확보했다. "Dark Lady", "Robot Man" 과 타이틀 트랙은 오늘날에도 팬들에게 고전으로 평가받는다.
1977년, , 스콜피온스는 Virgin Killer를 발매했다. 이 앨범의 커버는 깨진 유리로 덮인 소녀의 누드사진이었으며, 이는 당시의 레이블이었던 RCA 레코드 의 제품 매니저 슈테판 볼레가 디자인한 것이었다. 이 앨범 아트는 상당한 비판을 받았고, 심지어 몇몇 나라에서는 삭제되거나 교체되기까지 하였다. 이러한 논쟁에도 불구하고, 이 앨범의 음악들은 비평가들과 팬들 모두에게서 많은 칭찬을 받았다.
그 다음 해에 루디 렌너스는 건강상의 문제 때문에 탈퇴하였고, 대신 헤르만 레어벨이 참여하게 되었다.
다음 앨범 Taken by Force의 홍보를 위하여 RCA 레코드는 음반 상점들과 라디오에서 많은 노력을 했다. 이 앨범의 싱글 "Steamrock Fever"는 몇몇 RCA의 라디오 홍보 레코드 목록의 추가되었다. 그러나 로스는 밴드가 이렇게 상업적인 방향으로 나아가는 것이 마음에 들지 않았다. 비록 그는 밴드의 일본 투어에 참여하기는 했지만, 그 결과 발매된 더블 라이브 앨범 Tokyo Tapes의 발매 전에 밴드를 떠나게 되고, 자신만의 밴드 Electric Sun을 만들게 된다. . Tokyo Tapes는 일본에서의 발매 6개월 후에 미국과 유럽에서 발매되었고 1978년 중이었던 그때, 140명 정도의 기타리스트를 오디션에 불러들인 후, 새 기타리스트 마티아스 잡스가 가입되게 된다.
상업적인 성공 (1979–1991)[편집]
잡스의 가입 직후, 스콜피온스는 RCA를 떠나 미국에서는 Mercury 레코드, 전세계적인 진출을 위해서는 Harvest/EMI Electrola에 들어갔고, 다음 앨범 Lovedrive를 발매했다. Just weeks after being ejected from UFO for his alcohol abuse, Michael Schenker also returned to the group for a short period during the recordings for the album. This gave the band three guitarists (though Schenker's contribution to the final release was limited to only three songs). The result was Lovedrive, an album which some critics consider to be the pinnacle of their career. Containing such fan favourites as "Loving You Sunday Morning", "Always Somewhere", "Holiday" and the instrumental "Coast to Coast", the 'Scorpions formula' of hard rock songs mixed with melodic ballads was firmly cemented. The album's provocative artwork was named "Best album sleeve of 1979" by Playboy magazine though it was ultimately changed for American release. Lovedrive peaked at #55 on the US charts proving that Scorpions were gathering an international following. After the completion and release of the album, the band decided to retain Michael in the band, thus forcing Jabs to leave. However after a few weeks of the tour, Michael, still coping with alcoholism, missed a number of gigs and at one point collapsed on stage and Jabs was brought back to fill in for him on those occasions when he could not perform. In April, 1979, during their tour in France, Jabs was brought in permanently to replace Michael.
In 1980, the band released Animal Magnetism, again with a provocative cover, this time showing a girl kneeling and a Doberman Pinscher sitting in front of a man. Animal Magnetism contained classics such as "The Zoo" and "Make It Real". Soon after the album's release, Meine began experiencing throat problems. He required surgery on his vocal cords and doubts were raised about whether he would ever sing again.
Meanwhile, the band began working on their next album, Blackout in 1981. Don Dokken was brought in to provide guide and backing vocals while Meine recovered. Meine eventually healed completely and was able to finish the album. Blackout was released in 1982 and quickly became the band's best selling to date, eventually going platinum. Meine's voice showed no signs of weakness and critical response to the album was good. Blackout spawned three hit singles: "Dynamite", "Blackout", and "No One Like You".
Gaining in popularity from their success from "Blackout", The Scorpions performed to over 375,000 fans on Day 2 at the three-day US Festival concert held in San Bernadino, California during Memorial Day Weekend of 1983. The concert was aired live on MTV, giving the band wide exposure of their amazing live show.
It was not until 1984 and the release of Love at First Sting that the band finally cemented their status as rock superstars. Propelled by the single "Rock You Like a Hurricane", Love at First Sting climbed the charts and went double platinum in the USA a few months after its release. However, Scorpions did manage to stir up controversy once again with their provocative album cover. This time it was a Helmut Newton photograph of a man kissing a woman while at the same time tattooing her exposed thigh. Some stores deemed the cover too provocative and refused to sell the album. MTV gave the album's videos "Rock You Like a Hurricane", "Bad Boys Running Wild", "Big City Nights", and the power ballad "Still Loving You" significant airtime, greatly contributing to the album's success. The channel even supplied Scorpions with the nickname "The Ambassadors of Rock". The band toured extensively behind Love at First Sting and decided to record and release their second live album, World Wide Live in 1985. Recorded over a year-long world tour and released at the height of their popularity, the album was another success for the band, peaking at #14 in the charts in the US and at #18 in the UK.
After their extensive world tours, the band finally returned to the studio to record Savage Amusement. Released in 1988, four years after their previous studio album, Savage Amusement represented a more polished pop sound similar to the style Def Leppard had found success with. The album sold well, but was considered somewhat of a critical disappointment. However, British heavy rock magazine Kerrang! did award the album five K's out of five.
On the Savage Amusement tour in 1988, Scorpions became only the second Western group to play in the Soviet Union (the first being Uriah Heep in December, 1987), with a performance in Leningrad. The following year the band returned to perform at the Moscow Music Peace Festival. As a result, Scorpions developed a strong Russian fan base and still return regularly to perform throughout the area.
Wishing to distance themselves from the Savage Amusement style, the band separated from their long-time producer and "Sixth Scorpion", Dieter Dierks, replacing him with Keith Olsen when they returned to the studio in 1990. Crazy World was released that same year and displayed a less polished sound. The album was a hit, propelled in large part by the massive success of the ballad "Wind of Change". The song muses on the socio-political changes that were occurring in Eastern Europe and in other parts of the world at the end of the Cold War. On July 21, 1990 they joined many other guests for Roger Waters' massive performance of The Wall in Berlin. Scorpions performed both versions of "In the Flesh" from The Wall. After the Crazy World tour Francis Buchholz, the band's long-serving bassist, left the group.
Later days (1992–2009)[편집]
In 1993, Scorpions released Face the Heat. Bass was handled by Ralph Rieckermann. For the recording process, Scorpions brought in producer Bruce Fairbairn. The album's sound was more metal than melodic and divided the band's fan base somewhat. Many "headbangers" responded positively to the album while many longtime fans were put off. Neither the hard rock single "Alien Nation" nor the ballad "Under The Same Sun" came close to matching the success of "Wind of Change". Face the Heat was a moderate success.
In 1995, a new live album, Live Bites, was produced. The disc documented live performances from their Savage Amusement Tour in 1988, all the way through the Face the Heat Tour in 1994. While the album had a much cleaner sound in comparison to their best-selling live album, World Wide Live, it was not as successful.
Prior to recording their 13th studio album, 1996s Pure Instinct, drummer Herman Rarebell left the band to set up a recording label. Curt Cress took charge of the drumsticks for the album before Kentucky-born James Kottak took over permanently. Many feel Pure Instinct is a response to the complaints levied against Face the Heat. The album had many ballads. Still, the album's singles "Wild Child" and the soothing ballad "You and I" both enjoyed moderate success.
1999 saw the release of Eye II Eye and a significant change in the band's style, mixing in elements of pop and techno. While the album was slickly produced, fans were unsure what to make of the band, responding negatively to almost everything from pop-soul backup singers to the electronic drums present on several songs. The video to the album's first European single, "To Be No. 1", featured a Monica Lewinsky look-alike which did little to improve its popularity.
The following year, Scorpions had a fairly successful collaboration with the Berlin Philharmonic that resulted in a 10-song album named Moment of Glory. The album went a long way toward rebuilding the band's reputation after the harsh criticism of Eye II Eye. However, critics accused them of following on the coattails of Metallica's similar collaboration (S&M) with the San Francisco Symphony which had been released the previous year, even though the orchestra had first approached Scorpions with the idea in 1995.
In 2001, Scorpions released Acoustica, a live unplugged album featuring acoustic reworkings of the band's biggest hits, plus new tracks. While appreciated by fans, the lack of a new studio album was frustrating to some, and Acoustica did little to return the band to the spotlight.
In 2004, the band released Unbreakable, an album that was hailed by critics as a long-awaited return to form. The album was the heaviest the band had released since Face the Heat, and fans responded well to tracks such as "New Generation", "Love 'em or Leave 'em" and "Deep and Dark". Whether a result of poor promotion by the band's label or the long time between studio releases, Unbreakable received little airplay and did not chart. Scorpions toured extensively behind the album and played as 'Special Guests' with Judas Priest during the 2005 British tour—these were the Scorpions' first dates in the UK since 1999.
In early 2006, Scorpions released the DVD 1 Night in Vienna that included 14 live tracks and a complete rockumentary. In LA, the band spent about four months in the studio with producers James Michael and Desmond Child working on their new concept album titled Humanity: Hour I, which was released in late May 2007. Followed by the "Humanity World Tour".
In 2007, the band saw two of their signature tracks featured in the popular video game series, "Guitar Hero." "No One Like You" was featured on the "Rocks the '80s" version of the game while "Rock You Like A Hurricane" was released on "Guitar Hero 3: Legends of Rock."
In a September 2007 podcast interview, Meine said the new album was not so much a "concept album" as it was a collection of songs with a common theme. "We didn't want to make another record with songs about boys chasing girls. I mean, come on, give me a break," Meine said.
Asked in 2007 if the band was planning to release a Humanity - Hour II, Meine replied:
|“||That is what everybody is asking. There might be. Who knows? Right now we are at the beginning of the world tour. It is exciting to play the new songs and they go very well with the classics. It is exciting that there is a whole new audience out there. There are many longtime fans but there are a lot of young kids. We just played in London and in Paris and there were young kids rocking out to songs that were written way before they were born. It is amazing. I don’t want to think about Hour II right now because Hour I is so exciting. It is very inspiring to see how much the audience enjoys this new music.||”|
— Klaus Meine
On December 20, 2007, Scorpions played at a concert for the elite of Russia’s security forces in the Kremlin. The concert was a celebration of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Cheka—predecessor of the KGB. The band has claimed that they thought they were performing a Christmas concert. They have said that their concert was by no means a tribute to the Cheka, communism, or Russia's brutal past. Members of the audience included Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev.
New album and retirement (2010-present)[편집]
As of November 2009, Scorpions have announced that their 17th studio album, Sting in the Tail, is tentatively due in early 2010. The CD is being recorded[언제?] at a studio in Hannover with Swedish producers Mikael "Nord" Andersson and Martin Hansen.
On January 24, 2010, the band announced that Sting in the Tail will be their last album and that the tour supporting it will be their final tour. Dokken was going to open for them but after a dispute, Dokken canceled.  The tour is expected to end in 2012 or 2013.
On March 23, 2010, the band released their new album titled, Sting in the Tail. The first day more than 18500 copies of the album were sold in the USA.[출처 필요]
On April 6, 2010, Scorpions were enshrined in Hollywood's Rock Walk in a handprint ceremony, with the band members placing their hands in a long slab of wet cement. The slab will be placed in the ground next to other musical artists on the Rock Walk.
- Klaus Meine—lead vocals (1970–present)
- Matthias Jabs—lead & rhythm guitars, backing vocals (1978–present)
- Rudolf Schenker—rhythm & lead guitars, backing vocals (1965–present)
- Paweł Mąciwoda—bass, backing vocals (2003–present)
- James Kottak—drums, percussion, backing vocals (1996–present)
- Lothar Heimberg—bass, backing vocals (1965–1973)
- Wolfgang Dziony—drums, percussion, backing vocals (1965–1973)
- Michael Schenker—lead & rhythm guitars, backing vocals (1970–1973, 1979)
- Uli Jon Roth—lead & rhythm guitars, backing vocals, lead vocals on "Drifting Sun", "Fly to the Rainbow", "Dark Lady", "Sun in My Hand", "Hell Cat", "Polar Nights" (1973–1978)
- Achim Kirschning—keyboards (1973–1974)
- Jürgen Rosenthal—drums, percussion, backing vocals (1973–1975)
- Francis Buchholz—bass, backing vocals (1973–1983, 1984–1992)
- Rudy Lenners—drums, percussion (1975–1977)
- Herman Rarebell—drums, percussion, backing vocals (1977–1983, 1984–1995)
- Ralph Rieckermann—bass, backing vocals (1993–2000, 2000–2003)
- Curt Cress—drums, percussion (1996)
- Ken Taylor—bass, backing vocals (2000)
- Barry Sparks—bass, backing vocals (2004)
- Ingo Powitzer—bass, backing vocals (2004)
- Stewart Young (1995–present)
- Lonesome Crow (1972)
- Fly to the Rainbow (1974)
- In Trance (1975)
- Virgin Killer (1976)
- Taken by Force (1978)
- The Best of Scorpions (1978)
- Tokyo Tapes (1978)
- Lovedrive (1979)
- Animal Magnetism (1980)
- Blackout (1982)
- Love at First Sting (1984)
- Savage Amusement (1988)
- Crazy World (1990)
- Face the Heat (1993)
- Pure Instinct (1996)
- Eye II Eye (1999)
- Unbreakable (2004)
- Humanity: Hour I (2007)
- Sting in the Tail (2010)
- 1972: Lonsome Crow Tour
- 1974: Fly To The Rainbow Tour
- 1975-1976: In Trance Tour
- 1976: Virgin Killer Tour
- 1977–1978: Taken By Force Tour
- 1979: Lovedrive Tour
- 1980: Animal Magnetism Tour
- 1982–1983: Blackout Tour
- 1984–1985: Love at First Sting Tour
- 1988–1989: Savage Amusement Tour
- 1990–1991: Crazy World Tour
- 1993–1994: Face The Heat Tour
- 1996–1997: Pure Instinct Tour
- 1999: Eye To Eye Tour
- 2000: Moment Of Glory Tour
- 2001: Acoustica Tour
- 2002: Scorpions Tour 2002
- 2003: Scorpions Tour 2003
- 2004–2006:Unbreakable World Tour
- 2007–2009: Humanity World Tour
- 2010–2013: Get Your Sting And Blackout World Tour
In Other Media[편집]
- List of best-selling music artists
- List of artists who reached number one on the U.S. Mainstream Rock chart
- Ingham, Chris. 《The Book of Metal》. Thunder's Mouth Press. 104쪽. ISBN 978-1560254195.
- Weinstein, Deena. Heavy Metal: The Music and its Culture. DaCapo, 2000. ISBN 0-306-80970-2, pp. 29, 36.
- Christe, Ian. 《Sound of the Beast》. Allison & Busby. 2쪽. ISBN 0749083514.
- Walser, Robert. 《Running with The Devil》. Wesleyan University Press. 2쪽. ISBN 0819562602.
- M. C. Strong (1998). 《The great rock discography》. Giunti. 722쪽. ISBN 8809215222.
- Philip Dodd (2005). 《The Book of Rock: from the 1950s to today》. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1560257296.
- “Scorpions Biography”. 《www.bighairmetal.com》. 2008년 4월 12일에 확인함.
- The Greatest: 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock (40 - 21) at VH1.com
- “VH1's 100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs”. Stereogum.com. 2009년 1월 5일. 2009년 12월 24일에 확인함.
- “Scorpions to retire”. TheGauntlet.com. 2010년 1월 24일. 2010년 1월 24일에 확인함.
- “Scorpions Official Website”. The-scorpions.com. 2010년 4월 11일. 2010년 6월 23일에 확인함.
- “Scorpions – höchstpersönlich! - Pressemitteilungen: Fernsehen - Radio Bremen”. Radiobremen.de. 2009년 11월 5일. 2010년 5월 19일에 확인함.
- hier einfügen
- “HIT RADIO FFH - Musik - Der HIT RADIO FFH - Ticketshop”. Ffh.de. 2010년 5월 19일에 확인함.
- “'Sting in the Tail' - Video - FoxNews.com”. Video.foxnews.com. 2010년 4월 6일. 2010년 5월 19일에 확인함.
- “Scorpions Forsee Fantastic Future Following Farewell”. billboard.com. 2010년 1월 29일에 확인함.
- The Story of "Scorpions" (ulijonroth.com)]
- Syrjälä, Marko. “Interview with Uli Jon Roth”. Metal-rules.com. 2008년 5월 12일에 확인함.
- “Allmusic review of the album”. allmusic.com. 2007년 5월 18일에 확인함.
- Don Dokken interview (classicrockrevisited.com)
- Interview with Klaus Meine (metal-rules.com)
- New SCORPIONS Album Title, Artwork Revealed (bravewords.com)
- “Klaus Meine podcast interview”. Stuck in the 80s. 2007. 2007년 11월 26일에 확인함.
- “Interview with Klaus Meine”. Classic Rock Revisited. 2007. 2007년 11월 17일에 확인함.
- Scorpions Give Spies a Perestroika Ballad
- “Scorpions performs at Germany's ECHO Awards”. Blabbermouth.net. 2009년 2월 22일. 2009년 2월 22일에 확인함.
- “BLABBERMOUTH.NET - SCORPIONS: New Album Title Announced”. Roadrunnerrecords.com. 2010년 6월 23일에 확인함.
- “Scorpions News - Important Message to our Fans”. The-scorpions.com. 2010년 6월 23일에 확인함.
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- Photos from concert Scorpions in Minsk 29.04.2010, Final World tour
- Photos from press-conference Scorpions in Minsk 29.04.2010