일반적인 의인화와는 약간 다르게, 이 경우 일반적으로 다수의 사람들에게 호응을 얻을 수 있는 모습 등을 이끌어 내기 위해 인간의 형태를 가지면서도, 소년·소녀나 미형의 모습을 가지는 경우가 많다. 다만 원래의 관념이나 형태에서는 벗어나는 경우가 많아, 관계가 없는 의인화가 되기도 한다. 이러한 경우에도 대개 원래의 특징과 관계있는 사물이나 장신구 등을 통해 원 관념을 표현하게 된다. 또한 이를 통해 일정한 구조를 가진 문화적인 창작물이 탄생하거나, 코스프레 등에 이용되기도 한다.
모에 의인화(일본어: 萌え擬人化 모에 기징카[*], 영어: Moé anthropomorphism)는 모에의 특성이 비인간 존재나, 물체, 개념, 현상에 부여되어, 보통 미소녀의 형태로 귀착되는 의인화의 한 형태이다. 이러한 모에의 특징들은 또한 그들이 의인화되기 이전의 원래 형태를 강조해주는 엑세서리를 통해 캐릭터화된다. 이제 이 여성 캐릭터는, 코스프레의 형태로서, 움직이지 않는 사물이나 유명한 소비제품에서 도출된다. 이러한 인격화의 유머의 일부분은 캐릭터의 개성(일반적으로 풍자적인)과, 기계나, 대상, 그리고 물리적인 공간마저도 귀엽게 만드는 얇은 자의성에서 기인한다.
모에 의인화의 타입[편집]
Kemonomimi, literally meaning "animal ears", is the concept of drawing animals as bishōjo or having bishōjo wear animal accessories (such as ears or tails). Catgirls are the most prolific in this category, although bunnygirls, foxgirls, and doggirls are also popular. Although kemonomimi fits the technical definition of moé anthropomorphism, it is often not considered a part of moé anthropomorphism due to its abundance outside dojin.
Although Chobits and Toy's iMac Girl came first, the widespread meme of turning computer-related phenomena into moé subjects did not start until Shitake-chan (しいたけちゃん), the anthropomorphization of Internet Explorer's close button. The idea of Shitake-chan came in 2001 on 2channel, starting with a poster who claims he saw the close button as a shitake. Shitake-chan has since been called the origin of moé anthropomorphism by some.
Following Shitake-chan are the famous OS-tans of 2003. The concept is reported to have begun as a personification of the common perception of Windows Me as unstable and prone to frequent crashes. Discussions on Futaba Channel likened this to the stereotype of a fickle, troublesome girl. The personification became expanded, with the creation of Me-tan (dated to August 6, 2003) followed by the other characters. Mac OS X, Linux, and Linspire girls have also shown up on the Internet, although some non-OS male characters exist for programs and hardware. Norton AntiVirus is usually portrayed as a creepy looking, possibly lecherous old doctor. Since the creation of the OS-tans, other software and websites have been anthropomorphized as well. For example, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has its own Wikipe-tan , while Mozilla applications have their own set of Moezilla.
Mecha Musume are girls that are drawn as hybrids with military hardware, such as tanks, ships, aircrafts or even missiles. Popular subjects of this kind of anthropomorphism include World War II military vehicles, even collectible mecha musume figures of these vehicles have been released.
MS shōjo (or Gundam girls) are another type of mecha musume. They preceeded the trend of turning real life weapons into girls as Gundam girls first appeared in print in the 1980s. MS shōjo are mecha robots that are drawn as girls, they are often gundams or zakus. Features of these girls often include helmets, armour, lightsabers, and/or rayguns. MS in this case stands for Mobile Suit.
Due to the abundance of railfans in Japan, anthropomorphizations of trains are also common. Though at the beginning such anthropomorphizations were just faces in front of the trains (ie. eyes as the windshields), by the 2000s they became more and more humanoid due to the influence of otaku culture. In such cases, the girls are often drawn so that clothes worn reflect the front design of the first car and the colors of the railway company operating the train. Indeed, the personification is nearly as much about the train operator as about the train itself.
This sort of anthropomorphization arises from the fact that there is a significant overlap in railfans and otaku, and such anthropomorphizations are the products of their affection towards the trains. However, not all railfans in Japan are otakus, and thus some railfans view these anthropomorphizations with contempt.
Notable trains who were drawn as girls include the FASTECH 360, often drawn with cat ears because of the train's emergency air braking plates. Called the FASTECH-tan, this particular "train girl" has its own collectible figure, sold with permission from the East Japan Railway Company. Unlike Mecha Musume or OS-tans the personifications of trains rarely feature non-Japanese designs. Among the few exceptions is Eurostar.
Other things have also been given moé characteristics:
- Celestial bodies
- The celesial bodies which consist of Pluto and Charon, etc. Pluto is depicted as a unwanted child in light of its recent demotion from the list of planets.
- Based on Bincho-tan and other types of charcoal, the anime and manga Binchōtan uses the dajare in the Japanese word for coal(炭tan) to create a series of cute girls.
- Convenient stores
- As with national personifications, moé versions of various countries are present. For example, Japan is Nihon-chan, Afghanistan is Afuganisu-tan — both have their own webcomics in Japan.
- Habanero-tan, the unofficial mascot of Bōkun Habanero; and Bisuke-tan for biscuits that KFC sells in Japan.
- Home appliances
- Eroge Like Life and Monogokoro, Monomusume both feature home appliances as girls. These appliances include washing machines, alarm clocks, blackboard erasers, pillows, first aid boxes, cell phones, and even post boxes, among others. The very nature of eroge, however, puts the main characters in unusual situations when the sex scene happens — such as essentially "having sex with the washing machine".
|이 문서의 내용은 출처가 분명하지 않습니다.|
- Parts of this article use the translation of the corresponding Chinese-language Wikipedia article and the Japanese-language Wikipedia article on "Anthropomorphism" and "Train anthropomorphism". Retreived on July 31, 2006.
- 틀:Ja icon Nijiura - Japanese Imageboard with a number of boards dedicated to OS-tans, Mecha Musume etc.
- 틀:Ja icon 制服兵器兵站局 - Japanese Imageboard for Mecha Musume.
- 틀:En icon iiChan/WAKAchan imageboards - The Net Characters board on iiChan/WAKAchan is mainly dedicated to OS-tans but accepts other mascot characters such as Mecha Musume.
The pan flute (also known as panpipes) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the stopped pipe, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length (and, at times, girth). The pan flute has long been popular as a folk instrument, and is considered the ancestor of both the pipe organ and the harmonica, or mouth organ. The pan flute is named for its association with the rustic Greek god Pan. The pipes of the pan flute are typically made from bamboo; other materials used include wood, plastic, and metal.
The pipes comprising it are stopped at one end, at which the standing wave is reflected giving a note an octave lower than that produced by an open pipe of equal length. In the traditional South American style, pipes are fine-tuned to correct pitch by placing small pebbles or dry corn kernels into the bottom of the pipes. Contemporary makers of curved Romanian-style panpipes use wax (commonly beeswax) to tune new instruments. Special tools are used to place or remove the wax. Corks and rubber stoppers are also used, and are easier to quickly tune pipes.
The pan flute is played by blowing horizontally across the open end against the sharp inner edge of the pipes. Each pipe is tuned to a note, called the fundamental. By overblowing, that is, increasing the pressure of breath and tension of lips, odd harmonics (notes whose frequencies are odd-number multiples of the fundamental) may also be produced. The Romanian panflute has the pipes arranged in a curved array, enabling the player to easily reach all the notes by simply swiveling their head. These instruments can also play all the sharps and flats, with a special technique of both tilting the pipes and jaw movement. An advanced player can play any scale and in any key. There are two styles of vibrato possible, hand vibrato and breath vibrato. In hand vibrato, the player applies a gentle motion to one end of the panflute (usually the high end) in much the same way as the violin vibrato is achieved by rocking the hand from the wrist. Breath vibrato is the same technique used by players of the flute and other woodwinds.
The European curved-style pan flute was popularized by the Romanian musician Gheorghe Zamfir, who toured extensively and recorded many albums of pan flute music in the 1970s, and by several other artists who began recording at the same time. Today there are thousands of devoted players across Europe, Asia and the Americas. Both the curved and traditional South American variations are also very popular in Peruvian traditional groups and other Andean music.
Types of pan flutes[편집]
Pan flute players (panflutists)[편집]
- Douglas Bishop (USA)
- Ulrich Herkenhoff (Germany)
- Damian Luca (Romania)
- Fănică Luca (Romania)
- Stefan Negura (Moldova)
- Nicolae Pirvu (Romania)
- Radu Simion (Romania)
- Stanciu Simion (Romania)
- Matthias Schlubeck (Germany)
- Brad White (USA)
- Gheorghe Zamfir (Romania)
- Video: How to Play Panflute by Brad White
- Visit Pan-Flute.Com's All About Panflutes by Brad White
- A Worldwide History of the Panflute by Douglas Bishop
- Free Panflute Lessons by Douglas Bishop
- The Hall of Panflutists by Douglas Bishop
- Panflute World Forum (Yahoo! group)
- Panflute-Page Forum (Yahoo! group)
- Panflute Forum (Panflute discussion group)
- World Pan Flute Association Inc. (a non-profit organization)
A marionette is a type of puppet moved by strings, as in a puppet show. In the western world, they originated from the medieval times in France and can be found in every country in the world. The word "marionette" comes from French, where it was a diminutive of "Marion", which was a diminutive of "Marie".They can be found in box theatres, curtain theatres and black light theatres. Marionettes are considered by many to be very entertaining for both adults and children.
Pinocchio is a particularly famous marionette. The musical The Sound of Music contains a fairly detailed scene involving several marionettes worked on a stage. Another very famous television marionette is Howdy Doody. In the 1960s TV producer Gerry Anderson and his colleagues pioneered a technique combining marionettes with electronic components, typically to control facial features, which they dubbed "supermarionation".
Sicily is home to two prominent folk art traditions, both of which draw heavily on the island's Norman and Provençal influence. Donkey carts are painted with intricate decorations of scenes from the Frankish romantic poems, such as The Song of Roland. The same tales are told in traditional puppet theatres which feature hand-made wooden marionettes. These puppet theatres are called Opira dî pupi (or opera of the puppets) in Sicilian. These same puppet theatres, and the centuries old Sicilian tradition of cantastorî (literally sing stories) have their roots in the Provençal troubadour tradition, prominent in Sicily during the reign of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in the first half of the 13th century. A great place to see these is the puppet theatres of Palermo, Sicily.
Marionette sightings in culture[편집]
- 마리오네트가 영화 사운드 오브 뮤직에 나온다.
- EarthBound: In the town of Threed, Smilin' Sam and Handsome Tom are marionettes that attack you.
- 아바는 'I'm a Marionette'라는 곡을 발매했다.
- Tillamook Treasure: a 2005 feature film in which Floyd Red Crow Westerman and Max Gail play puppeteers. The marionettes, carved by master puppeteer Phillip Huber to look like characters in the film. Huber (Huber Marionettes) performed all the puppet manipulations in the film.
- Thunderbirds: a television series in which all characters were marionettes.
- Being John Malkovich: a 1999 movie starring John Cusack as a street puppeteer whose performances include marionette adaptations of the story of Abélard and Heloise. Puppeteers who worked on this include Images in Motion, Coad Canada Puppets, and the Huber Marionettes.
- The Double Life of Véronique: a 1991 film by Krzysztof Kieślowski
- The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker: a 2002 GameCube game, features a marionette boss named Puppet Ganon who can change his form into a spider and a snake.
- Team America: World Police: a 2004 movie using Thunderbirds-style marionettes.
- Strings, a 2004 fantasy film made entirely with marionettes on strings.
- Marionettes took an evil turn when featured in a popular PS2 game Devil May Cry where they became the key enemy.
- In later Castlevania games, marionettes also become enemies. They usually appear as wooden dolls which can cast curse on the heroes upon contact. One major exception to this is in Castlevania: Dawn of Sorrow, where there is a boss named Puppet Master, who is a giant marionette himself, and attacks using iron maidens.
- Saber Marionette is a collection of several anime series, manga, audio dramas and OVAs originally created by Satoru Akahori, primarily involving various robotic female characters called marionettes.
- In the manga and anime series Naruto the ninjas Kankuro and Sasori use various marionettes as weapons.
- In the Chilean telenovela Los títeres (The Puppets), each main character poses as a model for a puppeteer who makes marionette look-a-like versions of them. They play an important symbolic role in the series.
- 라그나로크 온라인에서, 마리오네트는 게펜 던전 3층에 있는 몬스터이다.
- 유명한 동화이자 영화, 애니메이션인 피노키오의 주인공인 피노키오는 줄이 없이 움직일 수 있는 마리오네트이다.
- A symbol of the Godfather films is a hand holding marionette strings, showing how mafia dons often control their families: as dictators.
- Virtual museum of the puppet and of the marionette
- Czechmarionettes.com - online gallery and resource of marionettes from the Czech Republic