사용자:배우는사람/문서:신통기

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목차

서론[편집]

1~115행: 서사·무사 여신의 기원 및 작자가 노래하게 된 경위[편집]

HYMN TO THE MUSES

[1] From the Heliconian Muses let us begin to sing, who hold the great and holy mount of Helicon, and dance on soft feet about the deep-blue spring and the altar of the almighty son of Cronos, and, when they have washed their tender bodies in Permessus or in the Horse's Spring or Olmeius, make their fair, lovely dances upon highest Helicon and move with vigorous feet. Thence they arise and go abroad by night, veiled in thick mist, and utter their song with lovely voice, praising Zeus the aegis-holder and queenly Hera of Argos who walks on golden sandals and the daughter of Zeus the aegis-holder bright-eyed Athene, and Phoebus Apollo, and Artemis who delights in arrows, and Poseidon the earth-holder who shakes the earth, and reverend Themis and quick-glancing1 Aphrodite, and Hebe with the crown of gold, and fair Dione, Leto, Iapetus, and Cronos the crafty counsellor, Eos and great Helius and bright Selene, Earth too, and great Oceanus, and dark Night, and the holy race of all the other deathless ones that are for ever. And one day they taught Hesiod glorious song while he was shepherding his lambs under holy Helicon, and this word first the goddesses said to me – the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus who holds the aegis: "Shepherds of the wilderness, wretched things of shame, mere bellies, we know how to speak many false things as though they were true; but we know, when we will, to utter true things.”

[29] So said the ready-voiced daughters of great Zeus, and they plucked and gave me a rod, a shoot of sturdy laurel, a marvellous thing, and breathed into me a divine voice to celebrate things that shall be and things there were aforetime; and they bade me sing of the race of the blessed gods that are eternally, but ever to sing of themselves both first and last. But why all this about oak or stone?2

[36] Come thou, let us begin with the Muses who gladden the great spirit of their father Zeus in Olympus with their songs, telling of things that are and that shall be and that were aforetime with consenting voice. Unwearying flows the sweet sound from their lips, and the house of their father Zeus the loud-thunderer is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as it spread abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympus resound, and the homes of the immortals. And they uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning, those whom Earth and wide Heaven begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things. Then, next, the goddesses sing of Zeus, the father of gods and men, as they begin and end their strain, how much he is the most excellent among the gods and supreme in power. And again, they chant the race of men and strong giants, and gladden the heart of Zeus within Olympus, -- the Olympian Muses, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder.

[53] Them in Pieria did Mnemosyne (Memory), who reigns over the hills of Eleuther, bear of union with the father, the son of Cronos, a forgetting of ills and a rest from sorrow. For nine nights did wise Zeus lie with her, entering her holy bed remote from the immortals. And when a year was passed and the seasons came round as the months waned, and many days were accomplished, she bare nine daughters, all of one mind, whose hearts are set upon song and their spirit free from care, a little way from the topmost peak of snowy Olympus. There are their bright dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them the Graces and Himerus (Desire) live in delight. And they, uttering through their lips a lovely voice, sing the laws of all and the goodly ways of the immortals, uttering their lovely voice. Then went they to Olympus, delighting in their sweet voice, with heavenly song, and the dark earth resounded about them as they chanted, and a lovely sound rose up beneath their feet as they went to their father. And he was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Cronos; and he distributed fairly to the immortals their portions and declared their privileges.

[75] These things, then, the Muses sang who dwell on Olympus, nine daughters begotten by great Zeus, Cleio and Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene and Terpsichore, and Erato and Polyhymnia and Urania and Calliope,3 who is the chiefest of them all, for she attends on worshipful princes: whomsoever of heaven-nourished princes the daughters of great Zeus honour, and behold him at his birth, they pour sweet dew upon his tongue, and from his lips flow gracious words. All the people look towards him while he settles causes with true judgements: and he, speaking surely, would soon make wise end even of a great quarrel; for therefore are there princes wise in heart, because when the people are being misguided in their assembly, they set right the matter again with ease, persuading them with gentle words. And when he passes through a gathering, they greet him as a god with gentle reverence, and he is conspicuous amongst the assembled: such is the holy gift of the Muses to men. For it is through the Muses and far-shooting Apollo that there are singers and harpers upon the earth; but princes are of Zeus, and happy is he whom the Muses love: sweet flows speech from his mouth. For though a man have sorrow and grief in his newly-troubled soul and live in dread because his heart is distressed, yet, when a singer, the servant of the Muses, chants the glorious deeds of men of old and the blessed gods who inhabit Olympus, at once he forgets his heaviness and remembers not his sorrows at all; but the gifts of the goddesses soon turn him away from these.

[104] Hail, children of Zeus! Grant lovely song and celebrate the holy race of the deathless gods who are for ever, those that were born of Earth and starry Heaven and gloomy Night and them that briny Sea did rear. Tell how at the first gods and earth came to be, and rivers, and the boundless sea with its raging swell, and the gleaming stars, and the wide heaven above, and the gods who were born of them, givers of good things, and how they divided their wealth, and how they shared their honours amongst them, and also how at the first they took many-folded Olympus. These things declare to me from the beginning, ye Muses who dwell in the house of Olympus, and tell me which of them first came to be.

그리스 태초신[편집]

THE COSMOGONY

116~122행: 최초의 네가지 힘들: 카오스·가이아·타르타로스·에로스[편집]

[116] Verily at the first Chaos (카오스: 텅 빈 공간, 무 無, 혼돈의 신) came to be, but next wide-bosomed Earth (가이아 Gaia: 땅의 여신), the ever-sure foundations of all[1] the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympus, and dim Tartarus (타르타로스: 지하의 남신) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth (가이아: 땅의 여신), and Eros (Love 에로스: 사랑의 남신), fairest among the deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them.

123행: 카오스의 자녀들 - 에레보스·닉스[편집]

[123] From Chaos (카오스: 텅 빈 공간, 무 無) came forth Erebus (에레보스: 어둠 · 암흑의 남신) and black Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신);

For Hesiod and the early Greek Olympian myth (8th century BC), Chaos was the first of the primordial deities, followed by Earth (Gaia), Tartarus and Eros (Love).[2] From Chaos came Erebus and Nyx.[3]
Passages in Hesiod's Theogony suggest that Chaos was located below Earth but above Tartarus.[4] Primal Chaos was sometimes said to be the true foundation of reality, particularly by philosophers such as Heraclitus.
Etymology
The perceived meaning of Erebus is "darkness"; the first recorded instance of it was "place of darkness between earth and Hades". Hebrew עֶרֶב (ˤerev) 'sunset, evening' is sometimes cited as a source.[5][6] However, an Indo-European origin, at least for the name Ἔρεβος itself, is likelier.
Primary sources
According to the Greek oral poet Hesiod's Theogony, Erebus is the offspring of Chaos, and brother to Nyx.
From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night; but of Night were born Aether and Day, whom she conceived and bore from union in love with Erebus.

— Hesiod, Theogony (120–125)[7]

The Roman writer Hyginus, in his Fabulae, described Erebus as the father of Geras, the god of old age.[8]

124~125행: 에레보스와 닉스의 자녀들 - 아이테르·헤메라[편집]

[124] but of Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신) were born Aether (아이테르: 대기의 남신)[9] and Day (헤메라 Hemera: 낮의 남신), whom she conceived and bare from union in love with Erebus (에레보스: 어둠 · 암흑의 남신) .

In Greek mythology, Erebus /ˈɛrəbəs/, also Erebos (Ἔρεβος, "deep darkness, shadow"), was often conceived as a primordial deity, representing the personification of darkness; for instance, Hesiod's Theogony places him as one of the first five beings to come into existence, born from Chaos.[10] Erebus features little in Greek mythological tradition and literature, but is said to have fathered several other deities by Nyx; depending on the source of the mythology, this union includes Aether, Hemera, the Hesperides, Hypnos, the Moirai, Geras, Styx, and Thanatos.
In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used to refer to a region of the Underworld where the dead had to pass immediately after dying, and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus.[5][11][12][13][14]

126~133행: 가이아의 자녀들 - 우라노스·우로스·폰토스[편집]

[126] And Earth (가이아 Gaia: 땅의 여신) first

  1. bare starry Heaven (우라노스, Uranus: 하늘의 남신), equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods.
  2. And she brought forth long Hills (우로스 ourea: 산의 남신, mountains), graceful haunts (자주 가는 곳) of the goddess-Nymphs (님프: 정령, 하급 여신) who dwell amongst the glens (협곡) of the hills.
  3. She (가이아) bare also the fruitless deep with his (폰토스) raging swell, Pontus (폰토스: 바다의 남신), without sweet union of love.

티탄족의 탄생과 그리스 태초신의 시대의 종말[편집]

가이아와 우라노스의 자녀들[편집]

134~138행: 가이아와 우라노스의 자녀들 - 티탄족들[편집]

CASTRATION OF URANUS (우라노스의 거세)

[134] But afterwards she (가이아) lay with Heaven (우라노스, Uranus: 하늘의 남신) and bore

  1. deep-swirling Oceanus (오케아노스: 남신, 대지를 둘러싼 거대한 강, World Ocean, an enormous river encircling the world),
  2. Coeus (코이오스: 남신, celestial axis) and
  3. Crius (크리오스: 남신, 후손이 더 유명) and
  4. Hyperion (히페리온: 남신, 태양신, lord of light, Titan of the east) and
  5. Iapetus (이아페토스: 남신, 후손이 더 유명),
  6. Theia (테이아: 여신, 바다의 여신) and
  7. Rhea (레아: 여신, 제우스의 모친, 대지의 여신),
  8. Themis (테미스: 여신, 법과 정의의 여신) and
  9. Mnemosyne (므네모시네: 여신, 기억의 여신) and
  10. gold-crowned Phoebe (포이베: 여신, 후손이 더 유명) and
  11. lovely Tethys (테튀스: 여신).
  12. After them was born Cronos (크로노스: 남신, 제우스의 부친, 농경의 신) the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire (아비, 즉 우라노스).
Gaia (/ˈɡ.ə/ or /ˈɡ.ə/; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ, "land" or "earth";[15] also Gaea, or Ge) was the goddess or personification of Earth in ancient Greek religion,[16] one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia was the great mother of all: the primal Greek Mother Goddess; creator and giver of birth to the Earth and all the Universe; the heavenly gods, the Titans and the Giants were born from her union with Uranus (the sky), while the sea-gods were born from her union with Pontus (the sea). Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra.
Hesiod's Theogony tells how, after Chaos, "wide-bosomed" Gaia (Earth) arose to be the everlasting seat of the immortals who possess Olympus above,[17] and the depths of Tartarus below (as some scholars interpret it[18]). Gaia brought forth her equal Uranus (or Ouranos in Ancient Greek) (Heaven, Sky) to "cover her on every side" and to be the abode of the gods.[19] Gaia also bore the hills (ourea), and Pontus (Sea), "without sweet union of love."[20] Afterwards with Uranus, she gave birth to the Titans, as Hesiod tells it:

She lay with Heaven and bore deep-swirling Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Cronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire.[21]

Uranus (/ˈjʊərənəs/ or /jʊˈrnəs/; Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus was conceived by Gaia alone, but other sources cite Aether as his father.[22] Uranus and Gaia were the parents of the first generation of Titans, and the ancestors of most of the Greek gods, but no cult addressed directly to Uranus survived into Classical times,[23] and Uranus does not appear among the usual themes of Greek painted pottery. Elemental Earth, Sky and Styx might be joined, however, in a solemn invocation in Homeric epic.[24]
Depiction of Pontos at the Constanţa Museum of National History
Depiction of Pontos at the Constanţa Museum of National History
In Greek mythology, Pontus or Pontos (Πόντος) (English translation: "sea") was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, one of the Greek primordial deities. Pontus was Gaia's son and, according to the Greek poet Hesiod, he was born without coupling.[7] For Hesiod, Pontus seems little more than a personification of the sea, ho pontos, "the Road", by which Hellenes signified the Mediterranean Sea.[25] With Gaia, he fathered Nereus (the Old Man of the Sea), Thaumas (the awe-striking "wonder" of the Sea, embodiment of the sea's dangerous aspects), Phorcys and his sister-consort Ceto, and the "Strong Goddess" Eurybia. With the sea goddess Thalassa (whose own name simply means "sea" but is derived from a pre-Greek root), he fathered the Telchines and all sea life.[7][26][13][11][14]
In a Roman sculpture of the 2nd century AD, Pontus, rising from seaweed, grasps a rudder with his right hand and leans on the prow of a ship. He wears a mural crown, and accompanies Fortuna, whose draperies appear at the left, as twin patron deities of the Black Sea port of Tomis in Moesia.

139~154행: 가이아와 우라노스의 자녀들 - 키클롭스와 헤카톤케이레스[편집]

키클롭스: 브론테스·스케로페스·아르게스[편집]

[139] And again, she (가이아) bare the Cyclopes (키클롭스), overbearing in spirit,

  1. Brontes (브론테스: Thunder, 천둥장이, Thunderer), and
  2. Steropes (스테로페스: Lightning, 번개장이, Lightener) and
  3. stubborn-hearted Arges (아르게스: Bright, 번쩍이는 자, Vivid One),[27]

who (세 명이 함께) gave Zeus the thunder and made the thunderbolt:

in all else they were like the gods, but one eye only was set in the midst of their fore-heads. And they were surnamed Cyclopes (Orb-eyed) because one orbed (원형의, 둥근) eye was set in their foreheads. Strength and might and craft were in their works.

헤카톤케이레스: 코토스·브리아레오스·기게스[편집]

[147] And again, three other sons (헤카톤케이레스, Hecatonchires) were born of Earth (가이아) and Heaven (우라노스), great and doughty beyond telling,

  1. Cottus (코토스) and
  2. Briareos (브리아레오스) and
  3. Gyes (기게스), presumptuous (건방진) children.

From their shoulders sprang an hundred arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms.

우라노스의 악행과 거세[편집]

우라노스의 악행[편집]

For of all the children that were born of Earth (가이아) and Heaven (우라노스), these were the most terrible, and they were hated by their own father (우라노스) from the first. And he (우라노스) used to hide them (퀴클롭스헤카톤케이레스) all away in a secret place of Earth (가이아) so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Heaven (우라노스) rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Earth (가이아) groaned (신음 소리를 내다) within, being straitened (곤란받게 하다), and she made the element of grey flint (부싯돌) and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons.

According to Hesiod, Gaia conceived further offspring with Uranus (Ouranos), first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes: Brontes ("Thunder"), Steropes ("Lightning") and Arges ("Bright");[28] then the Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareos and Gyges, each with a hundred arms and fifty heads.[29] As each of the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires were born, Uranus hid them in a secret place within Gaia, causing her great pain. So Gaia devised a plan. She created a grey flint (or adamantine) sickle. And Cronus used the sickle to castrate his father Uranus as he approached Gaia to have intercourse with her. From Uranus' spilled blood, Gaia produced the Erinyes, the Giants and the Meliae (ash-tree nymphs). From the testicles of Uranus in the sea came forth Aphrodite.[30]

163~173행: 가이아의 분노와 계획[편집]

[163] And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed (화가 난) in her dear heart: “My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage (절대로 용납할 수 없는 잔인무도한 일) of your father; for he first thought of (우선 ...을 생각하다) doing shameful things.”

[167] So she said; but fear seized them all, and none of them uttered a word. But great Cronos (크로노스: 남신, 제우스의 부친, 농경의 신) the wily (교활한) took courage and answered his dear mother: “Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I reverence not our father of evil name, for he first thought of (우선 ...을 생각하다) doing shameful things.”

[173] So he said: and vast Earth (가이아) rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush (매복), and put in his hands a jagged (삐죽삐죽한) sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot.

176행: 우라노스를 거세함[편집]

[176] And Heaven (우라노스) came, bringing on night and longing for love, and he lay about Earth (가이아) spreading himself full upon her.[31] Then the son from his ambush (매복) stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off (자르다) his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him.

우라노스의 피로부터 생겨남: 에리이에스·기간테스·멜리아데스[편집]

And not vainly did they fall from his hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth (쏟아 내다) Earth (가이아) received, and as the seasons moved round she bare

  1. the strong Erinyes (에리니에스: 저주와 복수의 세 여신, Alecto, Megaera, Tisiphone) and
  2. the great Giants (기간테스) with gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hands and
  3. the Nymphs whom they call Meliae (멜리아데스: 물푸레나무의 요정)[32] all over the boundless earth.

우라노스의 거세물로부터 생겨남: 아프로디테[편집]

And so soon as he (크로노스: 남신, 제우스의 부친, 농경의 신) had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea, they were swept away over the main a long time: and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden. First she drew near holy Cythera (키티라 섬), and from there, afterwards, she came to sea-girt (바다에 둘러싸인) Cyprus, and came forth an awful and lovely goddess, and grass grew up about her beneath her shapely feet. Her gods and men call Aphrodite (아프로디테: 미와 사랑의 여신, 비너스), and the foam-born goddess and rich-crowned Cytherea (아프로디테: 미와 사랑의 여신, 비너스), because she grew amid the foam, and Cytherea (아프로디테: 미와 사랑의 여신, 비너스) because she reached Cythera (키티라 섬), and Cyprogenes (아프로디테: 미와 사랑의 여신, 비너스) because she was born in billowy Cyprus, and Philommedes (아프로디테: 미와 사랑의 여신, 비너스)[33] because sprang from the members.

에로스가 아프로디테와 동반함[편집]

And with her went Eros (에로스), and comely (어여쁜) Desire (에로스) followed her at her birth at the first and as she went into the assembly of the gods. This honour she has from the beginning, and this is the portion allotted to her amongst men and undying gods, -- the whisperings of maidens and smiles and deceits (기만) with sweet delight and love and graciousness.

가이아와 우라노스 간에 태어난 자녀들을 티탄족이라 부름[편집]

[207] But these sons whom be begot himself great Heaven (우라노스) used to call Titans (티탄) (Strainers) in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come afterwards.

According to Hesiod, Gaia conceived further offspring with Uranus (Ouranos), first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes: Brontes ("Thunder"), Steropes ("Lightning") and Arges ("Bright");[34] then the Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareos and Gyges, each with a hundred arms and fifty heads.[35] As each of the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires were born, Uranus hid them in a secret place within Gaia, causing her great pain. So Gaia devised a plan. She created a grey flint (or adamantine) sickle. And Cronus used the sickle to castrate his father Uranus as he approached Gaia to have intercourse with her. From Uranus' spilled blood, Gaia produced the Erinyes, the Giants and the Meliae (ash-tree nymphs). From the testicles of Uranus in the sea came forth Aphrodite.[36]
By her son Pontus, Gaia bore the sea-deities Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia.[37]
Because Cronus had learned from Gaia and Uranus, that he was destined to be overthrown by his own child, Cronus swallowed each of the children born to him by his Titan sister Rhea in the United Kingdom. But when Rhea was pregnant with her youngest child Zeus, she sought help from Gaia and Uranus. And when Zeus was born Gaia took the child into her care, and in place of Zeus, Rhea gave Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling-clothes, which he swallowed.[38]
With Gaia's advice[39] Zeus defeated the Titans. But afterwords Gaia in union with Tartarus, bore the youngest of her sons Typhon, who would be the last challenge to Zeus' authority.[40]

티탄족의 시대[편집]

211~232행: 티탄 신족들의 자녀들 - 밤과 불화 (不和)의 자녀들 - 운명·죽음·비난 등등[편집]

밤의 자녀들[편집]

THE SPIRITS OF NIGHT

[211] And Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신) bare

  1. hateful Doom (모로스: 운명의 남신, Destiny) and
  2. black Fate (케르, 케레스: 죽음의 여신, 복수형, Destruction, Violent Death) and
  3. Death (타나토스: 죽음의 남신, Death), and she bare
  4. Sleep (히프노스: 잠의 남신) and
  5. the tribe of Dreams (오네이로이: 꿈의 남신들). And again the goddess murky Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신), though she lay with none, bare
  6. Blame (모모스: 비난의 남신) and
  7. painful Woe (오이지스: 괴로움의 여신), and
  8. the Hesperides (헤스페리데스: 님프들) who guard the rich, golden apples and the trees bearing fruit beyond glorious Ocean. Also she bare
  9. the Destinies (케르, 케레스: 죽음의 여신들, Destruction, Violent Death) and
  10. ruthless avenging Fates (모이라이: 운명의 여신들, 세 자매 - 클로토, 라케시스, 아트로포스),
    1. Clotho (클로토: 운명의 여신) and
    2. Lachesis (라케시스: 운명의 여신) and
    3. Atropos (아트로포스: 운명의 여신),[41] who give men at their birth both evil and good to have, and they pursue the transgressions of men and of gods: and these goddesses never cease from their dread anger until they punish the sinner with a sore penalty. Also deadly Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신) bare
  11. Nemesis (네메시스: 복수와 보복의 여신) (Indignation) to afflict mortal men, and after her,
  12. Deceit (아파테: 사기의 여신) and
  13. Friendship (필로테스: 성(性)적 갈망의 여신) and
  14. hateful Age (게라스: 노령의 남신) and
  15. hard-hearted Strife (에리스: 불화(不和)의 여신).
Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa)
Nyx (Ancient Greek: Νύξ, "night") – Nox in Latin translation – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. A shadowy figure, Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation, and was the mother of other personified gods such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thánatos (Death). Her appearances in mythology are sparse, but reveal her as a figure of exceptional power and beauty. She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses.
In Hesiod's Theogony, Nyx is born of Chaos.[42] With Erebus (Darkness), Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day).[43] Later, on her own, Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom, Destiny), Ker (Fate, Destruction, Death), Thanatos (Death), Hypnos (Sleep), the Oneiroi (Dreams), Momus (Blame), Oizys (Woe, Pain, Distress), the Hesperides, the Moirai (Fates), the Keres, Nemesis (Indignation, Retribution), Apate (Deceit), Philotes (Friendship, Love), Geras (Old Age), and Eris (Strife).[44]
In his description of Tartarus, Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx[45] and the homes of her children Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death).[46] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day), who is Nyx's daughter, left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it; when Hemera returned, Nyx left.[47] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda, where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn).

불화의 자녀들[편집]

[226] But abhorred Strife (에리스: 불화(不和)의 여신) bare

  1. painful Toil (포노스: 노역의 남신) and
  2. Forgetfulness (레테: 망각의 여신) and
  3. Famine (리모스: 기근의 여신) and
  4. tearful Sorrows (알고스: 고통과 슬픔의 여신들),
  5. Fightings (히스미나이: 전쟁의 여신들) also,
  6. Battles (마크하이: 전쟁의 남신들과 여신들),
  7. Murders (포노이: 살인의 남신들),
  8. Manslaughters (안드로크타시아이: 과실치사의 여신들),
  9. Quarrels (네이케아: 분쟁의 여신들),
  10. Lying Words (프세우도로고이: 거짓의 남신들과 여신들),
  11. Disputes (암필로기아이: 논쟁의 여신들),
  12. Lawlessness (디스노미아: 무법의 여신들) and
  13. Ruin (아테: 몰락과 오류의 여신), all of one nature, and
  14. Oath (호르코스: 서약의 남신) who most troubles men upon earth when anyone wilfully swears a false oath.
Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of chaos, strife and discord, her name being translated into Latin as Discordia. "Discordia" means discord. Her Greek opposite is Harmonia, whose Latin counterpart is Concordia. Homer equated her with the war-goddess Enyo, whose Roman counterpart is Bellona. The dwarf planet Eris is named after the goddess, as is the religion Discordianism.
In Hesiod's Works and Days 11–24, two different goddesses named Eris are distinguished:
So, after all, there was not one kind of Strife alone, but all over the earth there are two. As for the one, a man would praise her when he came to understand her; but the other is blameworthy: and they are wholly different in nature.
For one fosters evil war and battle, being cruel: no man loves her; but perforce, through the will of the deathless gods, men pay harsh Strife her honour due.
But the other is the elder daughter of dark Night (Nyx), and the son of Cronus who sits above and dwells in the aether, set her in the roots of the earth: and she is far kinder to men. She stirs up even the shiftless to toil; for a man grows eager to work when he considers his neighbour, a rich man who hastens to plough and plant and put his house in good order; and neighbour vies with his neighbour as he hurries after wealth. But Strife is unwholesome for men. And potter is angry with potter, and craftsman with craftsman, and beggar is jealous of beggar, and minstrel of minstrel.
In Hesiod's Theogony, (226–232) Strife, the daughter of Night is less kindly spoken of as she brings forth other personifications as her children:
But abhorred Eris ('Strife') bare painful Ponos ('Toil/Labor'), Lethe ('Forgetfulness') and Limos ('Famine') and tearful Algos (Pains/Sorrows), Hysminai ('Fightings/Combats') also, Makhai ('Battles'), Phonoi ('Murders/Slaughterings'), Androctasiai ('Manslaughters'), Neikea ('Quarrels'), Pseudologoi ('Lies/Falsehoods'), Amphilogiai ('Disputes'), Dysnomia ('Lawlessness') and Ate ('Ruin/Folly'), all of one nature, and Horkos ('Oath') who most troubles men upon earth when anyone wilfully swears a false oath.

233~336행: 티탄 신족들의 자녀들 - 폰토스의 자녀들 - 네레우스·네레이스·포르퀴스와 케토스·메두사·에키드나[편집]

폰토스와 가이아의 자녀들[편집]

Depiction of Pontos at the Constanţa Museum of National History
Depiction of Pontos at the Constanţa Museum of National History

THE SEA GODS

[233] And Sea (폰토스: 바다의 남신) begat

  1. Nereus (네레우스: 바다의 노인, 물과 바다의 남신), the eldest of his children, who is true and lies not: and men call him the Old Man because he is trusty and gentle and does not forget the laws of righteousness, but thinks just and kindly thoughts. And yet again he got
  2. great Thaumas (타우마스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 경이로움) and
  3. proud Phoreys, being mated with Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연), and
  4. fair-cheeked Ceto (케토스: 바다의 여신, 위험한 바다, 바다 괴물) and
  5. Eurybia (에우리비아: 바다의 소여신) who has a heart of flint within her.
In Greek mythology, Pontus or Pontos (Πόντος) (English translation: "sea") was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, one of the Greek primordial deities. Pontus was Gaia's son and, according to the Greek poet Hesiod, he was born without coupling.[7] For Hesiod, Pontus seems little more than a personification of the sea, ho pontos, "the Road", by which Hellenes signified the Mediterranean Sea.[48] With Gaia, he fathered Nereus (the Old Man of the Sea), Thaumas (the awe-striking "wonder" of the Sea, embodiment of the sea's dangerous aspects), Phorcys and his sister-consort Ceto, and the "Strong Goddess" Eurybia. With the sea goddess Thalassa (whose own name simply means "sea" but is derived from a pre-Greek root), he fathered the Telchines and all sea life.[7][49][13][11][14]
In a Roman sculpture of the 2nd century AD, Pontus, rising from seaweed, grasps a rudder with his right hand and leans on the prow of a ship. He wears a mural crown, and accompanies Fortuna, whose draperies appear at the left, as twin patron deities of the Black Sea port of Tomis in Moesia.

네레우스와 도리스의 50명의 딸: 네레이데스[편집]

[240] And of Nereus (네레우스: 바다의 노인, 물과 바다의 남신) and rich-haired Doris (도리스: 바다의 요정, 오케아니데스), daughter of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신) the perfect river, were born children,[50] passing lovely amongst goddesses,

  1. Ploto (플로토, 네레이드),
  2. Eucrante (에우크란테, 네레이드, 훌륭한 완수),
  3. Sao (사오, 네레이드, 구해주는 여인), and
  4. Amphitrite (암피트리테, 네레이드, 포세이돈의 아내), and
  5. Eudora (에우도레, 네레이드, 잘 베푸는여인), and
  6. Thetis (테티스, 네레이드, 아킬레우스의 어머니),
  7. Galene (갈레네, 네레이드, 차분한 여인) and
  8. Glauce (글라우케, 네레이드, 반짝이는 여인),
  9. Cymothoe (퀴모토에, 네레이드)
  10. Speo (스페이오, 네레이드, 동굴여인),
  11. Thoe (토에, 네레이드) and
  12. lovely Halie (할리에), and
  13. Pasithea (파시테아, 네레이드, 모든 신들의 여인), and
  14. Erato (에라토, 네레이드, 사랑스런 여인), and
  15. rosy-armed Eunice (에우니케, 네레이드, 훌륭한 승리의 여인), and
  16. gracious Melite (멜리테, 네레이드, 꿀처럼 달콤한 여인), and
  17. Eulimene (에울리메네, 네레이드, 항구를 좋아하는 여인), and
  18. Agaue (아가우에, 네레이드, 고귀한 여인),
  19. Doto (도토, 네레이드, 베푸는 여인),
  20. Proto (프로토, 네레이드, 출발의 여인),
  21. Pherusa (페로우사, 네레이드, 날라다주는 여인), and
  22. Dynamene (뒤나메네, 네레이드, 능력있는 여인), and
  23. Nisaea (네사이에, 네레이드, 섬의 여인), and
  24. Actaea (아크타이에, 네레이드, 갑(岬), and
  25. Protomedea (프로토메데이아, 네레이드, 미리 돌보는 여인),
  26. Doris (도리스, 네레이드, 베푸는 여인)
  27. Panopea (파노페, 네레이드, 모든 것을 보는 여인), and
  28. comely Galatea (갈라테이아, 네레이드, 쟂빛 여인), and
  29. lovely Hippothoe (히포토에, 네레이드, 말처럼 날랜 여인), and
  30. rosy-armed Hipponoe (히포노에, 네레이드, 말의 마음을 가진 여인), and
  31. Cymodoce (퀴모도케, 네레이드, 파도를 받아들이는 여인) who with Cymatolege (퀴마토레게, 네레이드, 파도를 진정시키는 여인)[51] and Amphitrite (암피트리테, 네레이드, 포세이돈의 아내) easily calms the waves upon the misty sea and the blasts of raging winds, and
  32. Cymo (퀴모, 네레이드), and
  33. Eione (에이오네, 네레이드, 해안여인), and
  34. rich-crowned Alimede (알리메데, 네레이드), and
  35. Glauconome (글라우코노메, 네레이드, 빛나게 다스리는 여인), fond of laughter, and
  36. Pontoporea (폰토포레이아, 네레이드, 바다를 순항하는 여인),
  37. Leagore (레이아고레, 네레이드, 부드럽게 연설하는 여인),
  38. Euagore (에우아고레, 네레이드, 연설 잘하는 여인), and
  39. Laomedea (라오메데이아, 네레이드, 백성을 돌보는 여인), and
  40. Polynoe (포울리노에, 네레이드, 생각을 많이 하는 여인), and
  41. Autonoe (아우토노에, 네레이드, 스스로 생각하는 여인), and
  42. Lysianassa (뤼시아나사, 네레이드, 푸는 여인), and
  43. Euarne (에우아르네, 네레이드, 양떼를 좋아하는 여인), lovely of shape and without blemish of form, and
  44. Psamathe (프사메테, 네레이드, 모래여인) of charming figure and
  45. divine Menippe (메니페, 네레이드, 말처럼 용감한 여인),
  46. Neso (네소, 네레이드, 섬 여인),
  47. Eupompe (에우폼페, 네레이드, 잘 호송해주는 여인),
  48. Themisto (테미소토, 네레이드, 올곶은 여인),
  49. Pronoe (프로노에, 네레이드), and
  50. Nemertes (네메르테스, 네레이드)[52] who has the nature of her deathless father.

These fifty daughters sprang from blameless Nereus (네레우스: 바다의 노인, 물과 바다의 남신), skilled in excellent crafts.

Nereus in a frieze of the Pergamon Altar (Berlin).
In Greek mythology, Nereus (Νηρεύς) was the eldest son of Pontus (the Sea) and Gaia (the Earth), a Titan who with Doris fathered the Nereids, with whom Nereus lived in the Aegean Sea.[53] In the Iliad[54] the Old Man of the Sea is the father of Nereids, though Nereus is not directly named. He was never more manifestly the Old Man of the Sea than when he was described, like Proteus, as a shapeshifter with the power of prophecy, who would aid heroes such as Heracles[55] who managed to catch him even as he changed shapes. Nereus and Proteus (the "first") seem to be two manifestations of the god of the sea who was supplanted by Poseidon when Zeus overthrew Cronus.
The earliest poet to link Nereus with the labours of Heracles was Pherekydes, according to a scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes.[56]
During the course of the 5th century BC, Nereus was gradually replaced by Triton, who does not appear in Homer, in the imagery of the struggle between Heracles and the sea-god who had to be restrained in order to deliver his information that was employed by the vase-painters, independent of any literary testimony.[57]
In a late appearance, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climacteric battle of Issus (333 BC), and resorted to prayers, "calling on Thetis, Nereus and the Nereids, nymphs of the sea, and invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves."[58]
Nereus was known for his truthfulness and virtue:

But Pontos, the great sea, was father of truthful Nereus who tells no lies, eldest of his sons. They call him the Old Gentleman because he is trustworthy, and gentle, and never forgetful of what is right, but the thoughts of his mind are mild and righteous.[59]

The Attic vase-painters showed the draped torso of Nereus issuing from a long coiling scaly fishlike tail.[60] Bearded Nereus generally wields a staff of authority. He was also shown in scenes depicting the flight of the Nereides as Peleus wrestled their sister Thetis.
In Aelian's natural history, written in the early third century CE,[61] Nereus was also the father of a watery consort of Aphrodite named Nerites who was transformed into "a shellfish with a spiral shell, small in size but of surpassing beauty."
Nereus was father to Thetis, one of the Nereids, who in turn was mother to the great Greek hero Achilles, and Amphitrite, who married Poseidon.

타우마스와 엘렉트라의 자녀들[편집]

[265] And Thaumas (타우마스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 경이로움) wedded Electra (엘렉트라: 바다의 요정, 오케아니데스, 타우마스의 부인) the daughter of deep-flowing Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신), and she bare him

  1. swift Iris (이리스: 무지개의 여신, 신들의 전령사 여신) and
  2. the long-haired Harpies (하르피이아: 하피, 날개 달린 여자 모습의 정령들 - 아엘로, 오키페테, 켈라이노),
    1. Aello (아엘로: 하피) (Storm-swift) and
    2. Ocypetes (오키페테: 하피) (Swift-flier) who on their swift wings keep pace with the blasts of the winds and the birds; for quick as time they dart along.
In Greek mythology, Thaumas (/ˈθɔːməs/; Θαῦμας; gen.: Θαύμαντος) (English translation: "wonder") was a sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. He married an Oceanid, Electra (or Ozomene). The children of Thaumas and Electra were the Harpies and Iris, the goddess of rainbows and a messenger of the gods; according to some, also Arke.
Poseidon overthrew him and became the new sea god.
Thaumas was also the name of a centaur.
In Greek mythology, Iris (/ˈ[unsupported input]r[unsupported input]s/; Ἶρις) is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. She is also known as one of the goddesses of the sea and the sky. Iris links the gods to humanity. She travels with the speed of wind from one end of the world to the other,[62] and into the depths of the sea and the underworld.
According to Hesiod's Theogony, Iris is the daughter of Thaumas and the cloud nymph Electra. Her sisters are the Harpies; Aello, Celaeno and Ocypete.
Iris is frequently mentioned as a divine messenger in the Iliad which is attributed to Homer, but does not appear in his Odyssey, where Hermes fills that role. Like Hermes, Iris carries a caduceus or winged staff. By command of Zeus, the king of the gods, she carries an ewer of water from the River Styx, with which she puts to sleep all who perjure themselves. Goddess of sea and sky, she is also represented as supplying the clouds with the water needed to deluge the world, consistent with her identification with the rainbow.
In Greek mythology, a harpy (ἅρπυια, harpyia, 발음 [hárpuja]; harpeia) was one of the winged spirits best known for constantly stealing all food from Phineus. The literal meaning of the word seems to be "that which snatches" as it comes from the Greek word harpazein (ἁρπάζειν), which means "to snatch".
A harpy was the mother of the horses of Achilles sired by the West Wind Zephyros .[63]
Hesiod[64] calls them two "lovely-haired" creatures, and pottery art depicting the harpies featured beautiful women with wings. Harpies as ugly winged bird-women, e.g. in Aeschylus' The Eumenides (line 50) are a late development, due to a confusion with the Sirens. Roman and Byzantine writers detailed their ugliness.[65]
Phineus, a king of Thrace, had the gift of prophecy. Zeus, angry that Phineus revealed too much, punished him by blinding him and putting him on an island with a buffet of food which he could never eat. The harpies always arrived to steal the food out of his hands before he could satisfy his hunger, and befouled the remains of his food. This continued until the arrival of Jason and the Argonauts. The Boreads, sons of Boreas, the North Wind, who also could fly, succeeded in driving off the harpies, but without killing any of them, following a request from Iris, who promised that Phineus would not be bothered by the harpies again, and "the dogs of great Zeus" returned to their "cave in Minoan Crete". Thankful for their help, Phineus told the Argonauts how to pass the Symplegades.[66]
In this form they were agents of punishment who abducted people and tortured them on their way to Tartarus. They were vicious, cruel and violent. They lived on the islands of the Strophades. They were usually seen as the personifications of the destructive nature of wind. The harpies in this tradition, now thought of as three sisters instead of the original two, were: Aello ("storm swift"), Celaeno ("the dark") — also known as Podarge ("fleet-foot") — and Ocypete ("the swift wing").

동물들과 몬스터들: 포르퀴스와 케토스의 후손들[편집]

THE BESTIARY (동물 우화집)

포르퀴스와 케토스의 자녀들: 괴물들 - 포르키데스[편집]

페르세우스, 안드로메다 그리고 바다괴물 케토스가 그려진 항아리.

[270] And again, Ceto (케토스: 바다의 여신, 위험한 바다, 바다 괴물) bare to Phorcys (포르퀴스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 숨은 위험)

  1. the fair-cheeked Graiae (그라이아이: 노파들, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸들), sisters grey from their birth: and both deathless gods and men who walk on earth call them Graiae,
    1. Pemphredo (페프레도: 그라이아이 즉 노파들의 하나, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸) well-clad, and
    2. saffron-robed Enyo (엔뉘오: 그라이아이 즉 노파들의 하나, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸), and
  2. the Gorgons (고르고: 세 명의 고르곤 자매, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸들) who dwell beyond glorious Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신) in the frontier land towards Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신) where are the
    1. clear-voiced Hesperides (헤스페리데스: 라돈, Drakon Hesperios, 거대한 뱀, 황금사과를 지키는 드래곤, 포르키스와 케토스의 아들),
    2. Sthenno (스텐노: 고르곤, 힘쎈 여자, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸), and
    3. Euryale (에우리알레: 고르곤, 멀리 떠돌아다니는 여자, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸), and
    4. Medusa (메두사: 고르곤, 여왕, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸)
In Greek mythology, the Phorcydes (Φόρκιδες, Phorcides[67]), occasionally rendered Phorcyades in modern texts, were the children of Phorcys and Ceto (also called Krataiis or Trienos).
Hesiod's Theogony lists the children of Phorcys and Ceto as Echidna, The Gorgons (Euryale, Stheno, and the famous Medusa), The Graeae (Deino, Enyo, and Pemphredo), and Ladon, also called the Drakon Hesperios ("Hesperian Dragon", or dragon of the Hesperides). These children tend to be consistent across sources, though Ladon is sometimes cited as a child of Echidna (by Typhoeus) and therefore Phorcys and Ceto's grandson.
The author of the Bibliotheca and Homer refer to Scylla as the daughter of Krataiis, with Pseudo-Apollodorus specifying that she is also Phorcys's daughter. The Bibliotheca also refers to Scylla as the daughter of Trienos, implying that Krataiis and Trienos are the same entity. Apollonius cites Scylla as the daughter of Phorcys and a conflated Krataiis-Hekate. Stesichorus refers to Scylla as a daughter of Phorcys and Lamia (potentially translated as "the shark" and referring to Ceto rather than to the mythological Libyan Queen).
The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius cites Phorcys and Ceto as the parents of The Hesperides, but this assertion is not repeated in other ancient sources.
Homer refers to Thoosa, the mother of Polyphemus, as a daughter of Phorcys, but does not indicate whether Ceto is her mother.
Keto (Κητώ, Kētō, "sea monster") - Latinized as Ceto - is a primordial sea goddess in Greek mythology, the daughter of Gaia and Pontus. Keto was also variously called Crataeis (Κράταιις, Krataiis, from κραταιίς "mighty") and Trienus (Τρίενος, Trienos, from τρίενος "within three years"), and was occasionally conflated by scholars with the goddess Hecate (for whom Trienus and Crataeis are also epithets). As a mythological figure, she is most notable for bearing by Phorcys a host of monstrous children, collectively known as the Phorcydes. The asteroid 65489 Ceto was named after her, and its satellite after Phorcys.
This goddess should not be confused with the minor Oceanid also named Keto — who appears in Hesiod's Theogony as a separate character from Keto the daughter of Pontus and Gaia — or with various mythological beings referred to as ketos (plural ketea); this is a general term for "sea monster" in Ancient Greek.[68]
In Greek mythology, Phorcys (also Phorkys, from Greek: Φόρκυς) is a god of the hidden dangers of the deep. He is a primordial sea god, generally cited (first in Hesiod) as the son of Pontus and Gaia. According to the Orphic hymns, Phorcys, Cronus and Rhea were the eldest offspring of Oceanus and Tethys.[69] Classical scholar Karl Kerenyi conflated Phorcys with the similar sea gods Nereus and Proteus.[70] His wife was Ceto, and he is most notable in myth for fathering by Ceto a host of monstrous children collectively known as the Phorcydes. In extant Hellenistic-Roman mosaics, Phorcys was depicted as a fish-tailed merman with crab-claw fore-legs and red-spiked skin.

고르고에 대하여: 메두사·스텐노·에우리알레[편집]

[Medusa 메두사] who suffered a woeful fate: she was mortal, but the two [Sthenno 스텐노Euryale 에우리알레] were undying and grew not old. With her (메두사) lay the Dark-haired One (포세이돈)[71] in a soft meadow amid spring flowers.

An archaic Gorgon (around 580 BC), as depicted on a pediment from the temple of Artemis in Corfu, on display at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu
A Gorgon head on the outside of each of the Vix-krater's three handles, from the grave of the Celtic Lady of Vix, 510 BC
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons) (ancient Greek: Γοργών or Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature. The name derives from the ancient Greek word gorgós, which means "dreadful." While descriptions of Gorgons vary across Greek literature and occur in the earliest examples of Greek literature, the term commonly refers to any of three sisters who had hair of living, venomous snakes, and a horrifying visage that turned those who beheld her to stone. Traditionally, while two of the Gorgons were immortal, Stheno and Euryale, their sister Medusa was not, and she was slain by the mythical demigod and hero Perseus.
Gorgons were a popular image in Greek mythology, appearing in the earliest of written records of Ancient Greek religious beliefs such as those of Homer, which may date to as early as 1194–1184 BC. Because of their legendary and powerful gaze that could turn one to stone, images of the Gorgons were put upon objects and buildings for protection. An image of a Gorgon holds the primary location at the pediment of the temple at Corfu, which is the oldest stone pediment in Greece, and is dated to c. 600 BC.
Homer, the author of the oldest known work of European literature, speaks only of one Gorgon, whose head is represented in the Iliad as fixed in the centre of the aegis of Athena:
"About her shoulders she flung the tasselled aegis, fraught with terror ... and therein is the head of the dread monster, the Gorgon, dread and awful ..."(5.735ff)
Its earthly counterpart is a device on the shield of Agamemnon:
"... and therein was set as a crown the Gorgon, grim of aspect, glaring terribly, and about her were Terror and Rout."(11.35ff)
Gorgon Medusa 200 AD with wings at the top of her head – Romano-Germanic Museum in Cologne
The date of Homer was controversial in antiquity, and is no less so today. Herodotus said that Homer lived 400 years before his own day, which would place Homer about 850 BC;[72] but other ancient sources gave dates much closer to the Trojan War.[73] Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War derive from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the twelfth or eleventh centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly correspond with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VIIa.
For modern scholarship, 'the date of Homer' refers to the date of the poems as much as to the lifetime of an individual. The scholarly consensus is, that "the Iliad and the Odyssey date from the extreme end of the ninth century BC or from the eighth, the Iliad being anterior to the Odyssey, perhaps by some decades." [74] They are presumed to have existed previously as an oral tradition that eventually became set in historical records. Even at that early time the Gorgon is displayed as a vestige of ancient powers that preceded the historical transition to the beliefs of the Classical Greeks, displayed on the chest of Athene and Zeus.
In the Odyssey, the Gorgon is a monster of the underworld into which the earliest Greek deities were cast:
"... and pale fear seized me, lest august Persephone might send forth upon me from out of the house of Hades the head of the Gorgon, that awful monster ..."(11.635)
Around 700 BC, Hesiod (Theogony, Shield of Heracles) increases the number of Gorgons to three – Stheno (the mighty), Euryale (the far-springer), and Medusa (the queen), and makes them the daughters of the sea deities Keto and Phorcys. Their home is on the farthest side of the western ocean; according to later authorities, in Libya. Ancient Libya is identified as a possible source of the deity, Neith, who also was a creation deity in Ancient Egypt and, when the Greeks occupied Egypt, they said that Neith was called Athene in Greece.
The Attic tradition, reproduced in Euripides (Ion), regarded the Gorgon as a monster, produced by Gaia to aid her children, the Titans, against the new Olympian deities. Classical interpretations suggest that Gorgon was slain by Athena, who wore her skin thereafter.
Of the three Gorgons of classical Greek mythology, only Medusa is mortal.

페가수스와 크리사오르에 대하여[편집]

And when Perseus (페르세우스: 반신) cut off her (메두사) head, there sprang forth great Chrysaor (크리사오르: 포세이돈과 메두사의 아들, 페가수스의 형제) and the horse Pegasus (페가수스: 포세이돈과 메두사의 아들, 크리사오르의 형제, 말) who is so called because he was born near the springs (pegae) of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신); and that other, because he held a golden blade (aor) in his hands.

In Greek mythology, Chrysaor (Χρυσάωρ, Khrusaōr; English translation: "He who has a golden armament"), the brother of the winged horse Pegasus, was often depicted as a young man, the son of Poseidon and Medusa. Chrysaor and Pegasus were not born until Perseus chopped off Medusa's head.[75]
Medusa, one of the Gorgon sisters, the most beautiful, and the only mortal one, offended Athena by lying with Poseidon in the Temple of Athena. As punishment, Athena turned her hair into snakes. Chrysaor and Pegasus were said to be born from the drops of Medusa's blood which fell in the sea; others say that they sprang from Medusa's neck as Perseus beheaded her, a "higher" birth (such as the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus). Chrysaor is said to have been king of Iberia (Andorra, Gibraltar, Spain, and Portugal).

Chrysaor, married to Callirrhoe, daughter of glorious Oceanus, was father to the triple-headed Geryon, but Geryon was killed by the great strength of Heracles at sea-circled Erytheis beside his own shambling cattle on that day when Heracles drove those broad-faced cattle toward holy Tiryns, when he crossed the stream of Okeanos and had killed Orthos and the oxherd Eurytion out in the gloomy meadow beyond fabulous Okeanos.

Hesiod, Theogony 287
In art Chrysaor's earliest appearance seems to be on the great pediment of the early 6th century BC Doric Temple of Artemis at Corfu, where he is shown beside his mother, Medusa.
In Greek mythology, Callirrhoe (Ancient Greek: Καλλιρρόη, meaning "Beautiful Flow," often written Callirrhoë) was a naiad. She was the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.[76][77] She had three husbands, Chrysaor, Neilus and Poseidon. She was one of the three ancestors of the Tyrians, along with Abarbarea and Drosera.[78] Jupiter's moon Callirrhoe is named after her.
Children

페가수스[편집]

Now Pegasus (페가수스: 포세이돈과 메두사의 아들, 크리사오르의 형제, 말) flew away and left the earth, the mother of flocks, and came to the deathless gods: and he dwells in the house of Zeus (제우스) and brings to wise Zeus the thunder and lightning.

Pegasus (Πήγασος, Pégasos, Latin Pegasus) is one of the best known mythological creatures in Greek mythology. He is a winged divine stallion usually depicted as pure white in colour. He was sired by Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and foaled by the Gorgon Medusa.[86] He was the brother of Chrysaor, born at a single birthing when his mother was decapitated by Perseus. Greco-Roman poets write about his ascent to heaven after his birth and his obeisance to Zeus, king of the gods, who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from Olympus. Friend of the Muses, Pegasus is the creator of Hippocrene, the fountain on Mt. Helicon. He was captured by the Greek hero Bellerophon near the fountain Peirene with the help of Athena and Poseidon. Pegasus allows the hero to ride him to defeat a monster, the Chimera, before realizing many other exploits. His rider, however, falls off his back trying to reach Mount Olympus. Zeus transformed him into the constellation Pegasus and placed him up in the sky.
Hypotheses have been proposed regarding its relationship with the Muses, the gods Athena, Poseidon, Zeus, Apollo, and the hero Perseus.
The symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Symbol of wisdom and especially of fame from the Middle Ages until the Renaissance, he became one symbol of the poetry and the creator of sources in which the poets come to draw inspiration, particularly in the 19th century. Pegasus is the subject of a very rich iconography, especially through the ancient Greek pottery and paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance. Personification of the water, solar myth, or shaman mount, Carl Jung and his followers have seen in Pegasus a profound symbolic esoteric in relation to the spiritual energy that allows to access to the realm of the gods on Mount Olympus.
Etymology
Pegasus, as the horse of Muses, was put on the roof of Poznań Opera House (Max Littmann, 1910)
The poet Hesiod presents a folk etymology if the name Pegasus as derived from pēgē "spring, well": "the pegai of Okeanos, where he was born."[87]
A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas, meaning "lightning", and Pihassassi, a local Luwian-Hittite name in southern Cilicia of a weather god represented with thunder and lightning. The proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus' role, reported as early as Hesiod, as bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus. It was first suggested in 1952 and remains widely accepted,[88] but Robin Lane Fox (2009) has criticized it as implausible.[89]
Pegasus and springs
According to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring spring burst forth. One of these springs was upon the Muses' Mount Helicon, the Hippocrene ("horse spring"),[90] opened, Antoninus Liberalis suggested,[91] at the behest of Poseidon to prevent the mountain swelling with rapture at the song of the Muses; another was at Troezen.[92] Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him. Hesiod also says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus.
Birth
There are several versions of the birth of the winged stallion and his brother Chrysaor in the far distant place at the edge of Earth, Hesiod's "springs of Oceanus, which encircles the inhabited earth, where Perseus found Medusa:
One is that they sprang from the blood issuing from Medusa's neck as Perseus was beheading her,[93] similar to the manner in which Athena was born from the head of Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, fed by the Gorgon's blood. A variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusa's blood, Pain and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making. The last version bears resemblance to the birth of Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus.

크리사오르와 칼리로에의 아들: 게리온[편집]

But Chrysaor (크리사오르: 포세이돈과 메두사의 아들, 페가수스의 형제) was joined in love to Callirrhoe (칼리로에: 나이아스, 물의 요정, 세 명의 남편: 크리사오르 · 닐로스 · 포세이돈), the daughter of glorious Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신), and begot three-headed Geryones (게리온: 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 아들, 메두사의 손자, 3개의 머리와 몸을 가진 괴물). Him mighty Heracles slew in sea-girt (바다에 둘러싸인) Erythea (에리테이아: 님프들인 헤스페리데스가 돌보는 정원이 있는, 세상 서쪽 끝에 있는 섬) by his (게리온) shambling (느릿느릿한) oxen on that day when he (게리온) drove the wide-browed (이마가 넓은) oxen to holy Tiryns (티린스: 펠로폰네소스 반도의 아르골리스에 있었던 미케네의 고대 도시), and had crossed the ford (여울) of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신) and killed Orthus (오르토스: 게리온의 소떼를 돌본 머리가 2개인 개) and Eurytion (에우리티온: 게리온의 소떼를 돌본 목동) the herdsman in the dim (어둑함) stead out (채우다) beyond glorious Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신).

Heracles fighting Geryon, amphora by the E Group, ca. 540 BC, Louvre
In Greek mythology, Geryon /ˈɪəriən/ or /ˈɡɛriən/[94] (Γηρυών; genitive: Γηρυόνος)[95] son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe and grandson of Medusa, was a fearsome giant who dwelt on the island Erytheia of the mythic Hesperides in the far west of the Mediterranean. A more literal-minded later generation of Greeks associated the region with Tartessos in southern Iberia.[96]
Geryon was often described as a monster with human faces. According to Hesiod[97] Geryon had one body and three heads, whereas the tradition followed by Aeschylus gave him three bodies.[98] A lost description by Stesichoros said that he has six hands and six feet and is winged;[99] there are some mid-sixth-century Chalcidian vases portraying Geryon as winged. Some accounts state that he had six legs as well while others state that the three bodies were joined to one pair of legs. Apart from these bizarre features, his appearance was that of a warrior. He owned a two-headed hound named Orthrus, which was the brother of Cerberus, and a herd of magnificent red cattle that were guarded by Orthrus, and a herder Eurytion, son of Erytheia.[100]
The Tenth Labour of Heracles
In the fullest account in the Bibliotheke of Pseudo-Apollodoros,[101] Heracles was required to travel to Erytheia, in order to obtain the Cattle of Geryon as his tenth labour. On the way there, he crossed the Libyan desert[102] and became so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Helios, the Sun. Helios "in admiration of his courage" gave Heracles the golden cup he used to sail across the sea from west to east each night. Heracles used it to reach Erytheia, a favorite motif of the vase-painters. Such a magical conveyance undercuts any literal geography for Erytheia, the "red island" of the sunset.
When Heracles reached Erytheia, no sooner had he landed than he was confronted by the two-headed dog, Orthrus. With one huge blow from his olive-wood club, Heracles killed the watchdog. Eurytion the herdsman came to assist Orthrus, but Heracles dealt with him the same way.
On hearing the commotion, Geryon sprang into action, carrying three shields, three spears, and wearing three helmets. He pursued Heracles at the River Anthemus but fell victim to an arrow that had been dipped in the venomous blood of the Lernaean Hydra, shot so forcefully by Heracles that it pierced Geryon's forehead, "and Geryon bent his neck over to one side, like a poppy that spoils its delicate shapes, shedding its petals all at once".[103]
Heracles then had to herd the cattle back to Eurystheus. In Roman versions of the narrative, on the Aventine hill in Italy, Cacus stole some of the cattle as Heracles slept, making the cattle walk backwards so that they left no trail, a repetition of the trick of the young Hermes. According to some versions, Heracles drove his remaining cattle past a cave, where Cacus had hidden the stolen animals, and they began calling out to each other. In others, Caca, Cacus' sister, told Heracles where he was. Heracles then killed Cacus, and according to the Romans, founded an altar where the Forum Boarium, the cattle market, was later held.
To annoy Heracles, Hera sent a gadfly to bite the cattle, irritate them and scatter them. The hero was within a year able to retrieve them. Hera then sent a flood which raised the level of a river so much, Heracles could not cross with the cattle. He piled stones into the river to make the water shallower. When he finally reached the court of Eurystheus, the cattle were sacrificed to Hera.
In the Aeneid, Vergil may have based the triple-souled figure of Erulus, king of Praeneste, on Geryon.[104] The Herculean Sarcophagus of Genzano features a three headed representation of Geryon.[105]
In Greek mythology, the Hesperides (/hɛˈspɛrɪdz/; Ἑσπερίδες) are nymphs who tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world, located near the neighbourhood of Cyrene[106] or Benghazi[107] in Libya or the Atlas mountains in North Africa at the edge of the encircling Oceanus, the world-ocean.[108] In some sources, the nymphs are said to be the daughters of Hesperus.[109]
According to the Sicilian Greek poet Stesichorus, in his poem the "Song of Geryon", and the Greek geographer Strabo, in his book Geographika (volume III), the garden of the Hesperides is located in Tartessos, a location placed in the south of the Iberian peninsula.
By Ancient Roman times[언제?], the garden of the Hesperides had lost its archaic place in religion and had dwindled to a poetic convention, in which form it was revived in Renaissance poetry, to refer both to the garden and to the nymphs that dwelt there.
Tiryns (Ancient Greek: Τίρυνς; Modern Greek: Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, some kilometres north of Nauplion.
Plan of Tiryns excavations.
Tiryns was a hill fort with occupation ranging back seven thousand years, from before the beginning of the Bronze Age. It reached its height between 1400 and 1200 BC, when it was one of the most important centers of the Mycenaean world, and in particular in Argolis. Its most notable features were its palace, its cyclopean tunnels and especially its walls, which gave the city its Homeric epithet of "mighty walled Tiryns". In ancient times, the city was linked to the myths surrounding Heracles, with some sources citing it as his birthplace.[110]
The famous megaron of the palace of Tiryns has a large reception hall, the main room of which had a throne placed against the right wall and a central hearth bordered by four Minoan-style wooden columns that served as supports for the roof. Two of the three walls of the megaron were incorporated into an archaic temple of Hera.
The site went into decline at the end of the Mycenaean period, and was completely deserted by the time Pausanias visited in the 2nd century AD. This site was excavated by Heinrich Schliemann in 1884-1885, and is the subject of ongoing excavations by the German Archaeological Institute at Athens and the University of Heidelberg.
Tiryns was recognized as one of the World Heritage Sites in 1999.
Orthrus dead at the feet of Geryon and Heracles, red-figure kylix, 510–500 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2620).
In Greek mythology, Orthrus (Orthros) or Orthus (Orthos) (Ὄρθρος; Ὄρθος) was a two-headed dog and a doublet ("brother") of Cerberus, both whelped by the chthonic monsters Echidna and Typhon.
He was owned by the three-bodied giant, Geryon. Orthrus and his master, Eurytion, were charged with guarding Geryon's herd of red cattle in the "sunset" land of Erytheia ("red one"), one of the islands of the Hesperides in the far west of the Mediterranean. Heracles eventually slew Orthrus, Eurytion, and Geryon, before taking the red cattle to complete his tenth labor.[111]
Orthrus was one among Echidna's fearsome brood listed in Hesiod's Theogony.[112] According to some sources, it was he rather than Typhon that sired, with Echidna, further chthonic monstrous creatures: the Chimera, the Sphinx,[113] the Lernaean Hydra, and even, Hesiod says, the Nemean lion, and Cerberus.
In Greek mythology Eurytion (or, alternatively, Eurythion; Εὐρυτίων, gen.: Εὐρυτίωνος), "widely-honoured", was a name attributed to six individuals who would possess people.

에키드나: 포르키스와 케토스의 딸 혹은 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 딸[편집]

[295] And in a hollow cave she (케토스 혹은 칼리로에) bare another monster, irresistible, in no wise like either to mortal men or to the undying gods, even the goddess fierce Echidna (에키드나: 거대한 뱀, 반인반수, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸 혹은 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 딸, 모든 몬스터의 어머니) who is half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and awful, with speckled skin, eating raw flesh beneath the secret parts of the holy earth. And there she has a cave deep down under a hollow rock far from the deathless gods and mortal men. There, then, did the gods appoint her a glorious house to dwell in: and she keeps guard in Arima (아리마: 반인반사의 여신인 에키드나가 사는, 지하의 비밀한 곳) beneath the earth, grim (음침한) Echidna (에키드나: 거대한 뱀, 반인반수, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸 혹은 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 딸, 모든 몬스터의 어머니), a nymph who dies not nor grows old all her days.

In Greek mythology, Echidna (Ancient Greek: Ἔχιδνα, "she viper") was half woman half snake, known as the "Mother of All Monsters" because most of the monsters in Greek myth were mothered by her. Hesiod's Theogony described her as:

[...] the goddess fierce Echidna who is half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake,[134] great and awful, with speckled skin, eating raw flesh beneath the secret parts of the holy earth. And there she has a cave deep down under a hollow rock far from the deathless gods and mortal men. There, then, did the gods appoint her a glorious house to dwell in: and she keeps guard in Arima beneath the earth, grim Echidna, a nymph who dies not nor grows old all her days.[135]

Mythology
According to Apollodorus, Echidna was the daughter of Tartarus and Gaia,[136] while according to Hesiod, either Ceto and Phorcys or Chrysaor and the naiad Callirhoe were her parents.[137] Another account says her parents were Peiras and Styx (according to Pausanias, who did not know who Peiras was aside from her father).[138] Echidna was a drakaina, with the face and torso of a beautiful woman (depicted as winged in archaic vase-paintings) and the body of a serpent, sometimes having two serpent's tails.[139] She is also sometimes described, as Karl Kerenyi noted, in archaic vase-painting, with a pair of echidnas performing sacred rites in a vineyard, while on the opposite side of the vessel, goats were attacking the vines:[140] thus chthonic Echidnae are presented as protectors of the vineyard.
The site of her cave Homer calls "Arima, couch of Typhoeus".[141] When she and her mate attacked the Olympians, Zeus beat them back and punished Typhon by sealing him under Mount Etna. However, Zeus allowed Echidna and her children to live as a challenge to future heroes.
Although to Hesiod, she was an immortal and ageless nymph, according to Apollodorus, Echidna used to "carry off passers-by", until she was finally killed where she slept by Argus Panoptes, the hundred-eyed giant.[136]
Arima, couch of Typhoeus, as Homer expresses it, is a hard-to-place site in Greek mythology, said to be where Zeus defeated Typhon and where Echidna dwells.
In the Iliad,[142] following the catalogue of ships, Homer returns to describing the tramp of the huge Achaean army; it is like the resounding earth beneath the "anger of Zeus who delights in thunder, whenever he lashes the ground around Typhoeus in Arima (en Arimois), where they say is Typhoeus' bed". "Even the ancients were uncertain," Robin Lane Fox observes, in preface to offering an identification of "Arima".[143] Some readers have assumed that an unattested people, the Arimoi, were intended. Homer's interjection "they say" seems to place Arima at a certain remove from his experience and those of his hearers.[144] "It is clear that ancient critics did not know which region this signified," comments G.S. Kirk concerning this passage.[145]
Hesiod remarks that "Arima" is where Echidna, the chthonic mate of Typhon, dwells, "there in earth's secret places. For there she has her cave on the underside of a hollow rock, far from the immortal gods, and far from all mortals. There the gods ordained her a fabulous home to live in which she keeps underground among the Arimoi, grisly Ekhidna."[146] A fragment from a lost poem of Pindar notes that in the "highly celebrated Corycian cave", "once, among the Arimoi" Zeus had battered Thyphoeus, with "fifty" heads.[147]
Strabo[148] gives a brief list of the places where "Arima" had been sited by previous writers: Lydia,[149] Syria,[150] Cilicia, and even Sicily and the west.
Fox notes that in north Syria, where the early Greek trading post of Al Mina lay, the presence, from the ninth century onwards, the presence of "Aramaeans", speaking and writing Aramaic. Even earlier, royal Assyrian texts of c. 1060 refers to a land A-ri-me, A-ri-mi or A-ra-me eastwards in Mesopotamia; its people recur in a text of Sargon c. 710 BCE A-ra-me.[151]
The truth is more subtle than a simple identification with such a "distant hint", as Fox demonstrates,[152] linking myth, surviving inscriptions and other documentation to identify "Arima" with the territory surrounding the Corycian cave,[153] an identification first made by Alexander's historical advisor, Callisthenes: "the Arimoi are located by the Corycian cave near Calycadnus and the promontory of Sarpedon; the neighboring mountains are called 'Arima'".[154] Fox confirms Callisthenes with an inscription in the temple built at the cave's entrance that records a visitor's propitiation of Pan and Hermes, at this "broad recess in the earth at Arima"; Hermes and goat-Pan (Aigipan) rescued Zeus, deprived of his "sinews" from his first defeat at the hands of Typhon.[155] Fox notes that "in inscriptions found at the nearby settlement of Corycos, Zeus is specifically entitled the 'Zeus of Victory,' referring to his victory, therefore, in the war with Typhon"; he also notes in passing the earlier Hittite place name Erimma in Cilicia.

에키드나와 티폰의 자녀들[편집]

[306] Men say that Typhaon (티폰: 가장 무서운 몬스터, 가이아와 타르타로스의 마지막 아들, 모든 몬스터들의 아버지) the terrible, outrageous and lawless, was joined in love to her (에키드나), the maid with glancing eyes. So she (에키드나) conceived and brought forth fierce offspring; first she bare

  1. Orthus (오르토스: 게리온의 소떼를 돌본 2두견, 에키드나와 티폰의 아들) the hound of Geryones (게리온: 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 아들, 메두사의 손자, 3개의 머리와 몸을 가진 괴물), and then again she bare a second, a monster not to be overcome and that may not be described,
  2. Cerberus (케르베로스: 50두견, 3두견, 에키드나와 티폰의 아들) who eats raw flesh, the brazen-voiced hound of Hades, fifty-headed, relentless and strong. And again she (에키드나) bore a third,
  3. the evil-minded Hydra of Lerna (히드라: 9두사, 에키드나와 티폰의 아들), whom the goddess, white-armed Hera nourished, being angry beyond measure with the mighty Heracles. And her Heracles, the son of Zeus, of the house of Amphitryon, together with warlike Iolaus, destroyed with the unpitying sword through the plans of Athene the spoil-driver. She (에키드나) was the mother of
  4. Chimaera (키마이라: 사자 · 뱀 · 염소의 합성, 에키드나와 티폰의 아들) who breathed raging fire, a creature fearful, great, swift-footed and strong, who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion; in her hinderpart, a dragon; and in her middle, a goat, breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire. Her did Pegasus (페가수스: 포세이돈과 메두사의 아들, 크리사오르의 형제, 말) and noble Bellerophon (벨레로폰: 헤라클레스 이전의 가장 위대한 영웅이며 괴물의 처단자, 코린토스의 왕 글라우스코스의 아들) slay;
Offspring of Echidna
Echidna was the mother by Typhon of many monstrous offspring, including:
  • The Chimera - A fire breathing beast that was part lion, part goat, and had a snake-headed tail.[156][159][158]
  • The Caucasian Eagle — An eagle that every day ate the liver of Prometheus.[160]
  • Scylla - According to Hyginus, Scylla is the daughter of Echidna.[158]
  • The Teumessian fox - A fox that was destined never to be caught. It was sometimes called the Cadmean vixen.
Orthrus dead at the feet of Geryon and Heracles, red-figure kylix, 510–500 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2620).
In Greek mythology, Orthrus (Orthros) or Orthus (Orthos) (Ὄρθρος; Ὄρθος) was a two-headed dog and a doublet ("brother") of Cerberus, both whelped by the chthonic monsters Echidna and Typhon.
He was owned by the three-bodied giant, Geryon. Orthrus and his master, Eurytion, were charged with guarding Geryon's herd of red cattle in the "sunset" land of Erytheia ("red one"), one of the islands of the Hesperides in the far west of the Mediterranean. Heracles eventually slew Orthrus, Eurytion, and Geryon, before taking the red cattle to complete his tenth labor.[162]
Orthrus was one among Echidna's fearsome brood listed in Hesiod's Theogony.[163] According to some sources, it was he rather than Typhon that sired, with Echidna, further chthonic monstrous creatures: the Chimera, the Sphinx,[164] the Lernaean Hydra, and even, Hesiod says, the Nemean lion, and Cerberus.
Cerberus outside the entrance to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
An ancient Etruscan vase from Caere (circa 525 BC) depicting Heracles presenting Cerberus to Eurystheus
Orthrus slain by Heracles.
Cerberus /ˈsɜːrbərəs/,[165] or Kerberos, (Greek form: Κέρβερος, [ˈkerberos])[166] in Greek and Roman mythology, is a multi-headed (usually three-headed) dog, or "hellhound" [165][167][168] which guards the gates of the Underworld, to prevent those who have crossed the river Styx from ever escaping. Cerberus is featured in many works of ancient Greek and Roman literature and in works of both ancient and modern art and architecture, although the depiction and background surrounding Cerberus often differed across various works by different authors of the era. The most notable difference is the number of its heads: Most sources describe or depict three heads; others show it with two or even just one; a smaller number of sources show a variable number, sometimes as many as 50 or even 100.
Mythology
Cerberus was the offspring of Echidna, a hybrid half-woman and half-serpent, and Typhon, a gigantic monster even the Greek gods feared. Its siblings are the Lernaean Hydra, a serpant woman; Orthus, a two-headed hellhound; and the Chimaera, a three-headed monster.[169] The common depiction of Cerberus in Greek mythology and art is as having three heads. In most works, the three heads each respectively see and represent the past, the present, and the future, while other sources suggest the heads represent birth, youth, and old age.[170] Each of Cerberus' heads is said to have an appetite only for live meat and thus allow only the spirits of the dead to freely enter the underworld, but allow none to leave.[171] Cerberus was always employed as Hades' loyal watchdog, and guarded the gates that granted access and exit to the underworld.[172]
The Twelfth Labor of Heracles
Capturing Cerberus, without using weapons, was the final labour assigned to Heracles (Hercules) by King Eurystheus, in recompense for the killing of his own children by Megara after he was driven insane by Hera, and therefore was the most dangerous and difficult.
After having been given the task, Heracles went to Eleusis to be initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries so he could learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive, and in passing absolve himself for killing centaurs. He found the entrance to the underworld at Tanaerum, and Athena and Hermes helped him to traverse the entrance in each direction. He passed Charon with Hestia's assistance and his own heavy and fierce frowning.
Whilst in the underworld, Heracles met Theseus and Pirithous. The two companions had been imprisoned by Hades for attempting to kidnap Persephone. One tradition tells of snakes coiling around their legs then turning into stone; another tells that Hades feigned hospitality and prepared a feast inviting them to sit. They unknowingly sat in chairs of forgetfulness and were permanently ensnared. When Heracles had pulled Theseus first from his chair, some of his thigh stuck to it (this explains the supposedly lean thighs of Athenians), but the earth shook at the attempt to liberate Pirithous, whose desire to have the wife of a god for himself was so insulting, he was doomed to stay behind.
Heracles found Hades and asked permission to bring Cerberus to the surface, to which Hades agreed if Heracles could overpower the beast without using weapons. Heracles was able to overpower Cerberus and proceeded to sling the beast over his back, dragging it out of the underworld through a cavern entrance in the Peloponnese and bringing it to Eurystheus. The king was so frightened of the beast, he jumped into a pithos, and asked Heracles to return it to the underworld in return for releasing him from his labours.
In Greek mythology, the Lernaean Hydra (Λερναία Ύδρα) was an ancient serpent-like chthonic water beast, with reptilian traits (as its name evinces), that possessed many heads — the poets mention more heads than the vase-painters could paint, and for each head cut off it grew two more — and poisonous breath and blood so virulent even its tracks were deadly.[173] The Hydra of Lerna was killed by Hercules as the second of his Twelve Labours. Its lair was the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, though archaeology has borne out the myth that the sacred site was older even than the Mycenaean city of Argos since Lerna was the site of the myth of the Danaids. Beneath the waters was an entrance to the Underworld, and the Hydra was its guardian.[174]
The Hydra was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna (Theogony, 313), both of whom were noisome offspring of the earth goddess Gaia.[175]
The Second Labour of Hercules
After slaying the Nemean lion, Eurystheus sent Hercules to slay the Hydra, which Hera had raised just to slay Hercules. Upon reaching the swamp near Lake Lerna, where the Hydra dwelt, Hercules covered his mouth and nose with a cloth to protect himself from the poisonous fumes. He fired flaming arrows into the Hydra's lair, the spring of Amymone, a deep cave that it only came out of to terrorize neighboring villages.[176] He then confronted the Hydra, wielding a harvesting sickle (according to some early vase-paintings), a sword or his famed club. Ruck and Staples (1994: 170) have pointed out that the chthonic creature's reaction was botanical: upon cutting off each of its heads he found that two grew back, an expression of the hopelessness of such a struggle for any but the hero. The weakness of the Hydra was that it was invulnerable only if it retained at least one head.
Hercules and the Hydra, (c. 1475) by Antonio Pollaiuolo (Galleria degli Uffizi).
The details of the struggle are explicit in the Bibliotheca (2.5.2): realizing that he could not defeat the Hydra in this way, Hercules called on his nephew Iolaus for help. His nephew then came upon the idea (possibly inspired by Athena) of using a firebrand to scorch the neck stumps after each decapitation. Hercules cut off each head and Iolaus cauterized the open stumps. Seeing that Hercules was winning the struggle, Hera sent a large crab to distract him. He crushed it under his mighty foot. The Hydra's one immortal head was cut off with a golden sword given to him by Athena. Hercules placed the head – still alive and writhing – under a great rock on the sacred way between Lerna and Elaius (Kerenyi 1959:144), and dipped his arrows in the Hydra's poisonous blood, and so his second task was complete. The alternative version of this myth is that after cutting off one head he then dipped his sword in it and used its venom to burn each head so it couldn't grow back. Hera, upset that Hercules slew the beast she raised to kill him, placed it in the dark blue vault of the sky as the Constellation Hydra. She then turned the crab into the Constellation Cancer.
Hercules would later use arrows dipped in the Hydra's poisonous blood to kill other foes during his remaining Labours, such as Stymphalian Birds and the giant Geryon. He later used one to kill the centaur Nessus; and Nessus's tainted blood was applied to the Tunic of Nessus, by which the centaur had his posthumous revenge. Both Strabo and Pausanias report that the stench of the river Anigrus in Elis, making all the fish of the river inedible, was reputed to be due to the Hydra's poison, washed from the arrows Hercules used on the centaur.[177]
When Eurystheus, the agent of ancient Hera who was assigning The Twelve Labors to Hercules, found out that it was Hercules' nephew Iolaus who had handed him the firebrand, he declared that the labor had not been completed alone and as a result did not count towards the 10 Labours set for him. The mythic element is an equivocating attempt to resolve the submerged conflict between an ancient ten Labours and a more recent twelve.
The Chimera on a red-figure Apulian plate, c. 350–340 BC (Musée du Louvre)
The Chimera (/k[unsupported input]ˈmɪərə/ or /kˈmɪərə/, also Chimaera, Chimæra; Greek: Χίμαιρα Chímaira) was, according to Greek mythology, a monstrous fire-breathing female and male creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of three animals — a lion, a snake and a goat. Usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat arising from its back, and a tail that ended in a snake's head,[178] the Chimera was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra.
The term chimera has come to describe any mythical or fictional animal with parts taken from various animals, or to describe anything perceived as wildly imaginative or implausible.
Description
Homer's brief description in the Iliad[179] is the earliest surviving literary reference: "a thing of immortal make, not human, lion-fronted and snake behind, a goat in the middle,[180] and snorting out the breath of the terrible flame of bright fire".[181] Elsewhere in the Iliad, Homer attributes the rearing of Chimera to Amisodorus.[182] Hesiod's Theogony follows the Homeric description: he makes the Chimera the issue of Echidna: "She was the mother of Chimaera who breathed raging fire, a creature fearful, great, swift-footed and strong, who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion; in her hinderpart, a dragon; and in her middle, a goat, breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire. Her did Pegasus and noble Bellerophon slay"[183] The author of the Bibliotheca concurs:[184] descriptions agree that she breathed fire. The Chimera is generally considered to have been female (see the quotation from Hesiod above) despite the mane adorning its lion's head, the inclusion of a close mane often was depicted on lionesses, but the ears always were visible (that does not occur with depictions of male lions). Sighting the Chimera was an omen of storms, shipwrecks, and natural disasters (particularly volcanoes).
Gold reel, possibly an ear-stud, with winged Pegasus (outer band) and the Chimera (inner band), Magna Graecia or Etruria, fourth century BC (Louvre)
While there are different genealogies, in one version the Chimera mated with her brother Orthrus and mothered the Sphinx and the Nemean lion (others have Orthrus and their mother, Echidna, mating; most attribute all to Typhon and Echidna).
The Chimera finally was defeated by Bellerophon, with the help of Pegasus, at the command of King Iobates of Lycia. Since Pegasus could fly, Bellerophon shot the Chimera from the air, safe from her heads and breath.[185] A scholiast to Homer adds that he finished her off by equipping his spear with a lump of lead that melted when exposed to the Chimera's fiery breath and consequently killed her, an image drawn from metalworking.[186]
Robert Graves suggests,[187] "The Chimera was, apparently, a calendar-symbol of the tripartite year, of which the seasonal emblems were lion, goat, and serpent."
Bellerophon (/bəˈlɛrəfən/; Greek: Βελλεροφῶν) or Bellerophontes (Βελλεροφόντης) is a hero of Greek mythology. He was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus and Perseus, before the days of Heracles",[188] whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame."[189]
The Iliad vi.155–203 contains an embedded narrative told by Bellerophon's grandson Glaucus, named for his great-grandfather, which recounts Bellerophon's myth. Bellerophon's father was Glaucus.[190] who was the king of Corinth and the son of Sisyphus. Bellerophon's grandsons Sarpedon and the younger Glaucus fought in the Trojan War. In the Epitome of pseudo-Apollodorus, a genealogy is given for Chrysaor ("of the golden sword") that would make him a double of Bellerophon; he too is called the son of Glaucus the son of Sisyphus. Chrysaor has no myth save that of his birth: from the severed neck of Medusa, who was with child by Poseidon, he and Pegasus both sprang at the moment of her death. "From this moment we hear no more of Chrysaor, the rest of the tale concerning the stallion only...[who visits the spring of Pirene] perhaps also for his brother's sake, by whom in the end he let himself be caught, the immortal horse by his mortal brother."[191]

에키드나와 오르토스의 자녀들[편집]

but Echidna (에키드나: 거대한 뱀, 반인반수, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸 혹은 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 딸, 모든 몬스터의 어머니) was subject in love to Orthus (오르토스: 게리온의 소떼를 돌본 2두견, 에키드나와 티폰의 아들) and brought forth the deadly

  1. Sphinx (스핑크스: 여자의 얼굴에 몸은 사자, 독수리 날개를 가진 괴물, 에키드나와 오르토스의 딸) which destroyed the Cadmeans, and the
  2. Nemean lion (네메아의 사자: 식인 사자, 에키드나와 오르토스의 아들), which Hera, the good wife of Zeus, brought up and made to haunt the hills of Nemea, a plague to men. There he (네메아의 사자) preyed upon the tribes of her (헤라) own people and had power over Tretus of Nemea and Apesas: yet the strength of stout Heracles overcame him.
Offspring of Echidna
Also included as the offspring of Echidna by Typhon, by some, are the Sphinx[192][158] and the Nemean lion.[193] However Hesiod's genealogy here is unclear, he says these two were fathered by Orthrus,[156] but he has been read variously as saying that Echidna, the Chimaera, or even Ceto, was their mother.[194]
Ladon, the dragon which guarded the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides, was also born of Echidna by Typhon, according to Apollodorus,[160] and Hyginus,[158] but according to Hesiod, Ladon was the offspring of Ceto and Phorcys.[195]
Echidna is also sometimes identified as the mother by Heracles, of Scythes, an eponymous king of the Scythians, along with his brothers Agathyrsus and Gelonus.[196]
Perhaps the first sphinx, Queen Hetepheres II from the fourth dynasty (Cairo Museum)
Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great during Persian Empire at Susa (480 BC).
A sphinx (Greek: Σφίγξ /sphinx, Bœotian: Φίξ /Phix) is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of a lion and a human head.
In Greek tradition, it has the haunches of a lion, the wings of a great bird, and the face of a woman. She is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer her riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster.[197] Unlike the Greek sphinx which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent in contrast to the malevolent Greek version and was thought of as a guardian often flanking the entrances to temples.
Egyptian sphinxes
The largest and most famous sphinx is the Great Sphinx of Giza, sited at the Giza Plateau adjacent to the Great Pyramids of Giza on the west bank of the Nile River and facing due east (북위 29° 58′ 31″ 동경 31° 08′ 15″ / 북위 29.97528° 동경 31.13750°  / 29.97528; 31.13750). The sphinx is located in the north and below the pyramids. Although the date of its construction is uncertain, the head of the Great Sphinx now is believed to be that of the pharaoh Khafra.
What names their builders gave to these statues is not known. At the Great Sphinx site, the inscription on a stele by Thutmose IV in 1400 BCE, lists the names of three aspects of the local sun deity of that period, KheperaAtum. The inclusion of these figures in tomb and temple complexes quickly became traditional and many pharaohs had their heads carved atop the guardian statues for their tombs to show their close relationship with the powerful solar deity, Sekhmet, a lioness. Other famous Egyptian sphinxes include one bearing the head of the pharaoh Hatshepsut, with her likeness carved in granite, which is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the alabaster sphinx of Memphis, Memphis, Egypt, currently located within the open-air museum at that site. The theme was expanded to form great avenues of guardian sphinxes lining the approaches to tombs and temples as well as serving as details atop the posts of flights of stairs to very grand complexes. Nine hundred with ram heads, representing Amon, were built in Thebes, where his cult was strongest.
Perhaps the first sphinx in Egypt was one depicting Queen Hetepheres II, of the fourth dynasty that lasted from 2723 to 2563 BC. She was one of the longest-lived members of the royal family of that dynasty.
The Great Sphinx has become an emblem of Egypt, frequently appearing on its stamps, coins, and official documents.[198]
Greek traditions
From the Bronze Age, the Hellenes had trade and cultural contacts with Egypt. Before the time that Alexander the Great occupied Egypt, the Greek name, sphinx, was already applied to these statues. The historians and geographers of Greece wrote extensively about Egyptian culture. Heredotus called the ram-headed sphinxes Criosphinxes and called the hawk-headed ones Hieracosphinxes.
The word sphinx comes from the Greek Σφίγξ, apparently from the verb σφίγγω (sphíngō), meaning "to squeeze", "to tighten up".[199][200] This name may be derived from the fact that the hunters for a pride of lions are the lionesses, and kill their prey by strangulation, biting the throat of prey and holding them down until they die. However, the historian Susan Wise Bauer suggests that the word "sphinx" was instead a Greek corruption of the Egyptian name "shesepankh," which meant "living image," and referred rather to the statue of the sphinx, which was carved out of "living rock" (rock that was present at the construction site, not harvested and brought from another location), than to the beast itself.[201]
There was a single sphinx in Greek mythology, a unique demon of destruction and bad luck. According to Hesiod, she was a daughter of Orthus[202] and either Echidna or the Chimera, or perhaps even Ceto;[203] according to others, she was a daughter of Echidna and Typhon. All of these are chthonic figures from the earliest of Greek myths, before the Olympians ruled the Greek pantheon. The Sphinx is called Phix (Φίξ) by Hesiod in line 326 of the Theogony, the proper name for the Sphinx noted by Pierre Grimal's The Penguin Dictionary of Classical Mythology.
In Greek mythology, a sphinx is represented as a monster with a head of a woman, the body of a lioness, the wings of an eagle, and a serpent-headed tail.
The sphinx was the emblem of the ancient city-state of Chios, and appeared on seals and the obverse side of coins from the 6th century BC until the 3rd century AD.
The Riddle of the Sphinx
Assyrian Lamassu dated 721 BC Institute Museum, University of Chicago.
Marble Sphinx dated 540 BC Acropolis Museum, Athens
The Sphinx is said to have guarded the entrance to the Greek city of Thebes, and to have asked a riddle of travellers to allow them passage. The exact riddle asked by the Sphinx was not specified by early tellers of the stories, and was not standardized as the one given below until late in Greek history.[204]
It was said in late lore that Hera or Ares sent the Sphinx from her Ethiopian homeland (the Greeks always remembered the foreign origin of the Sphinx) to Thebes in Greece where she asks all passersby the most famous riddle in history: "Which creature has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?" She strangled and devoured anyone unable to answer. Oedipus solved the riddle by answering: Man—who crawls on all fours as a baby, then walks on two feet as an adult, and then he uses a walking stick in old age.[205] By some accounts[206] (but much more rarely), there was a second riddle: "There are two sisters: one gives birth to the other and she, in turn, gives birth to the first. Who are the two sisters?" The answer is "day and night" (both words are feminine in Greek). This riddle is also found in a Gascon version of the myth and could be very ancient.[207]
Bested at last, the tale continues, the Sphinx then threw herself from her high rock and died. An alternative version tells that she devoured herself. Thus Oedipus can be recognized as a "liminal" or threshold figure, helping effect the transition between the old religious practices, represented by the death of the Sphinx, and the rise of the new, Olympian gods.
In Jean Cocteau's retelling of the Oedipus legend, The Infernal Machine, the Sphinx tells Oedipus the answer to the riddle, to kill herself so that she did not have to kill anymore, and also to make him love her. He leaves without ever thanking her for giving him the answer to the riddle. The scene ends when the Sphinx and Anubis ascend back to the heavens.
There are mythic, anthropological, psychoanalytic, and parodic interpretations of the Riddle of the Sphinx, and of Oedipus's answer to it. Numerous riddle books use the Sphinx in their title or illustrations.[208]
Michael Maier in his book, the Atalanta Fugiens (1617)[209] writes the following remark about the Sphinx's riddle, in which he states that the solution is the Philosopher's Stone:

Sphinx is indeed reported to have had many Riddles, but this offered to Oedipus was the chief,

"What is that which in the morning goeth upon four feet; upon two feet in the
afternoon; and in the Evening upon three?"

What was answered by Oedipus is not known. But they who interpret concerning
the Ages of Man are deceived. For a Quadrangle of Four Elements are of all
things first to be considered, from thence we come to the Hemisphere having two
lines, a Right and a Curve, that is, to the White Luna; from thence to the Triangle
which consists of Body, Soul and Spirit, or Sol, Luna and Mercury. Hence Rhasis
in his Epistles, "The Stone," says he, "is a Triangle in its essence, a Quadrangle in
its quality."

The Nemean lion (Greek: Λέων τῆς Νεμέας (Léōn tēs Neméas); Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived at Nemea. It was eventually killed by Heracles. It could not be killed with mortal weapons because its golden fur was impervious to attack. Its claws were sharper than mortal swords and could cut through any armor.
Nowadays lions are not part of the Greek fauna (or the fauna of Europe whatsoever). However according to Herodotus, lion populations were extant in Ancient Greece, until around 100 BC when they were extinct.[210]
The lion is usually considered to have been the offspring of Typhon[211] (or Orthrus)[212] and Echidna; it is also said to have fallen from the moon as the offspring of Zeus and Selene, or alternatively born of the Chimera. The Nemean lion was sent to Nemea in the Peloponnesus to terrorize the city.
The First Labor of Heracles
The first of Heracles' twelve labors, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.
According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.
Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[211] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.
While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmored mouth.
After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.
When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.
The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armor was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
Nemea (Νεμέα) is an ancient site in the northeastern part of the Peloponnese, in Greece. Formerly part of the territory of Cleonae in Argolis, it is today situated in the regional unit of Corinthia. The small village of Archaia Nemea (formerly known as "Koutsoumadi"[213] and then "Iraklion") is immediately southwest of the archaeological site, while the new town of Nemea lies to the west.
Here in Greek mythology Heracles overcame the Nemean Lion of the Lady Hera, and here during Antiquity the Nemean Games were played, in three sequence, ending about 235 BCE, celebrated in the eleven Nemean odes of Pindar.

[333] And Ceto (케토스: 바다의 여신, 위험한 바다, 바다 괴물) was joined in love to Phorcys (포르퀴스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 숨은 위험) and bare her youngest, the awful snake who guards the apples all of gold in the secret places of the dark earth at its great bounds. This is the offspring of Ceto (케토스: 바다의 여신, 위험한 바다, 바다 괴물) and Phorcys (포르퀴스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 숨은 위험).

334~370행: 티탄 신족들의 자녀들 - 오케아노스와 강(江)의 자식들 - 오케아니스들 및 강들의 목록[편집]

THE TITAN GODS

오케아노스와 테티스의 자녀들 - 오케아니스[편집]

[334] And Tethys (테티스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 바다의 여신, 3000 오케아니스의 어머니) bare to Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) eddying (소용돌이 치는) rivers (오케아니스),

  1. Nilus (닐로스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 나일강의 남신), and
  2. Alpheus (알페우스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  3. deep-swirling Eridanus (에리다노스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  4. Strymon (스트리몬: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  5. Meander (스트리몬: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 터키 남부의 멘데레스강의 남신), and
  6. the fair stream of Ister (이스테르: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 다뉴브강의 남신), and
  7. Phasis (파시스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 리오니강의 남신), and
  8. Rhesus (레소스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  9. the silver eddies of Achelous (아켈로우스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  10. Nessus (네소스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  11. Rhodius (로디오스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  12. Haliacmon, and
  13. Heptaporus (헵타포로스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  14. Granicus (그라니코스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  15. Aesepus (이세포스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  16. holy Simois (시모이스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  17. Peneus (페네오스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  18. Hermus (헤르모스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  19. Caicus (카이코스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신) fair stream, and
  20. great Sangarius (산가이로스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  21. Ladon (라돈: 거대한 뱀, 황금사과를 지키는 드래곤, 포르키스와 케토스의 아들),
  22. Parthenius (파르테니오스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  23. Euenus (이우에노스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신),
  24. Ardescus (아르데스코스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), and
  25. divine Scamander (스카만데르: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신).

[346] Also she brought forth a holy company of daughters[214] who with the lord Apollo and the Rivers have youths in their keeping -- to this charge Zeus appointed them --

  1. Peitho (페이토: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  2. Admete (아드에테: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  3. Ianthe (이안테: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  4. Electra (엘렉트라: 바다의 요정, 오케아니데스, 타우마스의 부인), and
  5. Doris (도리스: 바다의 요정, 오케아니데스), and
  6. Prymno (프림노: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  7. Urania (우라니아: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) divine in form,
  8. Hippo (힙포: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  9. Clymene (클리메네: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  10. Rhodea (로데아: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  11. Callirrhoe (칼리로에: 나이아스, 물의 요정, 세 명의 남편: 크리사오르 · 닐로스 · 포세이돈),
  12. Zeuxo and
  13. Clytie (클리티에: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  14. Idyia (이디이아: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  15. Pasithoe (파시토에: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  16. Plexaura (플렉사우라: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  17. Galaxaura (갈락사우라: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  18. lovely Dione (디오네: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  19. Melobosis and
  20. Thoe (토에, 네레이드) and
  21. handsome Polydora (폴리도라: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  22. Cerceis (케르케이스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) lovely of form, and
  23. soft eyed Pluto (플루토: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  24. Perseis (페르세이스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  25. Ianeira (이아네이라: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  26. Acaste (아카스테: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  27. Xanthe (크산테: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  28. Petraea (페트라에아: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) the fair,
  29. Menestho (메네스토: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  30. Europa (에우로파: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  31. Metis (메티스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  32. Eurynome (에우리노메: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  33. Telesto (텔레스토: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) saffron-clad,
  34. Chryseis (크리세이스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) and
  35. Asia (아시아: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) and charming
  36. Calypso (칼립소: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  37. Eudora (에우도레, 네레이드, 잘 베푸는여인), and
  38. Tyche (티케: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신),
  39. Amphirho (암피로: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  40. Ocyrrhoe (오키로에: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), and
  41. Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신) who is the chiefest of them all.

These are the eldest daughters that sprang from Ocean and Tethys; but there are many besides. For there are three thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) who are dispersed far and wide, and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters, children who are glorious among goddesses. And as many other rivers are there, babbling (재잘거리는) as they flow, sons of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지), whom queenly Tethys (테티스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 바다의 여신, 3000 오케아니스의 어머니) bare, but their names it is hard for a mortal man to tell, but people know those by which they severally dwell.

The goddess Tethys, who may have been a primordial deity of Archaic Greece, and in Classical myths was described as the mother who oversaw the chief rivers of the world known to the Greeks – mid-fourth-century mosaic – Philipopolis (Shahba, Syria), Shahba Museum.
In Greek mythology, Tethys (Τηθύς), daughter of Uranus and Gaia[215] was an archaic Titaness and aquatic sea goddess, invoked in classical Greek poetry, but not venerated in cult. Tethys was both sister and wife of Oceanus.[216] She was mother of the chief rivers of the world known to the Greeks, such as the Nile, the Alpheus, the Maeander, and about three thousand daughters called the Oceanids.[217] Considered as an embodiment of the waters of the world she also may be seen as a counterpart of Thalassa, the embodiment of the sea.
Although these vestiges imply a strong role in earlier times, Tethys plays virtually no part in recorded Greek literary texts, or historical records of cults. Walter Burkert[218] notes the presence of Tethys in the episode of Iliad XIV that the Ancients called the "Deception of Zeus", where Hera, to mislead Zeus, says she wants to go to Oceanus, "origin of the gods" and Tethys "the mother". Burkert [219] sees in the name a transformation of Akkadian tiamtu or tâmtu, "the sea," which is recognizable in Tiamat. Alternatively, her name may simply mean "old woman"; certainly it bears some similarity to ἡ τήθη, meaning "grandmother", and she is often portrayed as being extremely ancient (cf. Callimachus, Iamb 4.52, fr. 194).
Roman mosaic of Tethys from Antioch, Turkey
One of the few representations of Tethys that is identified securely by an accompanying inscription is the Late Antique (fourth century CE) mosaic from the flooring of a thermae at Antioch, now at the Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts[220] after being moved from Dumbarton Oaks.[221] In the Dumbarton Oaks mosaic, the bust of Tethys—surrounded by fishes—is rising, bare-shouldered from the waters. Against her shoulder rests a golden ship's rudder. Gray wings sprout from her forehead, as in the mosaics illustrated above and below.
During the war against the Titans, Tethys raised and educated Hera as her step-child, who was brought to her by Rhea [222] but there are no records of active cults for Tethys in historic times.
Tethys has sometimes been confused [223] with another sea goddess who became the sea-nymph Thetis, the wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles during Classical times. Some myths imply a second generation relationship between the two, a grandmother and granddaughter.
Indicative of the power exercised by Tethys, one myth[224] relates that the prominent goddess of the Olympians, Hera, was not pleased with the placement of Callisto and Arcas in the sky, as the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, so she asked her nurse Tethys to help. Tethys, a marine goddess, caused the constellations forever to circle the sky and never drop below the horizon, hence explaining why they are circumpolar. Robert Graves interprets the use of the term nurse in Classical myths as identifying deities who once were goddesses of central importance in the periods before historical documentation.[225]
Tethys, a moon of the planet Saturn, and the prehistoric Tethys Ocean are named after this goddess.
In Greek mythology and, later, Roman mythology, the Oceanids (Ὠκεανίδες, pl. of Ὠκεανίς) were the three thousand daughters of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys. Each was the patroness of a particular spring, river, sea, lake, pond, pasture, flower or cloud.[226] Some of them were closely associated with the Titan gods (such as Calypso, Clymene, Asia, Electra) or personified abstract concepts (Tyche, Peitho).
One of these many daughters was also said to have been the consort of the god Poseidon, typically named as Amphitrite.[227] More often, however, she is called a Nereid.[228]
Oceanus and Tethys also had 3,000 sons, the river-gods Potamoi
(Ποταμοί, "rivers").[229] Whereas most sources limit the term Oceanids or Oceanides to the daughters, others include both the sons and daughters under this term.[230]
Oceanus is a figure of ancient Greek myth. This is a list of his consorts and children.
According to Hesiod,[231] total number of Oceanus' children was 6000 (3000 daughters and 3000 sons), but only a relatively small portion of their names is actually attested throughout accounts of Greek mythology.
List of Oceanids
The following are the daughters of Oceanus and Tethys:[232][233][234][235][236]
  1. Acaste
  2. Admete
  3. Aethra
  4. Amaltheia
  5. Amphiro
  6. Amphitrite – usually counted as a Nereid rather than an Oceanid
  7. Anchiroe
  8. Anthracia - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  9. Argia
  10. Asia – nymph of the Asian region, sister to Europa
  11. Asterodia[237]
  12. Asterope - mother by Zeus of Acragas, eponym of several ancient cities known as Acragas, possibly including Acragas, Sicily[238]
  13. Beroe
  14. Bolbe
  15. Cleodora
  16. Callirrhoe
  17. Calypso
  18. Camarina[239]
  19. Capheira[240]
  20. Cerceis
  21. Ceto
  22. Chryseis
  23. Clio - not to be confused with the Muse Clio
  24. Clymene - wife of Iapetus
  25. Clytie or Clytia
  26. Crocale - one of the sixty younger Oceanids, attendants of Artemis[241][242]
  27. Daira - mother of Eleusis by Hermes[243]
  28. Dione
  29. Dodone
  30. Doris – wife of the sea god Nereus, mother of the fifty Nereides.
  31. Eidyia or Idyia - wife of Aeetes, mother of Medea
  32. Electra - wife of Thaumas, mother of Iris, Arke and the Harpies; not to be confused with other characters of the same name, see Electra (disambiguation)
  33. Ephyra
  34. Euagoreis
  35. Eudore
  36. Europa
  37. Eurynome
  38. Galaxaure
  39. Glauke - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  40. Hagno - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  41. Hesione - wife of Prometheus
  42. Hippo
  43. Hyale - one of the sixty younger Oceanids, attendants of Artemis
  44. Iakhe
  45. Ianira
  46. Ianthe – nymph of violet rain clouds or violet flowers
  47. Ithome - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  48. Leucippe
  49. Lysithea
  50. Melia - sister of Caanthus
  51. Meliboea
  52. Melite
  53. Melobosis
  54. Menestho
  55. Merope
  56. Metis – goddess of wisdom, first spouse of Zeus
  57. Mopsopia - Attica was believed to have been previously named Mopsopia after her[244]
  58. Myrtoessa - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  59. Nede - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  60. Nemesis
  61. Nephele - one of the sixty younger Oceanids, attendants of Artemis; not to be confused with Nephele, goddess of clouds
  62. Ocyrrhoe
  63. Oinoe - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  64. Ozomene - in one source,[245] this name substitutes for Electra
  65. Pasithoe
  66. Peitho
  67. Periboea
  68. Perse or Perseis
  69. Petraea
  70. Phaino
  71. Phiale - one of the sixty younger Oceanids, attendants of Artemis
  72. Philyra - mother of Chiron by Cronus
  73. Phrixa - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  74. Pleione – mother of the Pleiades by Atlas
  75. Plexaure
  76. Plouto or Pluto – mother of Tantalus by Zeus
  77. Polydora
  78. Polyphe - in a rare version, mother of Athena by Poseidon[246][247]
  79. Polyxo
  80. Pronoia
  81. Prymno
  82. Psekas - one of the sixty younger Oceanids, attendants of Artemis
  83. Rhanis - one of the sixty younger Oceanids, attendants of Artemis
  84. Rhode or Rhodia
  85. Rhodope
  86. Stilbo
  87. Styx – Oceanid of the river Styx that flowed nine times around Hades; an exceptionally female river goddess
  88. Telesto
  89. Theisoa - one of the nymphs that nursed infant Zeus
  90. Thoe
  91. Tyche
  92. Urania - not to be confused with the Muse Urania
  93. Xanthe
  94. Zeuxo
Others: the text by Hyginus (Fabulae) is corrupted in places, making the names of a few of the Oceanids uncertain: *yaea; *lyris, *clintenneste, *teschinoeno.[236]
List of River-gods (Potamoi)
The following are the sons of Oceanus and Tethys:[236][248][249]
  1. Achelous or Akheloios
  2. Acheron
  3. Acragas
  4. Aeas
  5. Aegaeus
  6. Aesar
  7. Aesepus
  8. Almo
  9. Alpheus
  10. Amnisos
  11. Amphrysos
  12. Anapos
  13. Anauros
  14. Anigros
  15. Apidanus
  16. Arar
  17. Araxes
  18. Ardescus
  19. Arnos
  20. Asopus
  21. Asterion
  22. Axius
  23. Baphyras
  24. Borysthenes
  25. Brychon
  26. Caicinus
  27. Caicus
  28. Cayster
  29. Cebren
  30. Cephissus
  31. Chremetes
  32. Cladeus or Kladeos
  33. Clitunno (Roman mythology)
  34. Cocytus
  35. Cratais
  36. Crinisus
  37. Cydnos
  38. Cytheros
  39. Elisson
  40. Enipeus
  41. Erasinus
  42. Eridanus
  43. Erymanthus
  44. Euphrates
  45. Eurotas
  46. Evenus
  47. Ganges
  48. Granicus
  49. Haliacmon
  50. Halys
  51. Hebrus
  52. Heptaporus
  53. Hermus
  54. Hydaspes
  55. Ilissos
  56. Imbrasos
  57. Inachus
  58. Indus
  59. Inopos
  60. Ismenus
  61. Istrus or Ister
  62. Ladon
  63. Lamos
  64. Lethe (exceptionally female)
  65. Lycormas
  66. Marsyas
  67. Maeander
  68. Meles
  69. Mincius
  70. Nestos
  71. Nilus
  72. Numicius
  73. Nymphaeus
  74. Orontes
  75. Pactolus
  76. Parthenius
  77. Phasis
  78. Phlegethon or Pyriphlegethon
  79. Phyllis
  80. Peneus
  81. Pleistos
  82. Porpax
  83. Rhesus
  84. Rhine
  85. Rhodius
  86. Rhyndacus
  87. Satnioeis
  88. Sangarius
  89. Scamander
  90. Simoeis
  91. Spercheus
  92. Strymon
  93. Symaethus
  94. Tanais
  95. Termessus
  96. Thermodon
  97. Tiberinus (Roman mythology)
  98. Tigris
  99. Titaressus

371~410행: 티탄 신족들의 자녀들 - 히페리온과 테이아·크리오스와 에우리비아·아스트라이오스와 에오스·팔라스와 스틱스·코이오스와 포이베의 자녀들[편집]

히페리온과 테이아의 자녀들 - 히페리오니데스: 헬리오스(아들) · 셀레네(딸) · 에오스(딸)[편집]

[371] And Theia (테이아: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 뜻은 '신성한, 여신') was subject in love to Hyperion (히페리온: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 'the High-One') and bare

  1. great Helius (Sun) (헬리오스: 태양의 남신, 테이아와 히페리온의 아들) and
  2. clear Selene (Moon) (셀레네: 달의 여신, 테이아와 히페리온의 딸) and
  3. Eos (Dawn) (에오스: 새벽의 여신, 테이아와 히페리온의 딸) who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven.
Theia
Pergamonmuseum - Antikensammlung - Pergamonaltar 32.jpg
In the frieze of the Great Altar of Pergamon (Berlin), the goddess who fights at Helios' back is conjectured to be Theia[250]
Abode Earth
Symbol Eyes, Glasses
Consort Hyperion
Parents Gaia and Uranus
Siblings Hyperion, Themis, Mnemosyne, Rhea, Cronus, Oceanus, Tethys, Iapetus, Krios, Phoebe and Coeus
Children Helios, Eos and Selene
In Greek mythology, Theia "goddess" or "divine" (sometimes written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa "wide-shining," was a Titan. The name Theia alone means simply, "goddess"; Theia Euryphaessa (Θεία Εὐρυφάεσσα) brings overtones of extent (εὐρύς, eurys, "wide", root: εὐρυ-/εὐρε-) and brightness (φάος, phaos, "light", root: φαεσ-).
Earlier myths
Hesiod's Theogony gives her an equally primal origin, a daughter of Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (Sky).[251] Robert Graves also relates that later Theia is referred to as the cow-eyed Euryphaessa who gave birth to Helios in myths dating to Classical Antiquity.[252][253]
Later myths
Once paired in later myths with her Titan brother Hyperion as her husband, "mild-eyed Euryphaessa, the far-shining one" of the Homeric Hymn to Helios, was said to be the mother of Helios (the Sun), Selene (the Moon), and Eos (the Dawn).
Pindar praises Theia in his Fifth Isthmian ode:

Mother of the Sun, Theia of many names, for your sake men honor gold as more powerful than anything else; and through the value you bestow on them, o queen, ships contending on the sea and yoked teams of horses in swift-whirling contests become marvels.

She seems here a goddess of glittering in particular and of glory in general, but Pindar's allusion to her as "Theia of many names" is telling, since it suggests assimilation, referring not only to similar mother-of-the-sun goddesses such as Phoebe and Leto, but perhaps also to more universalizing mother-figures such as Rhea and Cybele.
Theia in the sciences
Theia's mythological role as the mother of the Moon goddess Selene is alluded to in the application of the name to a hypothetical planet which, according to the giant impact hypothesis, collided with the Earth, resulting in the Moon's creation.
Theia's alternate name Euryphaessa has been adopted for a species of Australian leafhoppers Dayus euryphaessa (Kirkaldy, 1907).
Hyperion (Ὑπερίων, "The High-One") was one of the 12 Titans of Greek mythology, the sons and daughters of Gaia, personification of the Earth, and Uranus (literally meaning 'the Sky'), which were later supplanted by the Olympians.[254][255] He was the brother of Cronus. He was also the lord of light, and the Titan of the east.[출처 필요]
He was referred to in early mythological writings as Helios Hyperion (Ἥλιος Ὑπερίων), 'Sun High-one'. In Homer's Odyssey, Hesiod's Theogony and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, the Sun is once in each work called Hyperionides (Ὑπεριωνίδης) 'son of Hyperion', and Hesiod certainly imagines Hyperion as a separate being in other writings. In later Greek literature, Hyperion is always distinguished from Helios; the former was ascribed the characteristics of the 'God of Watchfulness, Wisdom and Light', while the latter became the physical incarnation of the Sun. Hyperion is an obscure figure in Greek culture and mythology, mainly appearing in lists of the twelve Titans:

Of Hyperion we are told that he was the first to understand, by diligent attention and observation, the movement of both the sun and the moon and the other stars, and the seasons as well, in that they are caused by these bodies, and to make these facts known to others; and that for this reason he was called the father of these bodies, since he had begotten, so to speak, the speculation about them and their nature.

— Diodorus Siculus (5.67.1)
There is little to no reference to Hyperion during the Titanomachy, the epic in which the Olympians battle the ruling Titans, or the Gigantomachy, in which Gaia attempts to avenge the Titans by enlisting the aid of the giants (Γίγαντες) that were imprisoned in Tartarus to facilitate the overthrow of the Olympians.
As the father of Helios, Hyperion was regarded as the "first principle" by Emperor Julian,[256] though his relevance in his notions of Theurgy is unknown.

크리오스와 에우리비아의 자녀들 - 크리오니데스(Krionides): 아스트라이오스(아들) · 팔라스(아들) · 페르세스(아들)[편집]

[375] And Eurybia (에우리비아: 바다의 소여신, 폰토스와 가이아의 딸), bright goddess, was joined in love to Crius (크리오스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 후손들로 더 유명, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 세 아들: 아스트라이오스 · 팔라스 · 페르세스) and bare

  1. great Astraeus (아스트라이오스: 크리오니데스, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 아들, 황혼의 신), and
  2. Pallas (팔라스: 크리오니데스, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 아들), and
  3. Perses (페르세스: 크리오니데스, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 아들, 파괴의 신) who also was eminent among all men in wisdom.
In Greek mythology, Eurybia (Εὐρυβία, Εὐρυβίη), "who has a heart of flint within her",[257] was the consort to the Titan Crius and gave birth to Astraeus, Perses, and Pallas.[258] She was a minor sea goddess under the dominion of Poseidon. Her parents were Pontos[259] and Gaia.[260]
Thespius's daughter is also named Eurybia. She bore Heracles a son, Polylaus.
In Greek mythology, Crius, Kreios or Krios (Κρεῖος,[261] Κριός) was one of the Titans in the list given in Hesiod's Theogony, a son of Uranus and Gaia. The least individualized among them,[262] he was overthrown in the Titanomachy. M. L. West has suggested how Hesiod filled out the complement of Titans from the core group—adding three figures from the archaic tradition of Delphi, Koios, Phoibe, whose name Apollo assumed with the oracle, and Themis.[263] Among possible further interpolations among the Titans was Kreios, whose interest for Hesiod was as the father of Perses and grandfather of Hekate, for whom Hesiod was, according to West, an "enthusiastic evangelist".
Consorting with Eurybia, daughter of Earth (Gaia) and Sea (Pontus), he fathered Astraios and Pallas as well as Perses. The joining of Astraios with Eos, the Dawn, brought forth Eosphoros, the other Stars and the Winds.
Joined to fill out lists of Titans to form a total that made a match with the Twelve Olympians, Crius was inexorably involved in the ten-year-long[출처 필요] war between the Olympian gods and Titans, the Titanomachy, though without any specific part to play. When the war was lost, Crius was banished along with the others to the lower level of Hades called Tartarus. From his chthonic position in the Underworld, no classical association with Aries, the "Ram" of the zodiac, is ordinarily made.[출처 필요]
Aries is the first visible constellation in the sky at the spring season, marking the start of the new year in the ancient Greek calendar. This fact may have implied that Crius was the god of constellations, measuring the duration of the year while his brother Hyperion measures the days and months.
According to Pausanias, Crius might have been an indigenous deity of Euboea.[264]

아스트라이오스와 에오스의 자녀들: 제피로스(아들) · 보레아스(아들) · 노토스(아들) · 헤오스포로스(아들)[편집]

[378] And Eos (에오스: 새벽의 여신, 테이아와 히페리온의 딸) bare to Astraeus (아스트라이오스: 크리오니데스, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 아들, 황혼의 신) the strong-hearted winds (아네모이: 4명의 바람의 남신, 아스트라이오스와 에오스의 4아들),

  1. brightening Zephyrus (제피로스: 아스트라이오스와 에오스의 아들, 봄의 서풍의 남신), and
  2. Boreas (보레아스: 아스트라이오스와 에오스의 아들, 겨울의 북풍의 남신), headlong in his course, and
  3. Notus (노토스: 아스트라이오스와 에오스의 아들, 여름의 남풍의 남신), -- a goddess mating in love with a god. And after these Erigenia[265] (에오스: 새벽의 여신, 테이아와 히페리온의 딸) bare
  4. the star Eosphorus (Dawn-bringer) (포스포로스 Light-Bringer, 헤오스포로스 Dawn-bringer: 아스트라이오스와 에오스의 아들, 금성의 남신), and
  5. the gleaming (빛나는, 환한) stars with which heaven is crowned.
In Greek mythology, Astraeus or Astraeos (Ἀστραῖος) was an astrological deity and the Titan-god of the dusk.
In Hesiod's Theogony and in the Bibliotheca, Astraeus is a second-generation Titan, descended from Crius and Eurybia.[266] However, Hyginus wrote that he was descended directly from Tartarus and Gaia, and referred to him as one of the Gigantes.
Appropriately, as god of the dusk, Astraeus married Eos, goddess of the dawn. Together as nightfall and daybreak they produced many children who are associated with what occurs in the sky during twilight.
They had many sons, the four Anemoi ("Winds"): Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus,[267] and the five Astra Planeta ("Wandering Stars", i.e. planets): Phainon (Saturn), Phaethon (Jupiter), Pyroeis (Mars), Eosphoros/Hesperos (Venus), and Stilbon (Mercury).[268] A few sources mention one daughter, Astraea[269] ("stars", fem. personification. Sometimes: "justice"), but most writers considered Astraea the child of Zeus and Themis.
He is also sometimes associated with Aeolus, the Keeper of the Winds, since winds often swell up around dusk.
A 2nd-century sculpture of the Moon-goddess Selene accompanied by perhaps Phosphorus and Hesperus: the corresponding Latin names are Luna, Lucifer and Vesper.
Stanisław Wyspiański: Eos, Phosphoros, Hesperos, Helios, black-coloured pencil drawing, The National Museum in Warsaw, 1897
Phosphorus (Greek Φωσφόρος Phōsphoros), a name meaning "Light-Bringer", is the Morning Star, the planet Venus in its morning appearance. Φαοσφόρος (Phaosphoros) and Φαεσφόρος (Phaesphoros) are forms of the same name in some Greek dialects.
Another Greek name for the Morning Star is Ἑωσφόρος (Heōsphoros), which means "Dawn-Bringer". The form Eosphorus is sometimes met in English, as if from Ἠωσφόρος (Ēōsphoros), which is not actually found in Greek literature,[270] but would be the form that Ἑωσφόρος would have in some dialects. As an adjective, the Greek word φωσφόρος is applied in the sense of "light-bringing" to, for instance, the dawn, the god Dionysos, pine torches, the day; and in the sense of "torch-bearing" as an epithet of several god and goddesses, especially Hecate but also of Artemis/Diana and Hephaestus.[271]
The Latin word lucifer, corresponding to Greek φωσφόρος, was used as a name for the morning star and thus appeared in the Vulgate translation of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל (helel) - meaning Venus as the brilliant, bright or shining one - in Isaiah 14:12, where the Septuagint Greek version uses, not φωσφόρος, but ἑωσφόρος. As a translation of the same Hebrew word the King James Version gave "Lucifer", a name often understood as a reference to Satan. Modern translations of the same passage render the Hebrew word instead as "morning star", "daystar", "shining one" or "shining star". In Revelation 22:16, Jesus is referred to as the morning star, but not as lucifer in Latin, nor as φωσφόρος in the original Greek text, which instead has ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ λαμπρὸς ὁ πρωϊνός, literally: the star the bright of the morning. In the Vulgate Latin text of 2 Peter 1:19 the word lucifer is used of the morning star in the phrase "until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts", the corresponding Greek word being φωσφόρος.
Venus
The morning star is an appearance of the planet Venus, an inferior planet, meaning that its orbit lies between that of the Earth and the Sun. Depending on the orbital locations of both Venus and Earth, it can be seen in the eastern morning sky for an hour or so before the Sun rises and dims it, or in the western evening sky for an hour or so after the Sun sets, when Venus itself then sets. It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and the Moon, outshining the planets Saturn and Jupiter but, while these rise high in the sky, Venus never does. This may lie behind myths about deities associated with the morning star proudly striving for the highest place among the gods and being cast down.[272]
Mythology
Hesperus as Personification of the Evening by Anton Raphael Mengs, Palacete de la Moncloa, Madrid, 1765
In Greek mythology, Hesiod calls Phosphorus a son of Astraeus and Eos,[273] but other say of Cephalus and Eos, or of Atlas.[274]
The Latin poet Ovid, speaking of Phosphorus and Hesperus (the Evening Star, the evening appearance of the planet Venus) as identical, makes him the father of Daedalion.[275] Ovid also makes him the father of Ceyx,[276] while the Latin grammarian Servius makes him the father of the Hesperides or of Hesperis[274]
While at an early stage the Morning Star (called Phosphorus and other names) and the Evening Star (referred to by names such as Hesperus) were thought of as two celestial objects, the Greeks accepted that the two were the same, but they seem to have continued to treat the two mythological entities as distinct. Halbertal and Margalit interpret this as indicating that they did not identify the star with the god or gods of mythology "embodied" in the star.[277]
Frege's Puzzle
In the philosophy of language, "Hesperus is Phosphorus" is a famous sentence in relation to the semantics of proper names. Gottlob Frege used the terms "the evening star" (der Abendstern) and "the morning star" (der Morgenstern) to illustrate his distinction between sense and reference, and subsequent philosophers changed the example to "Hesperus is Phosphorus" so that it utilized proper names. Saul Kripke used the sentence to demonstrate that the knowledge of something necessary (in this case the identity of Hesperus and Phosphorus) could be discoverable rather than known a priori.
Latin literature
The Latin word corresponding to Greek "Phosphorus" is "Lucifer". It is used in its astronomical sense both in prose[278] and poetry.[279] Poets sometimes personify the star, placing it in a mythological context.[280]

팔라스와 스틱스의 자녀들 - 스틱티데스(Styktides): 젤로스(아들) · 니케(딸) · 크라토스(아들) · 비아(딸)[편집]

[383] And Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신, 세상과 지하세계의 경계에 흐르는 강) the daughter of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) was joined to Pallas (팔라스: 크리오니데스, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 아들) and bare

  1. Zelus (Emulation) (젤로스: 스틱티데스(Styktides), 팔라스와 스틱스의 아들, 열정 · 열심 · 경쟁의 남신) and
  2. trim-ankled Nike (Victory) (니케: 스틱티데스(Styktides), 팔라스와 스틱스의 딸, 정복과 승리의 여신) in the house. Also she (스틱스) brought forth
  3. Cratos (Strength) (크라토스: 스틱티데스(Styktides), 팔라스와 스틱스의 아들, 강함과 파워의 남신) and
  4. Bia (Force) (비아: 스틱티데스(Styktides), 팔라스와 스틱스의 딸, 힘의 여신), wonderful children.

These have no house apart from Zeus, nor any dwelling nor path except that wherein God leads them, but they dwell always with Zeus the loud-thunderer. For so did Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신, 세상과 지하세계의 경계에 흐르는 강) the deathless daughter of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) plan on that day when the Olympian Lightener called all the deathless gods to great Olympus, and said that whosoever of the gods would fight with him against the Titans (티탄), he would not cast him out from his rights, but each should have the office which he had before amongst the deathless gods. And he declared that he who was without office and rights as is just. So deathless Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신, 저승에 흐르는 강) came first to Olympus with her children through the wit (지혜) of her dear father (오케아노스). And Zeus honoured her, and gave her very great gifts, for her he appointed to be the great oath of the gods, and her children to live with him always. And as he promised, so he performed fully unto them all. But he himself mightily reigns and rules.

Etching of G. Doré
The Styx (/stɪks/; Στύξ [stýkʰs]) is a river in Greek mythology that formed the boundary between Earth and the Underworld (often called Hades which is also the name of this domain's ruler). The rivers Styx, Phlegethon, Acheron, and Cocytus all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which is also sometimes called the Styx. The important rivers of the underworld are Lethe, Eridanos, and Alpheus.
The gods were bound by the Styx and swore oaths on it. The reason for this is during the Titan war, Styx, the goddess of the river Styx, sided with Zeus. After the war, Zeus promised every oath be sworn upon her.[281] Zeus swore to give Semele whatever she wanted and was then obliged to follow through when he realized to his horror that her request would lead to her death. Helios similarly promised his son Phaëton whatever he desired, also resulting in the boy's death. According to some versions, Styx had miraculous powers and could make someone invulnerable. According to one tradition, Achilles was dipped in it in his childhood, acquiring invulnerability, with exception of his heel, by which his mother held him. This is the source of the expression Achilles' heel, a metaphor for a vulnerable spot.
Styx was primarily a feature in the afterworld of Greek mythology, and similar to the Christian area of Hell in texts such as The Divine Comedy and "Paradise Lost". The ferryman Charon is believed to have transported the souls of the newly dead across this river into the underworld, though in the original Greek and Roman sources, as well as in Dante, it was the river Acheron that Charon plied. Dante put Phlegyas over the Styx and made it the fifth circle of Hell, where the wrathful and sullen are punished by being drowned in the muddy waters for eternity, with the wrathful fighting each other.
In ancient times some believed that placing a coin in the mouth[282] of the deceased would help pay the toll for the ferry to help cross the Acheron river which would lead one to the entrance of the underworld. If some could not pay the fee it was said that they would never be able to cross the river. This ritual was performed by the relatives.
The variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century.[283] By synecdoche, the adjective stygian (/ˈstɪiən/) came to refer to anything dark, dismal, and murky.
Goddess
Styx was also the name of the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She was wife to Pallas and bore him Zelus, Nike, Kratos and Bia (and sometimes Eos). Styx supported Zeus in the Titanomachy where she was the first to rush to his aid. For this reason her name was given the honor of being a binding oath for the gods.
Nymph
Popular culture and science
As of 2 July 2013, Styx officially became the name of one of Pluto's moons.[284] The other moons (Charon, Nix, Hydra, and Kerberos) also have names from Greco-Roman mythology.
Pallas (Πάλλας) is a Titan, killed by Athena in the contest to fight for Zeus. Most sources indicate that he was the son of Crius and Eurybia, the brother of Astraeus and Perses, and the husband of Styx. He was the father of Zelus, Nike, Kratos, and Bia.[285] In addition, he has been named as the father of Scylla, Fontes, and Lacus.[286] Alternatively, he was the son of Megamedes, and father of Selene,[287] and is also recorded as the father of Eos.[288]
Pallas' name derives from the Greek word pallō (πάλλω) which means "to brandish (a spear)".[출처 필요] This indicates that Pallas was perhaps the god of warcraft, considering that his name was also taken up by Athena.[출처 필요] The city Pellene, in Achaea, was named after Pallas.[289]
In Greek mythology, Zelus (Greek: Ζῆλος, zeal) was the son of Pallas and Styx.[290] Zelus and siblings Nike (victory), Kratos (strength) and Bia (force) were winged[출처 필요] enforcers who stood in attendance at Zeus' throne and formed part of his retinue.[291]
Zelus personifies dedication, emulation, eager rivalry, envy, jealousy, and zeal. The English word "zeal" is derived from his name.
Zelos may have also been identified with Agon, and was closely connected with Eris.
Nike
Goddess Nike at Ephesus, Turkey.JPG
Stone carving of the goddess Nike at the ruins of the ancient Greek city of Ephesus
Goddess of victory
Abode Mount Olympus
Parents Pallas and Styx
Siblings Kratos, Bia, Zelus
Roman equivalent Victoria
Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Other deities
Personified concepts
In Greek mythology, Nike (Νίκη, "Victory", pronounced [nǐːkɛː]) was a goddess who personified victory, also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory. The Roman equivalent was Victoria. Depending upon the time of various myths, she was described as the daughter of Pallas (Titan) and Styx (Water),[292][293] and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal).[292]
Statuette of goddess Nike found in Vani, Georgia.
Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus, the dominant deity of the Greek pantheon. According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War against the older deities. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer, a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame.
Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena, and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon.[294] Nike is one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek coins.[295]
Names stemming from Nike include among others: Nikolaos, Nicholas, Nicola, Nick, Nicolai, Nikolai, Nicolae, Nils, Klaas, Nicole, Ike, Niki, Nikita, Nika, Niketas, and Nico.
In Greek mythology, Kratos or Cratus (Ancient Greek: Κράτος, English translation: "power") is the son of Pallas and Styx and the personification of strength and power.[296][297] Kratos and his siblings—Nike ("victory"), Bia ("force"), and Zelus ("zeal")—are the winged enforcers (sky tides) of the Olympian God Zeus. He makes an appearance in Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound, in which he is one of the trio that binds the titular Titan, the other two being Hephaestus and Bia.[298]
In Greek mythology, Bia was the personification of force, daughter of Pallas and Styx, and sister of Nike, Kratos, and Zelus.[299]
She and her siblings were constant companions of Zeus.[300] They achieved this honour after supporting Zeus in the war of the Titans along with their mother.[301] Bia is one of the characters named in the Greek tragedy Prometheus Bound, written by Aeschylus, where Hephaestus is compelled by the gods to bind Prometheus after he was caught stealing fire and offering the gift to mortals.

코이오스와 포이베의 자녀들 - 코이오니데스(Koionides): 레토(딸) · 아스테리아(딸)[편집]

[404] Again, Phoebe (포이베: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, '밝게 빛나는, radiant, bright, prophetic') came to the desired embrace of Coeus (코이오스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 후손들로 더 유명, 코이오스와 포이베의 자녀: 레토 · 아스테리아). Then the goddess through the love of the god conceived and brought forth

  1. dark-gowned Leto (레토: 코이오니데스(Koionides), 코이오스와 포이베의 딸, 제우스와의 사이에서 아폴론과 아르테미스를 낳음), always mild, kind to men and to the deathless gods, mild from the beginning, gentlest in all Olympus. Also she (포이베) bare
  2. Asteria (아스테리아: 코이오니데스(Koionides), 코이오스와 포이베의 딸, 페르세스와의 사이에서 헤카테를 낳음) of happy name, whom Perses (페르세스: 크리오니데스, 크리오스와 에우리비아의 아들, 파괴의 신) once led to his great house to be called his dear wife.
Leto
Tityos Leto Louvre G42.jpg
The Rape of Leto by Tityos c. 515 BC. From Vulci. Leto is third from left.
Abode island of Delos
Consort Zeus
Parents Coeus and Phoebe
Siblings Asteria
Children Apollo, and Artemis
Roman equivalent Latona
In Greek mythology, Leto (Greek: Λητώ, Lētṓ; Λατώ, Lātṓ in Dorian Greek, etymology and meaning disputed) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and the sister of Asteria.[302] The island of Kos is claimed as her birthplace.[303] In the Olympian scheme, Zeus is the father of her twins,[304] Apollo and Artemis, the Letoides, which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis, since Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her. Finally, she finds an island that isn't attached to the ocean floor so it isn't considered land and she can give birth.[305] This is her one active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown, Leto withdraws, to remain a dim[306] and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus, her part already played. In Roman mythology, Leto's equivalent is Latona, a Latinization of her name, influenced by Etruscan Letun.[307]
In Crete, at the city of Dreros, Spyridon Marinatos uncovered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo, Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over a shaped core (sphyrelata).[308] Walter Burkert notes[309] that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation cult.
Leto was identified from the fourth century onwards with the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia, as the region became Hellenized.[310] In Greek inscriptions, the Letoides are referred to as the "national gods" of the country.[311] Her sanctuary, the Letoon near Xanthos predated Hellenic influence in the region, however,[312] and united the Lycian confederacy of city-states. The Hellenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own. Another sanctuary, more recently identified, was at Oenoanda in the north of Lycia.[313] There was, of course, a further Letoon at Delos.
Leto's primal nature may be deduced from the natures of her father and mother, who may have been Titans of the sun and moon.[출처 필요] Her Titan father is called "Coeus," and though Herbert Jennings Rose considers his name and nature uncertain,[314] he is in one Roman source given the name Polus,[315] which may relate him to the sphere of heaven from pole to pole.[출처 필요] The name of Leto's mother, "Phoebe" (Φοίβη — literally "pure, bright"), is identical to the epithet of her son Apollo, Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, throughout Homer.
Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar.
In Greek mythology, Asteria (Ἀστερία, "of the stars, starry one") was a name attributed to the following eleven individuals: the daughter of Coeus, an Amazon woman, Heliad, Danaid, Alkyonides, the Consort of Phocus, the consort of Bellerophon, the daughter of Coronus, the daughter of Teucer, an Athenian maiden, and a character in the opera "Telemaco." Each of these is detailed below.
Daughter of Coeus
Asteria was the daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe and sister of Leto.[316] According to Hesiod, by Perses she had a daughter Hecate.[317]
The Titan goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars, Asteria flung herself into the Aegean Sea in the form of a quail in order to escape the advances of Zeus. She became the "quail island" of Ortygia.[318] which became identified with Delos, which was the only piece of earth to give refuge to the fugitive Leto when, pregnant with Zeus's children, she was pursued by vengeful Hera.[319]
Amazon
Asteria was the ninth Amazon killed by Heracles when he came for Hippolyte's girdle.[320]
Heliad
Asteria or Astris was a daughter of Helios and Clymene or Ceto, one of the Heliades. She married the river god Hydaspes (the modern Jhelum River) and became mother of Deriades, king in India.
Danaid
Asteria was one of the Danaids, daughters of Danaus who, with one exception, murdered their husbands on their wedding nights. She was, briefly, the bride of Chaetus.[321]
Alkyonides
Asteria was one of the Alkyonides. Along with her sisters, she flung herself into the sea and was transformed into a kingfisher.[322]
Consort of Phocus
Asteria[323] or Asterodia[324] was the mother of Crisus and Panopeus by Phocus.
Consort of Bellerophon
Asteria, daughter of Hydeus, was the mother of Hydissos by Bellerophon. Her son is known for having founded a city in Caria which was named after him.[325]
Daughter of Coronus
Asteria, daughter of Coronus, and Apollo were possible parents of the seer Idmon.[326]
Daughter of Teucer
The daughter of Teucer and Eune of Cyprus also bore the name Asteria.[327]
Athenian maiden
Asteria was one of the would-be sacrificial victims of Minotaur, portrayed in a vase painting.[328]
In Gluck opera
Christoph Willibald Gluck gave the name Asteria to one of the characters in his 1765 opera "Telemaco", though the name did not appear in Homer's Odyssey on which the opera was based.

410~452행: 헤카테의 찬가 - 헤카테의 능력 및 영향력[편집]

HYMN TO HECATE

헤카테: 페르세스와 아스테리아의 딸 - 유일한 자녀[편집]

[410] And she (아스테리아) conceived and bare

  1. Hecate (헤카테: 페르세스와 아스테리아의 딸, Cosmic World Soul, Moon, magic, witchcraft, sorcery) whom Zeus the son of Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친) honoured above all.

He (제우스) gave her (헤카테) splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She (헤카테) received honour also in starry heaven, and is honoured exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favour according to custom, he calls upon Hecate (헤카테: 페르세스와 아스테리아의 딸, Cosmic World Soul, Moon, magic, witchcraft, sorcery). Great honour comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess (헤카테) receives favourably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) and Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos (즉, 제우스) did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea. Also, because she is an only child, the goddess receives not less honour, but much more still, for Zeus honours her. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate (헤카테: 페르세스와 아스테리아의 딸, Cosmic World Soul, Moon, magic, witchcraft, sorcery) and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre (외양간, 우사) with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves (무리) of kine (암소, 소) and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy (양털 같은, 푹신한) sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then. albeit (비록 …일지라도) her mother's (아스테리아) only child,[329] she is honoured amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honours.

Mythology
Hecate, Greek goddess of the crossroads; drawing by Stéphane Mallarmé in Les Dieux Antiques, nouvelle mythologie illustrée in Paris, 1880
Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace.[330] Her most important sanctuary was Lagina, a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs.[330] Lagina, where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year, lay close to the originally Macedonian colony of Stratonikeia, where she was the city's patroness.[331] In Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes, namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness.
The first literature mentioning Hecate is the Theogony by Hesiod:
[...] Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven, and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea.[332]
According to Hesiod, she held sway over many things:
Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother's only child, she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honours.[332]
Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child, the daughter of Perses and Asteria, a star-goddess who was the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon.
Hesiod's inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars, in that he seems to hold her in high regard, while the testimony of other writers, and surviving evidence, suggests that this may have been exceptional. One theory is that Hesiod's original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers.[333] Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship.[334] In Athens Hecate, along with Zeus, Hermes, Hestia, and Apollo, were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household.[335] However, it is clear that the special position given to Hecate by Zeus is upheld throughout her history by depictions found on coins depicting Hecate on the hand of Zeus [336] as highlighted in more recent research presented by d'Este and Rankine.[337]
Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia,[330] the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate, such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus, the father of Mausolus, are attested,[338] and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times, at her unrivalled[339] cult site in Lagina. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins, it has been argued that "Hecate must have been a Greek goddess."[340] The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date.[341]
Hecate by Richard Cosway
Triple Hecate
If Hecate's cult spread from Anatolia into Greece, it is possible it presented a conflict, as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon, above all by Artemis and Selene. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. Other than in the Theogony, the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage, or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness, and a mighty helper and protector of humans. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that, because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans, she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians.[출처 필요]
One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis.[333] Here, Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. She scorns and insults Artemis, who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal's suicide. There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, where the priests, megabyzi, officiated.[342]
Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts, infernal spirits, the dead and sorcery. Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. Likewise, shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils.[343]
One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word "jinx" might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate. "The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus [...] speaks of a bullroarer, consisting of a golden sphere, decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence "jinx"), but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate."[344]
Hecate is the primary feminine figure in the Chaldean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE),[345] where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top, or wheel, used in magic) "Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate."[346] This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus.[347]
Variations in interpretations of Hecate's role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres.
In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Hecate is called the "tender-hearted", a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone, when she assisted Demeter with her search for Persephone following her abduction by Hades, suggesting that Demeter should speak to the god of the sun, Helios. Subsequently she became Persephone's companion on her yearly journey to and from the realms of Hades. Because of this association, Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries, alongside Demeter and Persephone.[348]
The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis. For example, in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt, she is called the 'she-dog' or 'bitch', and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. However, her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time; the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack, saving the city, were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). In gratitude the Byzantines erected a statue in her honor.[349]
As a virgin goddess, she remained unmarried and had no regular consort, though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla.[350]
Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene, she ruled over three kingdoms; the earth, the sea, and the sky. She had the power to create or hold back storms, which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors.[351]
Hecate
Hecate Chiaramonti Inv1922.jpg
The Hecate Chiaramonti, a Roman sculpture of triple Hecate, after a Hellenistic original (Museo Chiaramonti, Vatican Museums)
Abode Underworld
Symbol Paired torches, dogs and keys, and dagger
Parents Perses and Asteria
Roman equivalent Trivia
Hecate or Hekate (/ˈhɛkət/; ancient Greek Ἑκάτη, Hekátē; /ˈhɛkət/) is an ancient goddess, most often shown holding two torches or a key[348] and in later periods depicted in triple form. She is variously associated with crossroads, entrance-ways, fire, light, the Moon, magic, witchcraft, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, necromancy, and sorcery.[352][353] She has rulership over earth, sea and sky, as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira), Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul.[354][355] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family.[356]
Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia, where variants of her name are found as names given to children. William Berg observes, "Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens."[357] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia, with whom she was identified in Rome.
Today Hecate is worshipped by people who have reconstructed and revived the indigenous religions of Greece, such as Hellenic polytheist groups like Hellenion and YSEE.[358]
Hecate is also one of the "patron" goddesses of many Wiccans, who in some traditions identify her with the Triple Goddess' aspect of the "Crone". In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the "Maiden", or the "Mother" aspects as well, for Hecate has three faces, or phases. Her role as a tripartite goddess, which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of "the Maiden, the Mother and the Crone",[359] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess, and many others, such as the 20th century occultist and author, Aleister Crowley. Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three different directions, a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess; the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals, and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood; in this portrayal she is known as "Mistress of Animals".
Etymology, spelling, and pronunciation
Hecate is the transcription from the Latin, whereas Hekate is the transcription from the Greek. Both refer to the same goddess.
Notable proposed etymologies for the name Hecate are:
  • From the Greek word for 'will'.[360]
  • From Greek Ἑκάτη [Hekátē], feminine equivalent of Ἑκατός Hekatos, obscure epithet of Apollo.[361] This has been translated as "she that operates from afar", "she that removes or drives off",[362] "the far reaching one" or "the far-darter".[363]
  • From the Egyptian goddess of childbirth, Heqet.[364] has been suggested, but evidence for this is lacking.
Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses refers to "triple Hecat"[365] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the Elizabethan-Jacobean period.[366] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the then-predominant pronunciation of "Hecate" without the final E.[367]
Representations
Statuette of Triple-bodied Hekate. Pen, ink and light brown and grey wash.
The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced, not three-formed. Farnell states: "The evidence of the monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate is almost as full as that of the literature. But it is only in the later period that they come to express her manifold and mystic nature."[368]
The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found in Athens, with a dedication to Hecate, in writing of the style of the 6th century. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head; she is altogether without attributes and character, and the only value of this work, which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription, is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form, and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion.[368]
Triple Hecate and the Charites, Attic, 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek, Munich)
The 2nd-century travel writer Pausanias stated that Hecate was first depicted in triplicate by the sculptor Alkamenes in the Greek Classical period of the late 5th century BCE [353] which was placed before the temple of the Wingless Nike in Athens. Greek anthropomorphic conventions of art resisted representing her with three faces: a votive sculpture from Attica of the 3rd century BCE (illustration, left), shows three single images against a column; round the column of Hecate dance the Charites. Some classical portrayals show her as a triplicate goddess holding a torch, a key, serpents, daggers and numerous other items.[369] Depictions of both a single form Hekate and triple formed, as well as occasional four headed descriptions continued throughout her history.
In Egyptian-inspired Greek esoteric writings connected with Hermes Trismegistus, and in magical papyri of Late Antiquity she is described as having three heads: one dog, one serpent, and one horse. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar.[370] Hecate's triplicity is elsewhere expressed in a more Hellenic fashion in the vast frieze of the great Pergamon Altar, now in Berlin, wherein she is shown with three bodies, taking part in the battle with the Titans. In the Argolid, near the shrine of the Dioscuri, Pausanias saw the temple of Hecate opposite the sanctuary of Eileithyia; He reported the image to be the work of Scopas, stating further, "This one is of stone, while the bronze images opposite, also of Hecate, were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes, son of Mothon." (Description of Greece 2.22.7)
A 4th century BCE marble relief from Crannon in Thessaly was dedicated by a race-horse owner.[371] It shows Hecate, with a hound beside her, placing a wreath on the head of a mare. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs, and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. Images of her attended by a dog [372] are also found at times when she is shown as in her role as mother goddess with child, and when she is depicted alongside the god Hermes and the goddess Kybele in reliefs.[373]
In the Argonautica, a 3rd-century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early material,[374] Jason placates Hecate in a ritual prescribed by Medea, her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water, and dressed in dark robes, Jason is to dig a round pit and over it cut the throat of a ewe, sacrificing it and then burning it whole on a pyre next to the pit as a holocaust. He is told to sweeten the offering with a libation of honey, then to retreat from the site without looking back, even if he hears the sound of footsteps or barking dogs.[375] All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity.

올림포스 신들의 탄생·성장과 티탄족의 종말[편집]

453~500행: 제우스 남매들의 탄생 - 크로노스와 레아의 자녀[편집]

CHILDREN OF CRONUS

[453] But Rhea (레아: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 'the mother of gods') was subject in love to Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친) and bare splendid children,

  1. Hestia (헤스티아: 테오이 올림피오이, 크로노스와 레아의 딸, 화덕 · 가정 · 가정의 질서의 여신),[376]
  2. Demeter (데메테르: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 크로노스와 레아의 딸, 곡물과 수확의 여신), and
  3. gold-shod Hera (헤라: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 크로노스와 레아의 딸, 제우스의 누이이자 부인) and
  4. strong Hades (하데스: 테오이 크토니오이, 크로노스와 레아의 아들, 죽음과 지하세계의 남신), pitiless in heart, who dwells under the earth, and
  5. the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker (포세이돈: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 바다 · 지진 · 돌풍의 남신), and
  6. wise Zeus (제우스: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 크로노스와 레아의 아들, 그리스 신화의 주신, 남신), father of gods and men, by whose thunder the wide earth is shaken.
Rhea
Rhéa présentant une pierre emmaillotée à Cronos dessin du bas-relief d'un autel romain.jpg
Rhea presenting Cronus the stone wrapped in cloth.
Consort Cronus
Parents Uranus and Gaia
Siblings The Hekatonchires, The Cyclopes, Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys, Cronus, and The Gigantes
Children Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus
Rhea (or Cybele), after a marble, 1888.
Rhea (/ˈrə/; Ῥέα) was the Titaness daughter of the sky god Uranus and the earth goddess Gaia, in Greek mythology. In early traditions, she was known as "the mother of gods" and was therefore strongly associated with Gaia and Cybele, who had similar functions. The classical Greeks saw her as the mother of the Olympian gods and goddesses, but not as an Olympian goddess in her own right. The Romans identified her with Magna Mater (their form of Cybele), and the Goddess Ops.
Poseidon
0036MAN Poseidon.jpg
Poseidon from Milos, 2nd century BC (National Archaeological Museum of Athens)
God of the sea, earthquakes, storms, and horses
Abode Sea
Symbol Trident, Fish, Dolphin, Horse and Bull
Consort Amphitrite
Parents Cronus and Rhea
Siblings Hades, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus
Children Theseus, Triton, Polyphemus, Belus, Agenor, Neleus, Atlas
Roman equivalent Neptune
Poseidon or Posidon (Greek: Ποσειδῶν, gen: Ποσειδῶνος) is one of the twelve Olympian deities of the pantheon in Greek mythology. His main domain is the ocean, and he is called the "God of the Sea". Additionally, he is referred to as "Earth-Shaker"[377] due to his role in causing earthquakes, and has been called the "tamer of horses".[378] He is usually depicted as an older male with curly hair and beard.
The name of the sea-god Nethuns in Etruscan was adopted in Latin for Neptune in Roman mythology; both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon. Linear B tablets show that Poseidon was venerated at Pylos and Thebes in pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece as a chief deity, but he was integrated into the Olympian gods as the brother of Zeus and Hades.[378] According to some folklore, he was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have given birth to a colt, which was devoured by Cronos.[379]
There is a Homeric hymn to Poseidon, who was the protector of many Hellenic cities, although he lost the contest for Athens to Athena. According to the references from Plato in his dialogue Timaeus and Critias, the island of Atlantis was the chosen domain of Poseidon.[380][381] [382][383]

크로노스가 자식들을 삼킴[편집]

These great Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친) swallowed as each came forth from the womb to his mother's (가이아? 레아?) knees with this intent, that no other of the proud sons of Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) should hold the kingly office amongst the deathless gods. For he (크로노스) learned from Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) and starry Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) that he (크로노스) was destined to be overcome by his own son, strong though he was, through the contriving (용케 …하다) of great Zeus.[384] Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed down his children: and unceasing grief seized Rhea (레아: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 'the mother of gods').

Myths and genealogy from Rhea
Cronus sired six children by Rhea: Hestia, Hades, Demeter, Poseidon, Hera and Zeus in that order, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born except Zeus, since Cronus had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own child as he had overthrown his own father. When Zeus was about to be born, however, Rhea sought Uranus and Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.
Then she hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:
  1. He was then raised by Gaia,
  2. He was suckled by his first cousin, a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, soldiers, or smaller gods, shouted and clashed their swords together to make noise so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry,
  3. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea, who fed him goat milk. Since Cronus ruled over the earth, the heavens, and the sea and swallowed all of the children of Rhea, Adamanthea hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea, and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge the other children in the reverse order in which they had been swallowed, the oldest becoming the last, and youngest: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, then the rest. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonkheires and the Cyclopes, who gave him thunder and lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Zeus and his siblings, together with the Gigantes, Hecatonkheires, and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Similarly, in later myths, Zeus would swallow Metis when she was pregnant with Athena, because of a prophecy that said she would later give birth to a son who would be more glorious than his father. Athena was born unharmed, bursting out of his head in full armor.

제우스의 탄생과 피신[편집]

But when she (레아) was about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men, then she besought her own dear parents, Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) and starry Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들), to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed, and that retribution (응징) might overtake great, crafty Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친) for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter, and told her all that was destined to happen touching Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친) the king and his stout-hearted (용감한, 굳센) son.

고대 그리스의 릭토스
고대 그리스의 릭토스(Lyctus, Λύττος)

So they (우라노스가이아) sent her (레아) to Lyetus (릭토스: 크레타 섬의 도시), to the rich land of Crete, when she (레아) was ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children. Him (제우스) did vast Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) receive from Rhea (레아: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 'the mother of gods') in wide Crete to nourish and to bring up. Thither came Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) carrying him swiftly through the black night to Lyctus (릭토스: 크레타 섬의 도시) first, and took him (제우스) in her (가이아? 레아?) arms and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret places of the holy earth on thick-wooded Mount Aegeum; but to the mightily ruling son (크로노스) of Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들), the earlier king of the gods, she (가이아? 레아?) gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into his belly: wretch (가엾은[불쌍한] 사람)!

Birth of Zeus
Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father—an oracle that Rhea was to hear and avert.
When Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.
Lyctus or Lyttos (Greek: Λύκτος or Λύττος), was one of the most considerable cities in ancient Crete, which appears in the Homeric catalogue.[385] Lyttos is now a village in the municipality of Minoa Pediada.
Lyctus in mythology
According to Hesiod,[386] Rhea gave birth to Zeus in a cave of Mount Aegaeon, near Lyttos. The cave has been identified since the late nineteenth century as Psychro. The inhabitants of this ancient Doric city called themselves colonists of Sparta,[387] and the worship of Apollo appears to have prevailed there.[388]

제우스의 유년기[편집]

he (크로노스) knew not in his heart that in place of the stone his son (제우스) was left behind, unconquered and untroubled, and that he was soon to overcome him by force and might and drive him from his honours, himself to reign over the deathless gods.

Infancy of Zeus
Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:
  1. He was then raised by Gaia.
  2. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry (see cornucopia).
  3. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
  4. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars.
  5. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey.
  6. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves.
In Greek mythology, two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida, the "Mountain of the Goddess": Mount Ida in Crete; and Mount Ida in the ancient Troad region of western Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey) which was also known as the Phrygian Ida in classical antiquity and is the mountain that is mentioned in the Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil. Both are associated with the mother goddess in the deepest layers of pre-Greek myth, in that Mount Ida in Anatolia was sacred to Cybele, who is sometimes called Mater Idaea ("Idaean Mother"),[389] while Rhea, often identified with Cybele, put the infant Zeus to nurse with Amaltheia at Mount Ida in Crete. Thereafter, his birthplace was sacred to Zeus, the king and father of Greek gods and goddesses.[390]
Etymology
The name Ida (Ἴδη) is of unknown pre-Greek origin. Instances of i-da in Linear A are often conjectured to refer to either this mountain or the homonymous one in Crete.
Mount Ida, Crete
Mouth of Idian Cave, Crete
Crete's Mount Ida is the island's highest summit, sacred to the Goddess Rhea, and wherein lies the legendary cave in which baby Zeus was concealed from his father Cronus. On the flank of this mountain is the Amari Valley, the site of expansion by the ancient settlement at Phaistos.[391] Its modern name is Psiloritis. The surrounding area and mountain used to be very wooded. "Today small parts of landscape sill hold its wooded areas, especially in areas near Kouroutes, Kamares, Vorizia, and Zaros. Although, some of the these wooded areas still exist the main part of Ida is very rocky with very little formidable vegetation. According to Crete travel guide there is only 4-5 ways to trek the mountain. "You must drive to Anogia village and then to Nida plateau (1hr 30 min from Heraklion) and park your car at the restaurant. There is only this building on the plateau so you can't miss it. Walking starts here, along the dirt track leading to Idaion antron."
Mount Ida, Anatolia
From the Anatolian Mount Ida, Zeus was said to have abducted Ganymede to Olympus. The topmost peak is Gargarus, mentioned in the Iliad. Zeus was located in the Altar of Zeus (near Adatepe, Ayvacık) during the Trojan War. The modern Turkish name for Mount Ida, Turkey, is Kaz Dağı, pronounced 틀:IPA-tr). In the Aeneid, a shooting star falls onto the mountain in answer to the prayer of Anchises to Jupiter.

제우스의 성장과 크로노스의 패퇴[편집]

[492] After that, the strength and glorious limbs of the prince (제우스) increased quickly, and as the years rolled on, great Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친) the wily (교활한) was beguiled (구슬리다) by the deep suggestions of Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연), and brought up again his offspring, vanquished (완파하다) by the arts and might of his own son, and he vomited up first the stone which he had swallowed last. And Zeus set it (돌) fast in the wide-pathed earth at goodly (크기가 상당한) Pytho under the glens of Parnassus, to be a sign thenceforth and a marvel to mortal men.[392]

Zeus, King of the gods
Colossal seated Marnas from Gaza portrayed in the style of Zeus. Roman period Marnas[393] was the chief divinity of Gaza (Istanbul Archaeology Museum).
After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe.
As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, along with the Gigantes, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans that fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.
After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died (see also Penthus).
Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under Mount Etna, but left Echidna and her children alive.

501~506행: 삼킨 형제자매의 구출과 감금된 퀴클롭스의 해방[편집]

And he (제우스) set free from their deadly bonds the brothers of his father, sons of Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) whom his father (크로노스) in his foolishness had bound. And they (제우스의 형제자매와 퀴클롭스) remembered to be grateful to him (제우스) for his kindness, and gave him thunder (천둥) and the glowing thunderbolt (벼락) and lightening (번갯불): for before that, huge Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) had hidden these. In them (제우스의 형제자매) he (제우스) trusts and rules over mortals and immortals.

Consorts and children of Uranus
All the offspring of Uranus (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) are fathered upon Gaia, save Aphrodite and the Erinyes, born when Cronus castrated him and cast his severed genitalia into the sea (Thalassa).
  1. Cyclopes, one-eyed giants
    1. Brontes
    2. Steropes
    3. Arges
  2. Hekatonkheires, hundred-handed, fifty-headed giants
    1. Briares
    2. Cottus
    3. Gyges
  3. Titans, the elder gods
    1. Crius
    2. Coeus
    3. Cronus
    4. Oceanus
    5. Hyperion
    6. Iapetus
    7. Mnemosyne
    8. Phoebe
    9. Rhea
    10. Tethys
    11. Theia
    12. Themis
  4. Erinyes
    1. Alecto
    2. Megaera
    3. Tisiphone
  5. Gigantes, the giants
    1. Alcyoneus
    2. Athos
    3. Clytias
    4. Enceladus
    5. Echion
  6. Meliae, the ash-tree nymphs
  7. Aphrodite (according to Hesiod)

507~616행: 이아페토스의 아들들과 제우스[편집]

507~520행: 아틀라스·메노이티오스·프로메테우스·에피메테우스 - 이아페티오니데스(Iapetionides)[편집]

PROMETHEUS

[507] Now Iapetus (이아페토스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 'the Piercer') took to wife the neat-ankled mad Clymene (클리메네: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신), daughter of Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지), and went up with her into one bed. And she bare him

  1. a stout-hearted (용감한, 굳센) son, Atlas (아틀라스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 티탄의 편에서 제우스와 싸음): also she bare
  2. very glorious Menoetius (메노이티오스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들) and
  3. clever Prometheus (프로메테우스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 선각자, 먼저 생각하는 사람), full of various wiles (술책, 계략), and
  4. scatter-brained (정신이 산만한) Epimetheus (에피메테우스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 후각자, 나중에 생각하는 자)

[Epimetheus] who from the first was a mischief (짓궂은, 말썽꾸러기의) to men who eat bread; for it was he who first took of Zeus the woman, the maiden whom he had formed.

But Menoetius was outrageous (너무나 충격적인, 언어도단인, 아주 별난, 터무니없는), and far-seeing (선견 지명이 있는) Zeus struck him with a lurid ((색깔이) 야한[야단스러운], 충격적인, 끔찍한) thunderbolt and sent him down to Erebus because of his mad presumption (주제넘음, 건방짐) and exceeding pride.

And Atlas through hard constraint (제약) upholds the wide heaven with unwearying (지치지 않는) head and arms, standing at the borders of the earth before the clear-voiced Hesperides (헤스페리데스: 라돈, Drakon Hesperios, 거대한 뱀, 황금사과를 지키는 드래곤, 포르키스와 케토스의 아들); for this lot wise Zeus assigned to him.

In Greek mythology, Iapetus /ˈæpɪtəs/,[394] also Iapetos or Japetus (Ἰαπετός), was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius.
Mythology
Iapetus ("the Piercer") is the one Titan mentioned by Homer in the Iliad (8.478–81) as being in Tartarus with Cronus. He is a brother of Cronus, who ruled the world during the Golden Age. His name derives from the word iapto ("wound, pierce") and usually refers to a spear, implying that Iapetus may have been regarded as a god of craftsmanship, though scholars mostly describe him as the god of mortality.
Iapetus' wife is normally a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys named Clymene or Asia.
In Hesiod's Works and Days Prometheus is addressed as "son of Iapetus", and no mother is named. However, in Hesiod's Theogony, Clymene is listed as Iapetus' wife and the mother of Prometheus. In Aeschylus's play Prometheus Bound, Prometheus is son of the goddess Themis with no father named (but still with at least Atlas as a brother). However, in Horace's Odes, in Ode 1.3 Horace describes how "audax Iapeti genus/ Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit"; "The bold offspring of Iapetus [i.e. Prometheus]/ brought fire to peoples by wicked deceit".
Since mostly the Titans indulge in marriage of brother and sister, it might be that Aeschylus is using an old tradition in which Themis is Iapetus' wife but that the Hesiodic tradition preferred that Themis and Mnemosyne be consorts of Zeus alone. Nevertheless, it would have been quite within Achaean practice for Zeus to take the wives of the Titans as his mistresses after throwing down their husbands.
In Greek mythology, the name Clymene or Klymene (Κλυμένη) may refer to:
  • Clymene, daughter of Catreus. She and her sister Aerope were given to Nauplius to be sold away, as Catreus feared the possibility of being killed by one of his children. Nauplius took Clymene to wife, and by him she became mother of Palamedes, Oeax and Nausimedon.[412]
  • Clymene, one of the Trojan women taken captive at the end of the Trojan War.[422] She might or might not be the same as the servant of Helen mentioned above.
Asia in Greek mythology was a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, the wife of the Titan Iapetus, and mother of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus and Menoetius. Hesiod gives the name of another Oceanid, Clymene, in his Theogony (359) but the Bibliotheca (1.8) gives instead the name Asia as does Lycophron (1411). It is possible that the name Asia became preferred over Hesiod's Clymene to avoid confusion with the Clymene who was mother of Phaethon by Helios in some accounts and must have been perceived as a distinct figure. Herodotus (4.45.1) records the tradition that the continent Asia was named after Asia whom he calls wife of Prometheus rather than mother of Prometheus, perhaps here a simple error rather than genuine variant tradition. Both Acusilaus and Aeschylus in his Prometheus Bound call Prometheus' wife Hesione.
Herodotus relates also the Lydian tradition:[424] "yet the Lydians claim a share in the latter name, saying that Asia was not named after Prometheus' wife Asia, but after Asies, the son of Cotys, who was the son of Manes, and that from him the Asiad clan at Sardis also takes its name".
In Greek mythology, Atlas (/ˈætləs/; Ἄτλας) was the primordial Titan who held up the celestial sphere. He is also the titan of astronomy and navigation. Although associated with various places, he became commonly identified with the Atlas Mountains in northwest Africa (Modern-day Morocco and Algeria).[425] Atlas was the son of the Titan Iapetus and the Oceanid Asia[426] or Klyménē (Κλυμένη):[427]

Now Iapetus took to wife the neat-ankled maid Clymene, daughter of Ocean, and went up with her into one bed. And she bare him a stout-hearted son, Atlas: also she bare very glorious Menoetius and clever Prometheus, full of various wiles, and scatter-brained Epimetheus.

— Hesiod, Theogony 507–11
In contexts where a Titan and a Titaness are assigned each of the seven planetary powers, Atlas is paired with Phoebe and governs the moon.[not in citation given][428]
Hyginus emphasises the primordial nature of Atlas by making him the son of Aether and Gaia.[429]
The first part of the term "Atlantic Ocean" refers to "Sea of Atlas", the term "Atlantis" refers to "island of Atlas".
Prometheus depicted in a sculpture by Nicolas-Sébastien Adam, 1762 (Louvre)
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς, 발음 [promɛːtʰeús]) is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods and gives fire to humanity (theft of fire), an act that enabled progress and civilization. He is known for his intelligence and as a champion of mankind.[430]
The punishment of Prometheus as a consequence of the theft is a major theme of his mythology, and is a popular subject of both ancient and modern art. Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, sentenced the Titan to eternal torment for his transgression. The immortal Prometheus was bound to a rock, where each day an eagle, the emblem of Zeus, was sent to feed on his liver, which would then grow back to be eaten again the next day. (In ancient Greece, the liver, rather than the heart, was thought to be the seat of human emotions.)[431] In some stories, Prometheus is freed at last by the hero Heracles (Hercules).
In another of his myths, Prometheus establishes the form of animal sacrifice practiced in ancient Greek religion. Evidence of a cult to Prometheus himself is not widespread. He was a focus of religious activity mainly at Athens, where he was linked to Athena and Hephaestus, other Greek deities of creative skills and technology.[432]
In the Western classical tradition, Prometheus became a figure who represented human striving, particularly the quest for scientific knowledge, and the risk of overreaching or unintended consequences. In particular, he was regarded in the Romantic era as embodying the lone genius whose efforts to improve human existence could also result in tragedy: Mary Shelley, for instance, gave The Modern Prometheus as the subtitle to her novel Frankenstein (1818).
In Greek mythology, Epimetheus (Greek: Ἐπιμηθεύς, which might mean "hindsight", literally "afterthinker"[출처 필요]) was the brother of Prometheus (traditionally interpreted as "foresight", literally "fore-thinker"), a pair of Titans who "acted as representatives of mankind" (Kerenyi 1951, p 207). They were the sons of Iapetus,[433] who in other contexts was the father of Atlas. While Prometheus is characterized as ingenious and clever, Epimetheus is depicted as foolish.
Mythology
According to Plato and D'Aulaires Book of Greek Myths's use of the old myth in his Protagoras (320d–322a), the twin Titans were entrusted with distributing the traits among the newly-created animals. Epimetheus was responsible for giving a positive trait to every animal, but when it was time to give man a positive trait, lacking foresight he found that there was nothing left.[434]
Prometheus decided that mankind's attributes would be the civilizing arts and fire, which he stole from Zeus. Prometheus later stood trial for his crime. In the context of Plato's dialogue, "Epimetheus, the being in whom thought follows production, represents nature in the sense of materialism, according to which thought comes later than thoughtless bodies and their thoughtless motions."[435]
According to Hesiod, who related the tale twice (Theogony, 527ff; Works and Days 57ff), Epimetheus was the one who accepted the gift of Pandora from the gods. Their marriage may be inferred (and was by later authors), but it is not made explicit in either text.
In later myths, the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora was Pyrrha, who married Deucalion and was one of the two who survived the deluge.
In Greek mythology, Menoetius (Μενοίτιος) referred to several different people:
  1. A son of Iapetus and Clymene or Asia, and a brother of Atlas, Prometheus and Epimetheus, was killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning, in the War of the Titans, and banished to Tartarus.[436][437][438] His name means "doomed might", deriving from the Ancient Greek words menos ("might, power") and oitos ("doom, pain") - overall, an appropriate choice of words given what Zeus did to Menoetius after defeating him. Hesiod described Menoetius as hubristic, meaning exceedingly prideful and impetuous to the very end. Adding in the name's etymology with this portrayal of Hesiod, Menoetius can perhaps be seen as the Titan god of violent anger and rash action.
  2. One of Hades' shepherds on Erythea. He told Geryon when Heracles stole Geryon's herd. His name was originally Menoetes (Gr., Μενοιτης Menoitês).
  3. Father of Patroclus and Myrto (by either Sthenele, Periopis or Polymele),[439][440] son of Actor[441] and Aegina. This Menoetius may have been one of the Argonauts.[출처 필요]
In Greek mythology, the Phorcydes (Φόρκιδες, Phorcides[442]), occasionally rendered Phorcyades in modern texts, were the children of Phorcys and Ceto (also called Krataiis or Trienos).
Hesiod's Theogony lists the children of Phorcys and Ceto as Echidna, The Gorgons (Euryale, Stheno, and the famous Medusa), The Graeae (Deino, Enyo, and Pemphredo), and Ladon, also called the Drakon Hesperios ("Hesperian Dragon", or dragon of the Hesperides). These children tend to be consistent across sources, though Ladon is sometimes cited as a child of Echidna (by Typhoeus) and therefore Phorcys and Ceto's grandson.
The author of the Bibliotheca and Homer refer to Scylla as the daughter of Krataiis, with Pseudo-Apollodorus specifying that she is also Phorcys's daughter. The Bibliotheca also refers to Scylla as the daughter of Trienos, implying that Krataiis and Trienos are the same entity. Apollonius cites Scylla as the daughter of Phorcys and a conflated Krataiis-Hekate. Stesichorus refers to Scylla as a daughter of Phorcys and Lamia (potentially translated as "the shark" and referring to Ceto rather than to the mythological Libyan Queen).
The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius cites Phorcys and Ceto as the parents of The Hesperides, but this assertion is not repeated in other ancient sources.
Homer refers to Thoosa, the mother of Polyphemus, as a daughter of Phorcys, but does not indicate whether Ceto is her mother.
The Eleventh Labour of Heracles
After Heracles completed his first ten Labours, Eurystheus gave him two more claiming that neither the Hydra counted (because Iolaus helped Heracles) nor the Augean stables (either because he received payment for the job or because the rivers did the work). The first of these two additional Labours was to steal the apples from the garden of the Hesperides. Heracles first caught the Old Man of the Sea,[443] the shape-shifting sea god, to learn where the Garden of the Hesperides was located.[444]
In some variations, Heracles, either at the start or at the end of his task, meets Antaeus, who was invincible as long as he touched his mother, Gaia, the earth. Heracles killed Antaeus by holding him aloft and crushing him in a bearhug.[445]
Herodotus claims that Heracles stopped in Egypt, where King Busiris decided to make him the yearly sacrifice, but Heracles burst out of his chains.
Hercules stealing the golden apples from the Garden of the Hesperides. Detail of a Twelve Labours Roman mosaic from Llíria, Spain (3rd century).
Finally making his way to the Garden of the Hesperides, Heracles tricked Atlas into retrieving some of the golden apples for him, by offering to hold up the heavens for a little while (Atlas was able to take them as, in this version, he was the father or otherwise related to the Hesperides). This would have made this task – like the Hydra and Augean stables – void because he had received help. Upon his return, Atlas decided that he did not want to take the heavens back, and instead offered to deliver the apples himself, but Heracles tricked him again by agreeing to take his place on condition that Atlas relieve him temporarily so that Heracles could make his cloak more comfortable. Atlas agreed, but Heracles reneged and walked away, carrying the apples. According to an alternative version, Heracles slew Ladon instead.
There is another variation to the story where Heracles was the only person to steal the apples, other than Perseus, although Athena later returned the apples to their rightful place in the garden. They are considered by some to be the same "apples of joy" that tempted Atalanta, as opposed to the "apple of discord" used by Eris to start a beauty contest on Olympus (which caused "The Siege of Troy").
On Attic pottery, especially from the late fifth century, Heracles is depicted sitting in bliss in the Gardens of the Hesperides, attended by the maidens.

521~616행: 프로메테우스의 이야기 - 프로메테우스의 처벌·최초의 여인 판도라[편집]

프로메테우스가 간이 독수리에 쪼이는 형벌을 받음[편집]

[521] And ready-witted (기지가 있는) Prometheus (프로메테우스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 선각자, 먼저 생각하는 사람) he bound with inextricable (빠져 나갈 수 없는) bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew as much again everyway as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day.

헤라클레스가 프로메테우스를 구출함[편집]

That bird Heracles, the valiant (용맹한) son of shapely-ankled (균형 잡힌 발목을 한) Alcmene (알크메네: 헤라클레스의 어머니, 암피트리온의 아내, 암피트리온으로 가장한 제우스와의 사이에 헤라클레스를 낳음), slew; and delivered the son (프로메테우스) of Iapetus (이아페토스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 'the Piercer') from the cruel plague (괴롭힘), and released him from his affliction -- not without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high, that the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and honoured his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath which he had before because Prometheus (프로메테우스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 선각자, 먼저 생각하는 사람) matched himself in wit with the almighty son (제우스) of Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친).

In Greek mythology, Alcmene or Alcmena (Ἀλκμήνη) was the mother of Heracles.
Background
Alcmene was born to Electryon (or Alcaeus), the son of Perseus and Andromeda, and king of Tiryns and Mycenae or Medea in Argolis.[446] Her mother was Anaxo, daughter of Alcaeus and Astydamia,[447] daughter of Pelops and Hippodameia.[448] Hesiod describes Alcmene as the tallest, most beautiful woman with wisdom surpassed by no person born of mortal parents. It is said that her face and dark eyes were as charming as Aphrodite's, and that she honoured her husband like no woman before her.[449]
Exile to Thebes
According to Bibliotheca, Alcmene went with Amphitryon to Thebes, where he was purified by Creon for accidentally killing Electryon. Alcmene refused to marry Amphitryon until he had avenged the death of her brothers.[450] However, during Amphitryon's expedition against the Taphians and Teleboans,[451] Zeus visited Alcmene disguised as Amphitryon. Extending one night into three, Zeus slept with Alcmene (his great-granddaughter) (thereby conceiving Heracles) and recounted Amphitryon's victories against the Teleboans. When Amphitryon finally returned to Thebes, Alcmene told him that he had come the night before and slept with her; he learned from Tiresias what Zeus had done.[452]

프로메테우스가 형벌을 받기까지의 과정: 몫에 대해 제우스를 속임[편집]

[545] For when the gods and mortal men had a dispute at Mecone, even then Prometheus (프로메테우스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 선각자, 먼저 생각하는 사람) was forward to cut up a great ox and set portions before them, trying to befool the mind of Zeus. Before the rest he set flesh and inner parts thick with fat upon the hide, covering them with an ox paunch (배); but for Zeus he put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and covered with shining fat. Then the father of men and of gods said to him: “Son of Iapetus, most glorious of all lords, good sir, how unfairly you have divided the portions!”

[545] So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking him. But wily Prometheus answered him, smiling softly and not forgetting his cunning trick: “Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal gods, take which ever of these portions your heart within you bids." So he said, thinking trickery. But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, saw and failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he thought mischief against mortal men which also was to be fulfilled. With both hands he took up the white fat and was angry at heart, and wrath came to his spirit when he saw the white ox-bones craftily (교활하게) tricked out (치장하다): and because of this the tribes of men upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods upon fragrant altars.

[558] But Zeus who drives the clouds was greatly vexed (분하다, 약오르다) and said to him: “Son of Iapetus, clever above all! So, sir, you have not yet forgotten your cunning arts!”

프로메테우스가 형벌을 받기까지의 과정: 제우스를 인간에게 불을 주지 않으려 함(불을 철회함)[편집]

[560] So spake Zeus in anger, whose wisdom is everlasting; and from that time he was always mindful of (생각하다) the trick, and would not give the power of unwearying (지치지 않는) fire to the Melian[453] race of mortal men who live on the earth.

프로메테우스가 형벌을 받기까지의 과정: 프로메테우스가 불을 훔쳐 인간에게 줌[편집]

But the noble son of Iapetus outwitted him and stole the far-seen gleam (어슴푸레[희미하게] 빛나다) of unwearying fire in a hollow fennel stalk.

프로메테우스가 형벌을 받기까지의 과정: 제우스가 판도라를 인간에게 보냄[편집]

And Zeus who thunders on high was stung in spirit, and his dear heart was angered when he saw amongst men the far-seen ray of fire. Forthwith (곧, 당장) he made an evil thing for men as the price of fire; for the very famous Limping God (헤파이스토스: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 기술 · 대장장이 · 장인 · 공예가 · 조각가 · 금속 · 야금 · 불의 남신) formed of earth the likeness of a shy maiden as the son of Cronos willed. And the goddess bright-eyed Athene (아테나: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 지혜 · 전쟁 · 직물 · 요리 · 도기 · 문명의 여신) girded (둘러싸다, 묶다, 매다) and clothed her with silvery raiment (옷), and down from her head she spread with her hands a broidered (수를 놓다) veil, a wonder to see; and she, Pallas Athene (아테나: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 지혜 · 전쟁 · 직물 · 요리 · 도기 · 문명의 여신), put about her head lovely garlands, flowers of new-grown herbs. Also she put upon her head a crown of gold which the very famous Limping God (헤파이스토스: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 기술 · 대장장이 · 장인 · 공예가 · 조각가 · 금속 · 야금 · 불의 남신) made himself and worked with his own hands as a favour to Zeus his father. On it was much curious work, wonderful to see; for of the many creatures which the land and sea rear up, he put most upon it, wonderful things, like living beings with voices: and great beauty shone out from it.

[585] But when he (헤파이스토스) had made the beautiful evil (판도라) to be the price for the blessing, he (헤파이스토스) brought her (판도라) out, delighting in the finery (화려한 옷과 보석) which the bright-eyed daughter of a mighty father had given her (판도라), to the place where the other gods and men were. And wonder took hold of the deathless gods and mortal men when they saw that which was sheer guile (완전 속임수, 전적인 속임수), not to be withstood by men.

프로메테우스가 형벌을 받기까지의 과정: 판도라로 인한 2가지 재앙[편집]

[590] For from her (판도라) is the race of women and female kind: of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble, no helpmeets (배우자, 특히 아내) in hateful poverty, but only in wealth. And as in thatched (짚으로 지붕을 덮은) hives bees feed the drones (수벌) whose nature is to do mischief -- by day and throughout the day until the sun goes down the bees are busy and lay the white combs, while the drones (수벌) stay at home in the covered skeps (꿀벌집) and reap the toil of others into their own bellies – even so Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil. And he (제우스) gave them a second evil to be the price for the good they had: whoever avoids marriage and the sorrows that women cause, and will not wed, reaches deadly old age without anyone to tend his years, and though he at least has no lack of livelihood (생계 수단) while he lives, yet, when he is dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions amongst them. And as for the man who chooses the lot of marriage and takes a good wife suited to his mind, evil continually contends with good; for whoever happens to have mischievous children, lives always with unceasing grief in his spirit and heart within him; and this evil cannot be healed.

프로메테우스가 형벌을 받기까지의 과정: 프로메테우스가 형벌을 받음[편집]

[613] So it is not possible to deceive or go beyond the will of Zeus; for not even the son of Iapetus, kindly Prometheus (프로메테우스: 이아페티오니데스, 이아페토스와 클리메네의 아들, 선각자, 먼저 생각하는 사람), escaped his heavy anger, but of necessity strong bands confined him, although he knew many a wile.

617~735행: 티탄족들과의 전쟁: 티타노마키아 - 헤카톤케이레스의 해방·티탄족의 제압·제우스의 번개[편집]

THE TITANOMACHY

헤카톤케이레스가 타르타로스에 재감금된 것에 대하여[편집]

[617] But when first their father (레아의 자식들의 아버지, 즉 크로노스) was vexed (약오르다) in his heart with Obriareus (브리아레오스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Vigorous, sea goat) and Cottus (코토스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Striker or Furious) and Gyes (기게스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Big-Limbed), he (크로노스) bound them (헤카톤케이레스) in cruel bonds (굴레, 속박: 타르타로스), because he (크로노스) was jealous of their exceeding manhood and comeliness (예쁨, 단정함) and great size: and he made them live 'beneath the wide-pathed earth' (타르타로스), where they were afflicted, being set to dwell under the ground, at the end of the earth, at its great borders, in bitter anguish (괴로움) for a long time and with great grief at heart.

The Hecatonchire Briareos used as an allegory of the multiple threat of labour unrest to Capital in a political cartoon, 1890
The Hecatonchires, or Hekatonkheires (/ˌhɛkəˈtɒŋkərz/; Ancient Greek: Ἑκατόγχειρες (listen)  "Hundred-Handed Ones", also with 50 heads, Latinised Centimani), were figures in an archaic stage of Greek mythology, three giants of incredible strength and ferocity that surpassed that of all Titans whom they helped overthrow. Their name derives from the Greek ἑκατόν (hekaton; "hundred") and χείρ (kheir; "hand"), "each of them having a hundred hands and fifty heads" (Bibliotheca). Hesiod's Theogony (624, 639, 714, 734–35) reports that the three Hekatonkheires became the guards of the gates of Tartarus.
In Virgil's Aeneid (10.566–67), in which Aeneas is likened to one of them, Briareus (known here as Aegaeon), they fought on the side of the Titans rather than the Olympians; in this Virgil was following the lost Corinthian epic Titanomachy rather than the more familiar account in Hesiod.
Other accounts make Briareus or Aegaeon one of the assailants of Olympus, who, after his defeat, was buried under Mount Aetna (Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 141).
Mythology
Hesiod
According to Hesiod, the Hekatonkheires were children of Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (sky).[454][455] They were thus part of the very beginning of things (Kerenyi 1951:19) in the submerged prehistory of Greek myth, though they played no known part in cult. Their names were Briareus (Βριάρεως) the Vigorous, also called Aigaion (Αἰγαίων), Latinised as Aegaeon, the "sea goat", Cottus (Κόττος) the Striker or the Furious, and Gyges (Γύγης) or Gyes (Γύης) the Big-Limbed. If some natural phenomena are symbolised by the Hekatoncheires then they may represent the gigantic forces of nature that appear in earthquakes and other convulsions or in the motion of sea waves (Mayer, Die Giganten und Titanen, 1887).
Soon after they were born their father Uranus threw them into the depths of Tartarus because he saw them as hideous monsters. In some versions Uranus saw how ugly the Hekatonkheires were at their birth and pushed them back into Gaia's womb, upsetting Gaia greatly, causing her great pain and setting into motion the overthrow of Uranus by Cronus, who later imprisoned them in Tartarus.
The Hekatonkheires remained there, guarded by the dragon Campe, until Zeus rescued them, advised by Gaia that they would serve as good allies against Cronus and the Titans. During the War of the Titans the Hekatonkheires threw rocks as big as mountains, one hundred at a time, at the Titans, overwhelming them.
Pausanias
In a Corinthian myth related in the second century CE to Pausanias (Description of Greece ii. 1.6 and 4.7), Briareus was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios, between sea and sun: he adjudged the Isthmus of Corinth to belong to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth (Acrocorinth) sacred to Helios.
Others
Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes (i. 1165) represent Aegaeon as a son of Gaea and Pontus, the Sea, ruling the fabulous Aegaea in Euboea, an enemy of Poseidon and the inventor of warships. In Ovid's Metamorphoses (ii. 10) and in Philostratus' Life of Apollonius of Tyana (iv. 6) he is a marine deity. Hesiod reconciles the archaic Hekatonkheires with the Olympian pantheon by making Briareos the son-in-law of Poseidon who gave him "Kymopoliea his daughter to wed." (Theogony 817).
In popular culture
Briareus is mentioned in the Divine Comedy poem Inferno as one of the Giants in the Ninth Circle of Hell (Inferno XXXI.99).
The giant is also mentioned in Cervantes' Don Quixote, in the famous episode of the windmills.
Briareos is mentioned in Book I of John Milton's Paradise Lost alongside Typhon as an analogue to the fallen Satan.

제우스를 비롯한 레아의 자녀들이 헤카톤케이레스를 해방시킴[편집]

But the son of Cronos (제우스) and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea (레아: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 'the mother of gods') bare from union with Cronos (크로노스: 티탄, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친), brought them (헤카톤케이레스) up again to the light at Earth's (가이아) advising (조언). For she (가이아) herself recounted ([특히 자기가 경험한 것에 대해] 이야기하다) all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt (자랑하다, 허풍떨다, …의 장점[좋은 점]을 치켜세우다) themselves.

티탄과 레아의 자녀들의 긴 전쟁: 10년 간의 티타노마키아의 팽팽한 대립[편집]

For the Titan gods and 'as many as sprang from Cronos' (레아의 자녀) had long been fighting together in stubborn war with heart-grieving toil, the lordly Titans from high Othyrs (오트리스 산: 10년 간의 티타노마키아에서 티탄의 기지), but the gods, givers of good, whom rich-haired Rhea bare in union with Cronos, from Olympus (올림포스 산). So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side, and the issue of the war hung evenly balanced.

In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy /ˌttəˈnɒməki/ or War of the Titans (Τιτανομαχία), was the ten-year[456] series of battles which were fought in Thessaly between the two camps of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, based on Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. This Titanomachia is also known as the Battle of the Titans, Battle of Gods, or just The Titan War.
Greeks of the Classical age knew of several poems about the war between the gods and many of the Titans. The dominant one, and the only one that has survived, is the Theogony attributed to Hesiod. A lost epic, Titanomachia, attributed to the blind Thracian bard Thamyris, himself a legendary figure, was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music that was once attributed to Plutarch. The Titans also played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus. Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences from the Hesiodic tradition.
Prior events
The stage for this important battle was set after the youngest Titan, Cronus (Kronos), overthrew his own father, Uranus (Ουρανός, the Heaven itself and ruler of the cosmos), with the help of his mother, Gaia (Γαία, the earth).
Uranus drew the enmity of Gaia when he imprisoned her children the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus. Gaia created a great sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to convince them to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in a bush.
When Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked Uranus, and, with the sickle, cut off his genitals, casting them into the sea. In doing so, he became the King of the Titans. As Uranus lay dying, he made a prophecy that Cronus's own children would rebel against his rule, just as Cronus had rebelled against his own father. Uranus' blood that had spilled upon the earth, gave rise to the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae. From his semen or blood of his cut genitalia, Aphrodite arose from the sea:

"...so soon as he had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea, they were swept away over the main a long time: and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden..."[457]

Cronus took his father's throne after dispatching Uranus. He then secured his power by re-imprisoning his siblings the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes, and his (newly-created) siblings the Gigantes, in Tartarus.
Cronus, paranoid and fearing the end of his rule, now turned into the terrible king his father Uranus had been, swallowing each of his children whole as they were born from his sister-wife Rhea. Rhea, however, managed to hide her youngest child Zeus, by tricking Cronus into swallowing a rock wrapped in a blanket instead.
Rhea brought Zeus to a cave in Crete, where he was raised by Amalthea. Upon reaching adulthood, he masqueraded as Cronus' cupbearer. Once Zeus had been established as a servant of Cronus, Metis gave him a mixture of mustard and wine which would cause Cronus to vomit up his swallowed children. After freeing his siblings, Zeus led them in rebellion against the Titans.
According to Hyginus, the cause of the Titanomachy is as follows: "After Hera saw that Epaphus, born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom (Egypt), she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titans to drive Zeus from the kingdom and restore it to Cronus, (Saturn). When they tried to mount heaven, Zeus with the help of Athena, Apollo, and Artemis, cast them headlong into Tartarus. On Atlas, who had been their leader, he put the vault of the sky; even now he is said to hold up the sky on his shoulders."[458]
Following their final victory, the three brothers divided the world amongst themselves: Zeus was given domain over the sky and the air, and was recognized as overlord. Poseidon was given the sea and all the waters, whereas Hades was given the Underworld, the realm of the dead. Each of the other gods was allotted powers according to the nature and proclivities of each. The earth was left common to all to do as they pleased, even to run counter to one another, unless Zeus was called to intervene.
Titanomachy
The Titanomachy: A beardless Zeus is depicted launching a thunderbolt against a kneeling Titan at the Gorgon pediment from the Temple of Artemis in Corfu as exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu
A lost Titanomachy that dealt with the struggle that Zeus and his siblings, the Olympian Gods, had in overthrowing their father Cronos and his divine generation, the Titans, was traditionally ascribed to Eumelus of Corinth, a semi-legendary bard of the Bacchiad ruling family in archaic Corinth,[459] who was treasured as the traditional composer of the Prosodion, the processional anthem of Messenian independence that was performed on Delos.
Even in Antiquity many authors cited Titanomachia without an author's name. M. L. West in analyzing the evidence concludes that the name of Eumelos was attached to the poem as the only name available.[460] From the very patchy evidence, it seems that "Eumelos"' account of the Titanomachy differed from the surviving account of Hesiod's Theogony at salient points. The eighth century BCE date for the poem is not possible; M.L. West ascribes a late seventh-century date as the earliest.[460]
The Titanomachy was divided into two books. The battle of Olympians and Titans was preceded by some sort of theogony, or genealogy of the Primeval Gods, in which, the Byzantine writer Lydus remarked,[461] the author of Titanomachy placed the birth of Zeus, not in Crete, but in Lydia, which should signify on Mount Sipylus.
Similar myths in other cultures
These Greek stories of the Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths throughout Europe and the Near East, where one generation or group of gods by and large opposes the dominant one. Sometimes the Elder Gods are supplanted. Sometimes the rebels lose, and are either cast out of power entirely or incorporated into the pantheon. Other examples might include the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" Kumarbi narrative, the struggle between the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorians in Celtic mythology, The Æsir–Vanir War in Norse mythology, and the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments.
See also
Mount Othrys (όρος Όθρυς - oros Othrys, also Όθρη - Othri) is a mountain in central Greece, in the northeastern part of Phthiotis and southern part of Magnesia. Its highest summit, Gerakovouni, situated on the border of Phthiotis and Magnesia, is 1,726 m amsl.[462] The population density in the mountains is low: there are a few small villages, including Anavra in the northwest, Kokkotoi in the northeast, Palaiokerasia in the south and Neraida in the southwest. The length from west to east is about 35 km and the width from north to south is about 25 km. The Pagasetic Gulf lies to the northeast, and the Malian Gulf lies to the south. The summit Gerakovouni lies 19 km south of Almyros, 27 km northeast of Lamia and 44 km southwest of Volos. The upper ranges of the mountain are rocky, and there are forests in the lower ranges. The entire area is also a parkland.[출처 필요] The main source of rock is ophiolite. Works about the mountain include the Geochemistry of the Othrys Ophiolite: Evidence for Refertilization.
Mythology
In Greek mythology Mount Othrys was the base of the Titans during the ten year war with the Olympian Gods known as the Titanomachy. It was assaulted by the Olympians, led by Zeus. Zeus later overthrew his father and gained dominion in all of the heavens and the earth.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος ; also transliterated as Olympos, and on Greek maps, Oros Olympos) is the highest mountain in Greece, located in the Olympus Range on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia, about 80 km (50 mi) southwest from Thessaloniki, Greece's second largest city. Mount Olympus has 52 peaks.[463] The highest peak Mytikas, meaning "nose", rises to 2,917 metres (9,570 ft).[464] It is one of the highest peaks in Europe in terms of topographic prominence.[465]
Mount Olympus is noted for its very rich flora with several species. It is a National Park of Greece and a World's Biosphere Reserve.
Mythology
In Greek mythology Olympus was regarded as the "home" of the Twelve Olympian gods of the ancient Greek world.[466] It formed itself after the gods defeated the Titans in the Titan War, and soon the palace was inhabited by the gods. It is the setting of many Greek mythical stories. In the words of Homer:
Olympus was not shaken by winds nor ever wet with rain, nor did snow fall upon it, but the air is outspread clear and cloudless, and over it hovered a radiant whiteness.[467]
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, ThessalíaThessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalia) is a traditional geographical region and an administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, and appears thus in Homer's Odyssey.
Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the country's 13 regions[468] and is further (since the Kallikratis reform of 2010) sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities. The capital of the region is Larissa. Thessaly lies in central Greece and borders the regions of Macedonia on the north, Epirus on the west, Central Greece on the south and the Aegean Sea on the east. The Thessaly region also includes the Sporades islands.
Mythology
In Homer's epic, the Odyssey, Odysseus visits the kingdom of Aeolus, and this is the old name for Thessaly.
The Plain of Thessaly, which lies between Mount Oeta/Othrys and Mount Olympus, is the site of the battle between the Titans and the Olympians.
According to legend, Jason and the Argonauts launched their search for the Golden Fleece from the Magnesia Peninsula.

헤카톤케이레스가 올림포스 신의 편에 가담함[편집]

But when he had provided those three (헤카톤케이레스: 브리아레오스, 코토스, 기게스) with all things fitting, nectar and ambrosia which the gods themselves eat, and when their proud spirit revived within them all after they had fed on nectar and delicious ambrosia, then it was that the 'father of men and gods' (제우스) spoke amongst them: “Hear me, 'bright children of Earth and Heaven (헤카톤케이레스)', that I may say what my heart within me bids. A long while now have we, who are sprung from Cronos and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you show your great might and unconquerable strength, and face the Titans in bitter strife; for remember our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you are come back to the light from your cruel bondage under misty gloom through our counsels.”

[654] So he said. And blameless Cottus (코토스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Striker or Furious) answered him again: “Divine one, you speak that which we know well: nay, even of ourselves we know that your wisdom and understanding is exceeding, and that you became a defender of the deathless ones from chill doom (타르타로스). And through your devising (계책) we are come back again from the murky (어두운) gloom and from our merciless bonds, enjoying what we looked not for, O lord, son of Cronos. And so now with fixed purpose and deliberate counsel (조언) we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titans in hard battle.”

헤카톤케이레스가 올림포스 신의 편에 가담한 날에 최후의 결전이 일어남[편집]

[664] So he said: and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit longed for (열망하다, 갈망하다) war even more than before, and they all, both male and female, stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and 'all that were born of Cronos' (올림포스 신) together with 'those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength' (헤카톤케이레스: 브리아레오스, 코토스, 기게스) whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebus (에레보스: 카오스의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 여신 닉스의 오빠, 어둠의 남신, 타르타로스의 어둠) beneath the earth.

헤카톤케이레스: 50두 100수[편집]

An hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike, and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders upon stout limbs. These, then, stood against the Titans in grim strife, holding huge rocks in their strong hands.

티타노마키아의 최후의 결전[편집]

And on the other part the Titans eagerly strengthened their ranks (멤버들), and both sides (티탄과 올림포스 신) at one time showed the work of their hands and their might. The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly: wide Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) was shaken and groaned, and high Olympus reeled from its foundation under the charge of the undying gods, and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartarus and the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset (시작) and of their hard missiles (미사일). So, then, they launched their grievous shafts (화살, 창, 무기) upon one another, and the cry of both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven; and they met together with a great battle-cry.

제우스의 분전과 신위 - 제우스의 번개[편집]

[687] Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was filled with fury (분노, 격분) and he showed forth all his strength. From Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) and from Olympus (올림포스 산) he came forthwith, hurling his lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, and Ocean's (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) streams and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round the earthborn Titans (땅의 신): flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air: the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized Chaos (카오스): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) and wide Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds (아네모이: 4명의 바람의 남신, 아스트라이오스와 에오스의 4아들) brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour (쨍그랑쨍그랑) and the warcry (공격의 함성) into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar (대소란) of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war.

Chthonic (/ˈkθɒnɪk/, from Greek χθόνιοςchthonios, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθώνchthōn "earth";[469] pertaining to the Earth; earthy; subterranean). Apart from its literal translation meaning 'subterranean,' its historical or interpretive definition designates, or pertains to, deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in relation to Greek religion. The Greek word khthon is one of several for "earth"; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does) or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does). It evokes at once abundance and the grave.
The pronunciation is somewhat awkward for English speakers. Most dictionaries, such as the OED, state that the first two letters should be pronounced as [k], /ˈkθɒnɪk/; others, such as the AHD, record these letters as silent, /ˈθɒnɪk/. The modern pronunciation of the Greek word "χθόνιος" is ['xθonios], although the Classical Greek pronunciation would have been something similar to [kʰtʰonios].[470]
Chthonic and Olympian
While terms such as "Earth deity" or Earth mother have sweeping implications in English, the words khthonie and khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Greek, referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the deity in question.
Some chthonic cults practised ritual sacrifice, which often happened at night time. When the sacrifice was a living creature, the animal was placed in a bothros ("pit") or megaron ("sunken chamber"). In some Greek chthonic cults, the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos ("altar"). Offerings usually were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers.[471]
Cult type versus function
While chthonic deities had a general association with fertility, they did not have a monopoly on it, nor were the later Olympian deities wholly unconcerned for the Earth's prosperity. Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land, yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one.
Also, Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone with identical rites, and yet occasionally was classified as an "Olympian" in late poetry and myth. The absorption of some earlier cults into the newer pantheon versus those that resisted being absorbed is suggested as providing the later myths.
In between
The categories Olympian and chthonic were not, however, completely separate. Some Olympian deities, such as Hermes and Zeus, also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes, depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth.
Moreover, a few deities aren't easily classifiable under these terms. Hecate, for instance, was typically offered puppies at crossroads (see also Crossroads (mythology)) – a practice neither typical of an Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persephone or the heroes.[출처 필요] Because of her underworld roles, Hecate is generally classed as chthonic.
References in psychology and anthropology
In analytical psychology, the term chthonic was often used to describe the spirit of nature within; the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self, that is one's material depths, however not necessarily with negative connotations. See anima and animus or shadow. In Man and His Symbols Carl G. Jung explains:
Envy, lust, sensuality, deceit, and all known vices are the negative, 'dark' aspect of the unconscious, which can manifest itself in two ways. In the positive sense, it appears as a 'spirit of nature', creatively animating Man, things, and the world. It is the 'chthonic spirit' that has been mentioned so often in this chapter. In the negative sense, the unconscious (that same spirit) manifests itself as a spirit of evil, as a drive to destroy.[472]
Gender has a specific meaning in cultural anthropology. Teresa del Valle in her book Gendered Anthropology explains "there are male and female deities at every level. We generally find men associated with the above, the sky, and women associated with the below, with the earth, water of the underground, and the chthonic deities."[473] This was by no means universal and in Ancient Egypt the main deity of the earth was the male god Geb. Geb's female consort was named Nut, otherwise known as the sky. Greek mythology likewise has female deities associated with the sky, such as Dike, goddess of justice who sits on the right side of Zeus as his advisor. Eos was the goddess of dawn. Hades is the ancient Greek god of the underworld.
References in structural geology
The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation, usually by low angle thrust faulting. From the Greek "allo" meaning other and "chthon" designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus "under the earth".
See also

헤카톤케이레스의 분전과 신위[편집]

[713] And amongst the foremost Cottus (코토스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Striker or Furious) and Briareos (브리아레오스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Vigorous, sea goat) and Gyes (기게스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Big-Limbed) insatiate (싫증을 모르는) for war raised fierce fighting: three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titans with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartarus (타르타로스: 카오스의 두 번째 자식으로 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 세 번째 신, 지하세계의 일부, 지하세계의 가장 밑바닥에 있는 어둠고 눅눅한 곳).

타르타로스에 대하여: 하늘과 땅 그리고 땅과 타르타로스 사이의 거리와 타르타로스의 어둠[편집]

For a brazen anvil (놋쇠 모루) falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartarus (타르타로스: 카오스의 두 번째 자식으로 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 세 번째 신, 지하세계의 일부, 지하세계의 가장 밑바닥에 있는 어둠고 눅눅한 곳) upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence (울타리) of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet(목의 관), while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea.

Persephone supervising Sisyphus in the Underworld, Attis black-figure amphora, c. 530 BC.
Greek deities
series
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Primordial deities
Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek: Τάρταρος, from τάρταρον "tartar encrusting the sides of casks"), is the deep abyss in ancient Greek mythology that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked. A part of the underworld and, in turn, below Uranus (sky), Gaia (earth), and Pontus (sea), Tartarus is the place where, according to Plato in Gorgias (c. 400 BC), souls were judged after death and where the wicked received punishment. Like other primal entities (such as the earth and time), Tartarus is also a primordial force or deity.
Tartarus was used as a prison for the worst of villains, including Cronus and the other Titans who were thrown in by Zeus. Uranus also threw his own children into Tartarus because he feared they might overthrow him. These mishaps included the "hundred-handed-ones", the "cyclopes" and the "giants".
Greek mythology
Greek underworld
Residents
Geography
Famous inmates
Visitors
v  d  e  h
In Greek mythology, Tartarus is both a deity and a place in the underworld. In ancient Orphic sources and in the mystery schools, Tartarus is also the unbounded first-existing entity from which the Light and the cosmos are born.
In the Greek poet Hesiod's Theogony, c. 700 BC, Tartarus was the third of the primordial deities, following after Chaos and Gaia (Earth), and preceding Eros.[474]
As for the place, Hesiod asserts that a bronze anvil falling from heaven would fall nine days before it reached the earth. The anvil would take nine more days to fall from earth to Tartarus.[475] In The Iliad (c. 700 BC), Zeus asserts that Tartarus is "as far beneath Hades as heaven is high above the earth."
While, according to Greek mythology, the realm of Hades is the place of the dead, Tartarus also has a number of inhabitants. When Cronus came to power as the King of the Titans, he imprisoned the Cyclopes in Tartarus and set the monster Campe as its guard. Some myths also say he imprisoned the three Hecatonchires (giants with fifty different faces to show emotions and one hundred arms). Zeus killed Campe and released the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires to aid in his conflict with the Titans. The gods of Olympus eventually defeated the Titans. Many but not all of the Titans were cast into Tartarus. Epimetheus, Metis, Prometheus, and most of the female Titans are examples of the Titans who were not banished to Tartarus. Cronus was imprisoned in Tartarus while Atlas was sentenced to hold the sky on his shoulders to prevent the sky and Earth from resuming their primordial embrace. Other gods could be sentenced to Tartarus as well. Apollo is a prime example, although Zeus freed him. In Tartarus, the Hecatonchires guarded prisoners. Later, when Zeus overcame the monster Typhon, the offspring of Tartarus and Gaia,[476] he threw him into "wide Tartarus".[477]
Originally, Tartarus was used only to confine dangers to the gods of Olympus. In later mythologies, Tartarus became the place where the punishment fits the crime. For example:
  • King Sisyphus was sent to Tartarus for killing guests and travelers to his castle in violation to his hospitality, seducing his niece, and reporting one of Zeus' sexual conquests by telling the river god Asopus of the whereabouts of his daughter Aegina (who had been taken away by Zeus). But regardless of the impropriety of Zeus' frequent conquests, Sisyphus overstepped his bounds by considering himself a peer of the gods who could rightfully report their indiscretions. When Zeus ordered Thanatos to chain up Sisyphus in Tartarus, Sisyphus tricked Thanatos by asking him how the chains worked and ended up chaining Thanatos; as a result there was no more death. This caused Ares to free Thanatos and turn Sisyphus over to him. Sometime later, Sisyphus had Persephone send him back to the surface to scold his wife for not burying him properly. Sisyphus was forcefully dragged back to Tartarus by Hermes when he refused to go back to the Underworld after that. In Tartarus, Sisyphus would be forced to roll a large boulder up a mountainside which when he almost reached the crest, rolled away from Sisyphus and rolled back down repeatedly. This represented the punishment of Sisyphus claiming that his cleverness surpassed that of Zeus, causing the god to make the boulder roll away from Sisyphus, binding Sisyphus to an eternity of frustration.
  • King Tantalus was also in Tartarus after he cut up his son Pelops, boiled him, and served him as food when he was invited to dine with the gods. He also stole the ambrosia from the Gods and told his people its secrets. Another story mentioned that he held onto a golden dog forged by Hephaestus and stolen by Tantalus' friend Pandareus. Tantalus held onto the golden dog for safekeeping and later denied to Pandareus that he had it. Tantalus's punishment for his actions (now a proverbial term for "temptation without satisfaction") was to stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches. Whenever he reached for the fruit, the branches raised his intended meal from his grasp. Whenever he bent down to get a drink, the water receded before he could get any. Over his head towered a threatening stone like that of Sisyphus.
  • Ixion was the king of the Lapiths, the most ancient tribe of Thessaly. Ixion grew to hate his father-in-law and ended up pushing him onto a bed of coal and woods committing the first kin-related murder. The princes of other lands ordered that Ixion be denied of any sin-cleansing. Zeus took pity on Ixion and invited him to a meal on Olympus. But when Ixion saw Hera, he fell in love with her and did some under-the-table caressing until Zeus signaled him to stop. After finding a place for Ixion to sleep, Zeus created a cloud-clone of Hera named Nephele to test him to see how much he loved Hera. Ixion made love to her, which resulted in the birth of Centaurus, who mated with some Magnesian mares on Mount Pelion and thus engendered the race of Centaurs (who are called the Ixionidae from their descent). Zeus drove Ixion from Mount Olympus and then struck him with a thunderbolt. He was punished by being tied to a winged flaming wheel that was always spinning: first in the sky and then in Tartarus. Only when Orpheus came down to the Underworld to rescue Eurydice did it stop spinning because of the music Orpheus was playing. Ixion being strapped to the flaming wheel represented his burning lust.
  • In some versions, the Danaides murdered their husbands and were punished in Tartarus by being forced to carry water in a jug to fill a bath which would thereby wash off their sins, but the jugs were actually sieves so the water always leaked out.[478]
  • The giant Tityos was slain by Apollo and Artemis after attempting to rape Leto on Hera's orders. As punishment, Tityos was stretched out in Tartarus and tortured by two vultures who fed on his liver. This punishment is extremely similar to that of the Titan Prometheus.
  • King Salmoneus was also mentioned to have been imprisoned in Tartarus after passing himself off as Zeus, causing the real Zeus to smite him with a thunderbolt.
According to Plato (c. 427 BC), Rhadamanthus, Aeacus and Minos were the judges of the dead and chose who went to Tartarus. Rhadamanthus judged Asian souls, Aeacus judged European souls and Minos was the deciding vote and judge of the Greek.
Plato also proposes the concept that sinners were cast under the ground to be punished in accordance with their sins in the Myth of Er. Cronus, the ruler of the Titans, was thrown down into the pits of Tartarus by his children.
There were a number of entrances to Tartarus in Greek mythology. One was in Aornum.[479]
Roman mythology
In Roman mythology, Tartarus is the place where sinners are sent. Virgil describes it in the Aeneid as a gigantic place, surrounded by the flaming river Phlegethon and triple walls to prevent sinners from escaping from it. It is guarded by a hydra with fifty black gaping jaws, which sits at a screeching gate protected by columns of solid adamantine, a substance akin to diamond - so hard that nothing will cut through it. Inside, there is a castle with wide walls, and a tall iron turret. Tisiphone, one of the Erinyes who represents revenge, stands guard sleepless at the top of this turret lashing a whip. There is a pit inside which is said to extend down into the earth twice as far as the distance from the lands of the living to Olympus. At the bottom of this pit lie the Titans, the twin sons of Aloeus, and many other sinners. Still more sinners are contained inside Tartarus, with punishments similar to those of Greek myth.
Biblical Pseudepigrapha
Tartarus is only known in Hellenistic Jewish literature from the Greek text of 1 Enoch, dated to 400–200 BC. This states that God placed the archangel Uriel "in charge of the world and of Tartarus" (20:2). Tartarus is generally understood to be the place where 200 fallen Watchers (angels) are imprisoned.[480]
Tartarus also appears in sections of the Jewish Sibylline Oracles. E.g. Sib. Or. 4:186.
New Testament
In the New Testament, the noun Tartarus does not occur but tartaroo (ταρταρόω, "throw to Tartarus"), a shortened form of the classical Greek verb kata-tartaroo ("throw down to Tartarus"), does appear in 2 Peter 2:4. Liddell Scott provides other sources for the shortened form of this verb, including Acusilaus (5th century BC), Joannes Laurentius Lydus (4th century AD) and the Scholiast on Aeschylus, Eumenides, who cites Pindar relating how the earth tried to tartaro "cast down" Apollo after he overcame the Python.[481] In classical texts, the longer form kata-tartaroo is often related to the throwing of the Titans down to Tartarus.[482]
The ESV is one of several English versions that gives the Greek reading Tartarus as a footnote:
For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell [1] and committed them to chains [2] of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment;"
Footnotes [1] 2:4 Greek Tartarus
Adam Clarke reasoned that Peter's use of language relating to the Titans was an indication that the ancient Greeks had heard of a Biblical punishment of fallen angels.[483] Some Evangelical Christian commentaries distinguish Tartarus as a place for wicked angels and Gehenna as a place for wicked humans on the basis of this verse.[484] Other Evangelical commentaries, in reconciling that some fallen angels are chained in Tartarus, yet some not, attempt to distinguish between one type of fallen angel and another.[485]
See also

티타노마키아의 종결: 티탄이 타르타로스에 갇힘 - 타르타로스의 위치와 잠금 및 감시장치[편집]

There (타르타로스) by the counsel (조언, 지휘) of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom (타르타로스: 카오스의 두 번째 자식으로 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 세 번째 신, 지하세계의 일부, 지하세계의 가장 밑바닥에 있는 어둠고 눅눅한 곳), in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they (티탄) may not go out; for Poseidon (포세이돈: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 바다 · 지진 · 돌풍의 남신) fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There Gyes (기게스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Big-Limbed) and Cottus (코토스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Striker or Furious) and great-souled Obriareus (브리아레오스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Vigorous, sea goat) live, trusty warders (교도관) of Zeus who holds the aegis (아이기스: 이지스, 제우스의 방패).

The aegis on the Lemnian Athena of Phidias, represented by a cast at the Pushkin Museum
The Aegis (Αιγίς), as stated in the Iliad, is the shield or buckler or breastplate of Athena and Zeus, famously bearing Medusa's head, which, according to Homer was fashioned by Hephaestus "... and among them went bright-eyed Athene, holding the precious aegis which is ageless and immortal: a hundred tassels of pure gold hang fluttering from it, tight-woven each of them, and each the worth of a hundred oxen."[486]
The modern concept of doing something "under someone's aegis" means doing something under the protection of a powerful, knowledgeable, or benevolent source. The word aegis is identified with protection by a strong force with its roots in Greek mythology and adopted by the Romans; there are parallels in Norse mythology and in Egyptian mythology as well, where the Greek word aegis is applied by extension.
In Greek mythology
Virgil imagines the Cyclopes in Hephaestus' forge, who "busily burnished the aegis Athene wears in her angry moods—a fearsome thing with a surface of gold like scaly snake-skin, and he linked serpents and the Gorgon herself upon the goddess's breast—a severed head rolling its eyes."[487] furnished with golden tassels and bearing the Gorgoneion (Medusa's head) in the central boss. Some of the Attic vase-painters retained an archaic tradition that the tassels had originally been serpents in their representations of the aegis. When the Olympian deities overtook the older deities of Greece and she was born of Metis (inside Zeus who had swallowed the goddess) and "re-born" through the head of Zeus fully clothed, Athena already wore her typical garments.
When the Olympian shakes the aegis, Mount Ida is wrapped in clouds, the thunder rolls and men are struck down with fear. "Aegis-bearing Zeus", as he is in the Iliad, sometimes lends the fearsome goatskin to Athena. In the Iliad when Zeus sends Apollo to revive the wounded Hector of Troy, Apollo, holding the aegis, charges the Achaeans, pushing them back to their ships drawn up on the shore. According to Edith Hamilton's Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes,[488] the Aegis is the breastplate of Zeus, and was "awful to behold."

736~819행: 우주론 - 특히 지하세계와 관련하여[편집]

COSMOGRAPHY

우주론 개요 - 특히 지하세계와 관련하여[편집]

[736] And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of

  1. gloomy earth (가이아: 대지의 여신, 대자연) and
  2. misty Tartarus (타르타로스: 카오스의 두 번째 자식으로 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 세 번째 신, 지하세계의 일부, 지하세계의 가장 밑바닥에 있는 어둡고 눅눅한 곳) and
  3. the unfruitful sea (폰토스: 바다의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) and
  4. starry heaven (우라노스: 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들), which even the gods abhor.

It is a great gulf, and if once a man were within the gates, he would not reach the floor until a whole year had reached its end, but cruel blast (폭발, 강한 바람) upon blast would carry him this way and that. And this marvel is awful even to the deathless gods.

Greco-Roman tradition
For Hesiod and the early Greek Olympian myth (8th century BC), Chaos was the first of the primordial deities, followed by Earth (Gaia), Tartarus and Eros (Love).[489] From Chaos came Erebus and Nyx.[490]
Passages in Hesiod's Theogony suggest that Chaos was located below Earth but above Tartarus.[491] Primal Chaos was sometimes said to be the true foundation of reality, particularly by philosophers such as Heraclitus.
Ovid (1st century BC), in his Metamorphoses, described Chaos as "a rude and undeveloped mass, that nothing made except a ponderous weight; and all discordant elements confused, were there congested in a shapeless heap."[492]
Fifth-century Orphic cosmogony had a "Womb of Darkness" in which the Wind lay a Cosmic Egg whence Eros was hatched, who set the universe in motion.

아틀라스[편집]

[744] There stands the awful home (즉, 서쪽 끝) of murky Night (닉스 Nyx: 밤의 여신, 카오스의 딸) wrapped in dark clouds. In front of it the son of Iapetus (이아페토스: 티탄, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 'the Piercer')[493] (아틀라스) stands immovably upholding the wide heaven upon his head and unwearying hands,

닉스와 헤메라: 밤과 낮[편집]

where Night (닉스 Nyx: 태초신, 밤의 여신, 카오스의 딸) and Day (헤메라: 태초신, 낮의 여신, 에레보스와 닉스의 딸) draw near and greet one another as they pass the great threshold of bronze: and while the one is about to go down into the house, the other comes out at the door. And the house (즉, 서쪽 끝) never holds them both within; but always one is without the house passing over the earth, while the other stays at home and waits until the time for her journeying come; and the one (헤메라) holds all-seeing light for them on earth, but the other (닉스) holds in her arms Sleep (히프노스: 잠의 남신, 닉스의 단성생식의 아들) the brother of Death (타나토스: 죽음의 남신, 닉스의 단성생식의 아들, Death), even evil Night (닉스 Nyx: 태초신, 밤의 여신, 카오스의 딸), wrapped in a vaporous cloud.

Nyx
William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) - La Nuit (1883).jpg
La Nuit by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1883)
Consort Erebus
Parents Chaos
Siblings Erebus, Gaia, Tartarus and Eros[494]
Children see below
Nyx (Ancient Greek: Νύξ, "night") – Nox in Latin translation – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. A shadowy figure, Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation, and was the mother of other personified gods such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thánatos (Death). Her appearances in mythology are sparse, but reveal her as a figure of exceptional power and beauty. She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses.
Mythology and literature
Hesiod
In Hesiod's Theogony, Nyx is born of Chaos.[495] With Erebus (Darkness), Nyx gives birth to Aether (Brightness) and Hemera (Day).[496] Later, on her own, Nyx gives birth to Moros (Doom, Destiny), Ker (Fate, Destruction, Death), Thanatos (Death), Hypnos (Sleep), the Oneiroi (Dreams), Momus (Blame), Oizys (Woe, Pain, Distress), the Hesperides, the Moirai (Fates), the Keres, Nemesis (Indignation, Retribution), Apate (Deceit), Philotes (Friendship, Love), Geras (Old Age), and Eris (Strife).[497]
Roman-era bronze statuette of Nyx velificans or Selene (Getty Villa)
In his description of Tartarus, Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx[498] and the homes of her children Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death).[499] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day), who is Nyx's daughter, left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it; when Hemera returned, Nyx left.[500] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda, where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn).
Homer
At Iliad 14.249–61, Hypnos, the minor god of sleep, reminds Hera of an old favor after she asks him to put Zeus to sleep. He had once before put Zeus to sleep at the bidding of Hera, allowing her to cause Heracles (who was returning by sea from Laomedon's Troy) great misfortune. Zeus was furious and would have smitten Hypnos into the sea if he had not fled to Nyx, his mother, in fear. Homer goes on to say that Zeus, fearing to anger Nyx, held his fury at bay, and in this way Hypnos escaped the wrath of Zeus. He disturbed Zeus only a few times after that always fearing Zeus and running back to his mother Nyx, who would have confronted Zeus with a maternal fury.
Others
Nyx took on an even more important role in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus. In them, Nyx, rather than Chaos, is the first principle. Nyx occupies a cave or adyton, in which she gives oracles. Cronus – who is chained within, asleep and drunk on honey – dreams and prophesies. Outside the cave, Adrasteia clashes cymbals and beats upon her tympanon, moving the entire universe in an ecstatic dance to the rhythm of Nyx's chanting. Phanes – the strange, monstrous, hermaphrodite Orphic demiurge – was the child or father of Nyx. Nyx is also the first principle in the opening chorus of Aristophanes' The Birds, which may be Orphic in inspiration. Here she is also the mother of Eros.
The theme of Nyx's cave or mansion, beyond the ocean (as in Hesiod) or somewhere at the edge of the cosmos (as in later Orphism) may be echoed in the philosophical poem of Parmenides. The classical scholar Walter Burkert has speculated that the house of the goddess to which the philosopher is transported is the palace of Nyx; this hypothesis, however, must remain tentative.
For other mythical aspects connected with Nyx, see Chaos (cosmogony) and Cosmogony and cosmology.
Greek deities
series
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Primordial deities
In Greek mythology Hemera (Ἡμέρα, "day", 발음 [hɛːméra]) was the personification of day and one of the Greek primordial deities. She is the goddess of the daytime and, according to Hesiod, the daughter of Erebos and Nyx (the goddess of night).[501] Hemera is remarked upon in Cicero's De Natura Deorum, where it is logically determined that Dies (Hemera) must be a god, if Uranus is a god.[502] The poet Bacchylides states that Nyx and Chronos are the parents, but Hyginus in his preface to the Fabulae mentions Chaos as the mother/father and Nyx as her sister.
She was the female counterpart of her brother and consort, Aether (Light), but neither of them figured actively in myth or cult. Hyginus lists their children as Uranus, Gaia, and Thalassa (the primordial sea goddess), while Hesiod only lists Thalassa as their child.
According to Hesiod's Theogony, Hemera left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it; when Hemera returned, Nyx left:[503]
"Nyx and Hemera draw near and greet one another as they pass the great threshold of bronze: and while the one is about to go down into the house, the other comes out at the door."
Pausanias seems to confuse her with Eos when saying that she carried Cephalus away. Pausanias makes this identification with Eos upon looking at the tiling of the royal portico in Athens, where the myth of Eos and Kephalos is illustrated. He makes this identification again at Amyklai and at Olympia, upon looking at statues and illustrations where Eos (Hemera) is present.

닉스의 자녀: 히프노스(잠)와 타나토스(죽음)[편집]

Hypnos and Thanatos carrying dead Sarpedon, while Hermes watches. Inscriptions in ancient Greek: HVPNOS-HERMES-θΑΝΑΤΟS (here written vice versa). Attic red-figured calyx-krater, 515 BC.

[758] And there the children of dark Night (닉스 Nyx: 태초신, 밤의 여신, 카오스의 딸) have their dwellings,

  1. Sleep (히프노스: 잠의 남신, 닉스의 단성생식의 아들) and
  2. Death (타나토스: 죽음의 남신, 닉스의 단성생식의 아들, Death), awful gods. The glowing Sun (헤메라: 태초신, 낮의 여신, 에레보스와 닉스의 딸) never looks upon them with his beams, neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes down from heaven.

And the former of them (히프노스: 잠) roams peacefully over the earth and the sea's broad back and is kindly to men; but the other (타나토스: 죽음) has a heart of iron, and his spirit within him is pitiless as bronze: whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds fast: and he is hateful even to the deathless gods.

Hypnos
Waterhouse-sleep and his half-brother death-1874.jpg
Hypnos and Thánatos, Sleep and His Half-Brother Death by John William Waterhouse
God of Sleep
Abode Underworld
Symbol Poppy
Consort Pasithea
Parents Nyx
Siblings Thánatos, Morpheus, Phobetor and Phantasos
Children Morpheus, Phobetor and Phantasos (according to Ovid)
Roman equivalent Somnus
In Greek mythology, Hypnos[504] (Ὕπνος, "sleep") was the personification of sleep; the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus.[504] His twin was Thánatos (Θάνατος, "death"); their mother was the primordial goddess Nyx (Νύξ, "night"). His palace was a dark cave where the sun never shone. At the entrance were a number of poppies and other hypnogogic plants. His dwelling had no door or gate so that he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges.
Hypnos' three sons or brothers represented things that occur in dreams (the Oneiroi). Morpheus, Phobetor and Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings. According to one story, Hypnos lived in a cave underneath a Greek island; through this cave flowed Lethe, the river of forgetfulness.
Endymion, sentenced by Zeus to eternal sleep, received the power to sleep with his eyes open. He was granted this by Hypnos in order to constantly watch his beloved Selene, according to the poet, Licymnius Chios. Other stories [505][504] suggest, Hypnos fell in love with Endymion and granted him the power to sleep with his eyes open so Hypnos could watch Endymion without interruption.
In art, Hypnos was portrayed as a naked youthful man, sometimes with a beard, and wings attached to his head. He is sometimes shown as a man asleep on a bed of feathers with black curtains about him. Morpheus is his chief minister and prevents noises from waking him. In Sparta, the image of Hypnos was always put near that of death.
The English word "hypnosis" is derived from his name, referring to the fact that when hypnotized, a person is put into a sleep-like state (hypnos "sleep" + -osis "condition").[506] Additionally, the English word "insomnia" comes from the name of his Latin counterpart, Somnus. (in- "not" + somnus "sleep"),[507] as well as a few less-common words such as "somnolent", meaning sleepy or tending to cause sleep.[508]
Thanatos
Column temple Artemis Ephesos BM Sc1206 n3.jpg
Thanatos as a winged and sword-girt youth. Sculptured marble column drum from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos, c.325–300 BC.
Personification of Death
Abode Underworld
Symbol Theta, Poppy, Butterfly, Sword, Inverted Torch
Parents Nyx, Erebus
Siblings Hypnos, Nemesis, Eris, Keres, Oneiroi, and many others
Roman equivalent Mors
In Greek mythology, Thanatos (Θάνατος, Thánatos, "Death,"[509] from θνῄσκω - thnēskō, "to die, be dying"[510]) was the daemon personification of death. He was a minor figure in Greek mythology, often referred to but rarely appearing in person.
His name is transliterated in Latin as Thanatus, but his equivalent in Roman mythology is Mors or Letus/Letum,[출처 필요] and he is sometimes identified erroneously with Orcus (Orcus himself had a Greek equivalent in the form of Horkos, God of the Oath).[출처 필요]
In myth and poetry
The Greek poet Hesiod established in his Theogony that Thánatos is a son of Nyx (Night) and Erebos (Darkness) and twin of Hypnos (Sleep).

"And there the children of dark Night have their dwellings, Sleep and Death, awful gods. The glowing Sun never looks upon them with his beams, neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes down from heaven. And the former of them roams peacefully over the earth and the sea's broad back and is kindly to men; but the other has a heart of iron, and his spirit within him is pitiless as bronze: whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds fast: and he is hateful even to the deathless gods." [511]

Homer also confirmed Hypnos and Thanatos as twin brothers in his epic poem, the Iliad, where they were charged by Zeus via Apollo with the swift delivery of the slain hero Sarpedon to his homeland of Lycia.

"Then (Apollon) gave him [Sarpedon] into the charge of swift messengers to carry him, of Hypnos and Thanatos, who are twin brothers, and these two presently laid him down within the rich countryside of broad Lycia." [512]

Counted among Thanatos' siblings were other negative personifications such as Geras (Old Age), Oizys (Suffering), Moros (Doom), Apate (Deception), Momus (Blame), Eris (Strife), Nemesis (Retribution) and even the Acherousian/Stygian boatman Charon. Thanatos was loosely associated with the three Moirai (for Hesiod, also daughters of Night), particularly Atropos, who was a goddess of death in her own right. He is also occasionally specified as being exclusive to peaceful death, while the bloodthirsty Keres embodied violent death. His duties as a Guide of the Dead were sometimes superseded by Hermes Psychopompos. Conversely, Thanatos may have originated as a mere aspect of Hermes before later becoming distinct from him.

지하세계의 신: 하데스 · 페르세포네 · 케르베로스[편집]

[767] There, in front, stand the echoing halls of the god of the lower-world (지하세계),

  1. strong Hades (하데스: 테오이 크토니오이, 크로노스와 레아의 아들, 죽음과 지하세계의 남신), and of
  2. awful Persephone (페르세포네 · 코레: 테오이 크토니오이, 지하세계의 여신, 제우스와 데메테르의 딸).
  3. A fearful hound (케르베로스: 남신, 지하세계를 지키는 개, 헬하운드) guards the house in front, pitiless, and he has a cruel trick. On those who go in he fawns (아양떨다) with his tail and both is ears, but suffers them not to go out back again, but keeps watch and devours whomsoever he catches going out of the gates of strong Hades and awful Persephone.
Hermes Psykhopompos sits on a rock, preparing to lead a dead soul to the Underworld. :Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. 450 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2797)
The Greek underworld, in mythology, was a place where souls went after death and was the Greek idea of afterlife. At the moment of death the soul was separated from the corpse, taking on the shape of the former person, and was transported to the entrance of Hades.[513] Hades itself was described as being either at the outer bounds of the ocean or beneath the depths or ends of the earth.[514] It was considered the dark counterpart to the brightness of Mount Olympus, and was the kingdom of the dead that corresponded to the kingdom of the gods.[515] Hades was a realm invisible to the living and it was made solely for the dead.[516]
Geography
Rivers
There were five main rivers that appear both in the real world and the underworld. Their names were meant to reflect the emotions associated with death.[517]
  • The Styx is generally considered to be one of the most prominent and central rivers of the Underworld and is also the most widely known out of all the rivers. It is known as the river of hatred and is named after the goddess Styx. It is said that this river circles the underworld seven times.[518]
  • The Acheron is the river of pain. According to Euripides, it is the river that Charon, also known as the Ferryman, rows the dead in the ferry across to enter Hades.[519]
  • The Lethe is the river of oblivion. It is associated with the goddess Lethe, or the goddess of forgetfulness and oblivion.[520]
  • The Phlegethon is the river of fire. According to Plato, this river led to the depths of Tartarus.
  • The Cocytus is the river of wailing.
Tartarus
Tartarus is not considered to be directly a part of Hades, although many sources still call it the proverbial term "hell" - it is described as being as far beneath Hades as the earth is beneath the sky.[521] It is so dark that the "night is poured around it in three rows like a collar round the neck, while above it grow the roots of the earth and of the unharvested sea."[522] Tartarus is the place that Zeus cast the Titans along with his father Kronos after defeating them.[523] Homer wrote that Kronos then became the king of Tartarus.[524] While Odysseus does not see them himself, he mentions some of the people within the underworld who are experiencing punishment for their sins. Tantalos, who betrayed the trust of the gods, is suffering torment by having food and drink eternally beyond his reach; and Sisyphus, who tried to cheat death, must eternally roll a boulder up a hill, only to see it roll back down again.[525]
Fields of Punishment
The Fields of Punishment was a place for those who had created havoc on the world and committed crimes specifically against the gods. The individual's punishment of eternal suffering would fit their specific crime. For Tityos, who attempted to rape Leto, this was being staked to the ground while two vultures fed on his regenerating liver.[526]
Asphodel Meadows
The Asphodel Meadows was a place for ordinary or indifferent souls who did not commit any significant crimes, but who also did not achieve any greatness or recognition that would warrant them being admitted to the Elysian Fields. It was where mortals who did not belong anywhere else in the Underworld were sent.[527]
Elysian Fields
The Elysian Fields was a place for the especially distinguished. It was ruled over by Rhadamanthus, and the souls that dwelled there had an easy afterlife and had no labors.[528] Usually, those who had proximity to the gods were granted admission, rather than those who were especially righteous or had ethical merit.[521] Heroes such as Kadmos, Peleus, and Achilles also were transported here after their deaths. Normal people who lived righteous and virtuous lives could also gain entrance, such as Socrates, who proved his worth sufficiently through philosophy.[521]
Isles of the Blessed
The Isles of the Blessed were islands in the realm of Elysium. When a soul achieved Elysium they had a choice to either stay in Elysium, or to be re-born. If a soul was re-born three times and achieved Elysium all three times, then they were sent to the Isles of the Blessed and achieved eternal paradise. [529]
Deities
Hades
Hades (Aides, Aidoneus, or Haides), the son of Kronos and brother of Zeus and Poseidon, was the Greek god of the underworld.[530] When the world was divided between the sons of Kronos, Zeus received the heavens, Poseidon the sea, and Hades the underworld; the earth itself was divided between the three. Therefore, while Hades' responsibility was in the Underworld, he was allowed to have power on earth as well.[531] However, Hades himself is rarely seen outside his domain, and to those on earth his intentions and personality are a mystery.[532] In art and literature Hades is depicted as stern and dignified, but not a fierce torturer or devil-like.[531] However, Hades was considered the enemy to all life and was hated by both the gods and men; sacrifices and prayers did not appease him so mortals rarely tried.[533] He was also not a tormenter of the dead, and sometimes considered the "Zeus of the dead" because he was hospitable to them.[534] Those who received punishment in Tartarus were assigned by the other gods seeking vengeance. In Greek society, many viewed Hades as the least liked god and many gods even had an aversion towards him, and when people would sacrifice to Hades, it would be if they wanted revenge on an enemy or something terrible to happen to them [535]
Hades was sometimes referred to as Pluto and was represented in a lighter way - here, he was considered the giver of wealth, since the crops and the blessing of the harvest come from below the earth.[536]
Persephone
The Rape of Persephone: Persephone is abducted by a Hades in his chariot. Persephone krater Antikensammlung Berlin 1984.40
Persephone (also known as Kore) was the daughter of Demeter, the goddess of the harvest, and Zeus. Persephone was abducted by Hades, who desired a wife. When Persephone was gathering flowers, she was entranced by a narcissus flower planted by Gaia (to lure her to the Underworld as a favor to Hades), and when she picked it the earth suddenly opened up.[537] Hades, appearing in a golden chariot, seduced and carried Persephone into the underworld. When Demeter found out that Zeus had given Hades permission to abduct Persephone and take her as a wife, Demeter became enraged at Zeus and stopped growing harvests for the earth. To soothe her, Zeus sent Hermes to the Underworld to take Persephone back to her mother. However, she ate 6 pomegranate seeds and so she was forever tied to the underworld, since the pomegranate seed was sacred to the underworld.[538]
Persephone could then only leave the Underworld when the earth was blooming, or every season except the winter. The poem below describes the abduction of Persephone by Hades:

"I sing now of the great Demeter
Of the beautiful hair,
And of her daughter Persephone
Of the lovely feet,
Whom Zeus let Hades tear away
From her mother's harvests
And friends and flowers—
Especially the Narcissus,
Grown by Gaia to entice the girl
As a favor to Hades, the gloomy one.
This was the flower that
Left all amazed,
Whose hundred buds made
The sky itself smile.
When the maiden reached out
To pluck such beauty,
The earth opened up
And out burst Hades …
The son of Kronos,
Who took her by force
On his chariot of gold,
To the place where so many
Long not to go.
Persephone screamed,
She called to her father,
All-powerful and high, …
But Zeus had allowed this.
He sat in a temple
Hearing nothing at all,
Receiving the sacrifices of
Supplicating men."[539]

Persephone herself is considered a fitting other half to Hades because of the meaning of her name which bears the Greek root for "killing" and the -phone in her name means "putting to death."[531]
The Erinyes
The Erinyes were the three goddesses associated with the souls of the dead and the avenged crimes against the natural order of the world. They were particularly concerned with crimes done by children against their parents, such as matricide, patricide, and unfilial conduct. They would inflict madness upon the living murderer, or if a nation was harboring such a criminal, the Erinyes would cause starvation and disease to the nation.[540] The Erinyes were dreaded by the living since they embodied the vengeance of the person who was wronged against the wrongdoer.[541] Often the Greeks made "soothing libations" to the Erinyes to appease them so as to not invoke the wrath of Erinyes, and overall the Erinyes received many more libations and sacrifices than other gods of the underworld.[542] The Erinyes were depicted as ugly and winged women with their bodies intertwined with serpents.[543]
Hermes
While Hermes did not primarily reside in the Underworld and is not usually associated with the Underworld, he was the one who led the souls of the dead to the underworld. In this sense he was known as Hermes Psychopompos, and with his fair golden wand he was able to lead the dead to their new home. He was also called upon by the dying to assist in their passing - some called upon him to have painless deaths or be able to die when and where they believed they were meant to die.[544]
Minos
Minos was the judge of the dead. He judged the deeds of the deceased and created the laws that governed the underworld. However, none of the laws provided a true justice to the souls of the dead, and the dead did not receive rewards for following them or punishment for wicked actions.[545]
Charon
Charon is the ferryman who, after receiving a soul from Hermes, would guide them across the river Acheron to the underworld. To the Etruscans, Charon was considered a fearsome being - he wielded a hammer and was hook-nosed, bearded, and had animalistic ears with teeth.[521] In other early Greek depictions, Charon was considered merely an ugly bearded man with a conical hat and tunic.[546] Later on in more modern Greek folklore, he was considered more angelic, like the Archangel Michael. Nevertheless Charon was considered a terrifying being since his duty was to bring these souls to the Underworld and no one would persuade him to not bring them to the Underworld.
Cerberus
Hades with Cerberus.
Cerberus (Kerberos), or the "Hell-Hound," is Hades' massive multi-headed (usually three-headed)[165][547][548] dog that guards the entrance of the underworld.[531] Cerberus' duty is to allow people into the Underworld, but no one was allowed out of the Underworld. Cerberus is described as having many rows of teeth so that he can strip the dead of their clothing, belongings, and flesh, transforming them into only skeletons.[531]
The Dead
In the Greek underworld, the souls of the dead still existed but they are insubstantial and they flitted around the underworld with no sense of purpose.[549] The dead within the Homeric Underworld lack menos, or strength, and therefore they cannot influence those on earth. They also lack phrenes, or wit, and are heedless of what goes on around them and on the earth above them.[550] Their lives in the underworld were very neutral, so all social statuses and political positions were eliminated and no one was able to use their previous lives to their advantage in the Underworld.[545]
The idea of progress did not exist in the Greek Underworld - at the moment of death, the psyche was frozen, in experience and appearance. The souls in the Underworld did not age or really change in any sense. They did not lead any sort of active life in the Underworld - they were exactly the same as they were in life.[551] Therefore those who had died in battle were eternally blood-spattered in the underworld and those who had died peacefully were able to remain that way.[552]
Overall the Greek dead were considered to be irritable and unpleasant, but not dangerous or malevolent. They grew angry if they felt a hostile presence near their graves and drink offerings were given in order to appease them so as not to anger the dead.[553] Mostly blood offerings were given due to the fact that they needed the essence of life to become communicative and conscious again.[545] This is shown in Homer's Odyssey, where Odysseus had to give blood in order for the souls to interact with him. While in the underworld, the dead passed the time through simple pastimes such as playing games, as shown from objects found in tombs such as dice and game-boards.[554] Grave gifts such as clothing, jewelry, and food were left by the living for use in the Underworld as well since many viewed these gifts to carry over into the Underworld.[551] There was not a general consensus as to whether the dead were able to consume food or not. Homer depicted the dead as unable to eat or drink unless they had been summoned; however, some reliefs portray the Underworld as having many elaborate feasts.[554] While not completely clear, it is implied that the dead could still have sexual intimacy with another, although no children were produced. The Greeks also showed belief in the possibility of marriage in the Underworld, which in a sense describes the Greek Underworld having no difference than from their current life.[555]
Lucian described the people of the Underworld as simple skeletons. They are indistinguishable from each other, and it is impossible to tell who was wealthy or important in the living world.[556] However, this view of the Underworld was not universal - Homer depicts the dead keeping their familiar faces.
Hades itself was free from the concept of time. The dead are aware of both the past and the future, and in poems describing Greek heroes, the dead helped move the plot of the story by prophesying and telling truths unknown to the hero.[551] The only way for humans to communicate with the dead was to suspend time and their normal life to reach Hades, the place beyond immediate perception and human time.[551]
Greek attitudes
The Greeks had a definite belief that there was a journey to the afterlife or another world. They believed that death was not a complete end to life or human existence.[557] The Greeks accepted the existence of the soul after death, but saw this afterlife as meaningless.[558] In the underworld, the identity of a dead person still existed, but it had no strength or true influence. Rather, the continuation of the existence of the soul in the Underworld was considered a remembrance of the fact that the dead person had existed, and while the soul still existed, it was inactive.[559] However, the price of death was considered a great one. Homer believed that the best possible existence for humans was to never be born at all, or die soon after birth, because the greatness of life could never balance the price of death.[560] The Greek gods only rewarded heroes who were still living; heroes that died were ignored in the afterlife. However, it was considered very important to the Greeks to honor the dead and was seen as a type of piety. Those who did not respect the dead opened themselves to the punishment of the gods - for example, Odysseus ensured Ajax's burial, or the gods would be angered.[561]
Myths and stories
Orpheus
Orpheus, a poet and musician that had almost supernatural abilities to move anyone to his music, descended to the Underworld as a living mortal to retrieve his dead wife Eurydice after she was bitten by a poisonous rattlesnake on their wedding day. With his lyre playing skills, he was able to put a spell on the guardians of the underworld and move them with his music.[562] With his beautiful voice he was able to convince Hades and Persephone to allow he and his wife to return to the living. The rulers of the Underworld agreed, but under one condition - Eurydice would have to follow behind Orpheus and he could not turn around to look at her. Once Orpheus reached the entrance, however, he turned around, longing to look at his beautiful wife, only to watch as his wife faded back into the Underworld. He was forbidden to return to the Underworld a second time and he spent his life playing his music to the birds and the mountains.[563]

스틱스[편집]

[775] And there dwells the goddess loathed (혐오하다) by the deathless gods, terrible Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신, 세상과 지하세계의 경계에 흐르는 강), eldest daughter of back-flowing[564] Ocean (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지). She (스틱스) lives apart from the gods in her glorious house vaulted over with great rocks and propped (떠받치다) up to heaven all round with silver pillars.

Greek underworld
Residents
Geography
Famous inmates
Visitors
v  d  e  h
Etching of G. Doré
The Styx (/stɪks/; Στύξ [stýkʰs]) is a river in Greek mythology that formed the boundary between Earth and the Underworld (often called Hades which is also the name of this domain's ruler). The rivers Styx, Phlegethon, Acheron, and Cocytus all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which is also sometimes called the Styx. The important rivers of the underworld are Lethe, Eridanos, and Alpheus.
The gods were bound by the Styx and swore oaths on it. The reason for this is during the Titan war, Styx, the goddess of the river Styx, sided with Zeus. After the war, Zeus promised every oath be sworn upon her.[565] Zeus swore to give Semele whatever she wanted and was then obliged to follow through when he realized to his horror that her request would lead to her death. Helios similarly promised his son Phaëton whatever he desired, also resulting in the boy's death. According to some versions, Styx had miraculous powers and could make someone invulnerable. According to one tradition, Achilles was dipped in it in his childhood, acquiring invulnerability, with exception of his heel, by which his mother held him. This is the source of the expression Achilles' heel, a metaphor for a vulnerable spot.
Styx was primarily a feature in the afterworld of Greek mythology, and similar to the Christian area of Hell in texts such as The Divine Comedy and "Paradise Lost". The ferryman Charon is believed to have transported the souls of the newly dead across this river into the underworld, though in the original Greek and Roman sources, as well as in Dante, it was the river Acheron that Charon plied. Dante put Phlegyas over the Styx and made it the fifth circle of Hell, where the wrathful and sullen are punished by being drowned in the muddy waters for eternity, with the wrathful fighting each other.
In ancient times some believed that placing a coin in the mouth[566] of the deceased would help pay the toll for the ferry to help cross the Acheron river which would lead one to the entrance of the underworld. If some could not pay the fee it was said that they would never be able to cross the river. This ritual was performed by the relatives.
The variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century.[567] By synecdoche, the adjective stygian (/ˈstɪiən/) came to refer to anything dark, dismal, and murky.
Goddess
Styx was also the name of the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She was wife to Pallas and bore him Zelus, Nike, Kratos and Bia (and sometimes Eos). Styx supported Zeus in the Titanomachy where she was the first to rush to his aid. For this reason her name was given the honor of being a binding oath for the gods.
Nymph
Popular culture and science
As of 2 July 2013, Styx officially became the name of one of Pluto's moons.[568] The other moons (Charon, Nix, Hydra, and Kerberos) also have names from Greco-Roman mythology.
See also

이리스[편집]

Rarely does the daughter of Thaumas (타우마스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 경이로움, 폰토스와 가이아의 아들), swift-footed Iris (이리스: 무지개의 여신, 신들의 전령사 여신), come to her (스틱스) with a message over the sea's wide back. But when strife and quarrel arise among the deathless gods, and when any of them who live in the house of Olympus lies, then Zeus sends Iris (이리스: 무지개의 여신, 신들의 전령사 여신) to bring in a golden jug (주전자[병]) the great oath (맹세) of the gods from far away, the famous cold water which trickles down from a high and beetling (돌출한) rock.

In Greek mythology, Thaumas (/ˈθɔːməs/; Θαῦμας; gen.: Θαύμαντος) (English translation: "wonder") was a sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. He married an Oceanid, Electra (or Ozomene). The children of Thaumas and Electra were the Harpies and Iris, the goddess of rainbows and a messenger of the gods; according to some, also Arke.
Poseidon overthrew him and became the new sea god.
Thaumas was also the name of a centaur.
Winged female figure holding a caduceus: Iris (messenger of the gods) or Nike (Victory)
In Greek mythology, Iris (/ˈ[unsupported input]r[unsupported input]s/; Ἶρις) is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. She is also known as one of the goddesses of the sea and the sky. Iris links the gods to humanity. She travels with the speed of wind from one end of the world to the other,[62] and into the depths of the sea and the underworld.
In myths
According to Hesiod's Theogony, Iris is the daughter of Thaumas and the cloud nymph Electra. Her sisters are the Harpies; Aello, Celaeno and Ocypete.
Iris is frequently mentioned as a divine messenger in the Iliad which is attributed to Homer, but does not appear in his Odyssey, where Hermes fills that role. Like Hermes, Iris carries a caduceus or winged staff. By command of Zeus, the king of the gods, she carries an ewer of water from the River Styx, with which she puts to sleep all who perjure themselves. Goddess of sea and sky, she is also represented as supplying the clouds with the water needed to deluge the world, consistent with her identification with the rainbow.
Namesake

오케아노스와 스틱스[편집]

Far under the wide-pathed earth a branch of Oceanus (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) flows through the dark night out of the holy stream, and a tenth part of his (오케아노스) water is allotted to her (스틱스). With nine silver-swirling streams he winds about the earth and the sea's wide back, and then falls into the main[569]; but the tenth flows out from a rock, a sore trouble to the gods.

For whoever of the deathless gods that hold the peaks of snowy Olympus (올림포스 산) pours a libation of her (스틱스) water is forsworn (맹세하다), lies breathless until a full year is completed, and never comes near to taste ambrosia (암브로시아) and nectar, but lies spiritless and voiceless on a strewn (흩다, 흩뿌리다) bed: and a heavy trance overshadows him. But when he has spent a long year in his sickness, another penance (속죄, 괴로운 일, 고행) and an harder follows after the first. For nine years he is cut off from the eternal gods and never joins their councils of their feasts, nine full years. But in the tenth year he comes again to join the assemblies of the deathless gods who live in the house of Olympus. Such an oath, then, did the gods appoint the eternal and primaeval water of Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신, 세상과 지하세계의 경계에 흐르는 강) to be: and it spouts through a rugged (바위투성이의; 기복이 심한) place.

우주론 총괄 - 특히 지하세계와 관련하여[편집]

[807] And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of the

  1. dark earth (가이아: 태초신, 대지의 여신, 대자연) and
  2. misty Tartarus (타르타로스: 태초신, 카오스의 두 번째 자식으로 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 세 번째 신, 지하세계의 일부, 지하세계의 가장 밑바닥에 있는 어둡고 눅눅한 곳) and the
  3. unfruitful sea (폰토스: 태초신, 바다의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) and
  4. starry heaven (우라노스: 태초신, 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들), loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor. And there are shining gates and an immoveable threshold of bronze having unending roots and it is grown of itself.[570] And beyond, away from all the gods, live the
  5. Titans (티탄), beyond gloomy Chaos (카오스: 태초신).
  6. But the glorious allies (헤카톤케이레스) of loud-crashing Zeus have their dwelling upon Ocean's foundations, even
    1. Cottus (코토스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Striker or Furious) and
    2. Gyes (기게스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Big-Limbed); but
    3. Briareos (브리아레오스, 헤카톤케이레스, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, Vigorous, sea goat), being goodly, the deep-roaring Earth-Shaker (포세이돈: 도데카테온, 올림포스 12신, 바다 · 지진 · 돌풍의 남신) made his son-in-law, giving him Cymopolea (키모폴레이아: 포세이돈의 딸, 브리아레오스의 부인) his daughter to wed.

820~885행: 티폰과 그 자녀들 - 돌풍과 제우스의 싸움[편집]

TYPHOEUS

티폰[편집]

[820] But when Zeus had driven the Titans (티탄) from heaven, huge Earth (가이아: 태초신, 대지의 여신, 대자연) bare her youngest child Typhoeus (티폰: 가장 무서운 몬스터, 가이아와 타르타로스의 마지막 아들, 모든 몬스터들의 아버지) of the love of Tartarus (타르타로스: 태초신, 카오스의 두 번째 자식으로 단성생식으로 낳은 아들, 세 번째 신, 지하세계의 일부, 지하세계의 가장 밑바닥에 있는 어둡고 눅눅한 곳), by the aid of golden Aphrodite (아프로디테: 미와 사랑의 여신, 비너스).

Strength was with his (티폰) hands in all that he did and the feet of the strong god were untiring.

  1. From his shoulders grew an hundred heads of a snake, a fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and
  2. from under the brows of his eyes in his marvellous heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as he glared.
  3. And there were voices in all his dreadful heads which uttered every kind of sound unspeakable; for at one time they made sounds such that the gods understood, but at another, the noise of a bull bellowing (고함치다) aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and at anothers, sounds like whelps (강아지), wonderful to hear; and again, at another, he would hiss (쉬익[쉿] 하는 소리를 내다), so that the high mountains re-echoed.

티폰과 제우스의 싸움[편집]

And truly a thing past help would have happened on that day, and he (티폰) would have come to reign over mortals and immortals, had not the father of men and gods (제우스) been quick to perceive it.

But he (제우스) thundered hard and mightily: and the earth around resounded terribly and the wide heaven above, and the sea (폰토스: 태초신, 바다의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들) and Ocean's (오케아노스, 티탄, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) streams and the nether (아래의, 밑의) parts of the earth. Great Olympus (올림포스 산) reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose and earth groaned thereat.

And through the two (제우스티폰) of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea, through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and