- Büssow, Johann (2016). 〈Muḥammad ʿAbduh: The Theology of Unity (Egypt, 1898)〉. Bentlage, Björn; Eggert, Marion; Krämer, Hans-Martin; Reichmuth, Stefan. 《Religious Dynamics under the Impact of Imperialism and Colonialism》. Numen Book Series 154. Leiden: Brill Publishers. 141–159쪽. doi:10.1163/9789004329003_013. ISBN 978-90-04-32511-1. 2020년 10월 25일에 확인함.
- Kudsi-Zadeh, A. Albert (January–March 1972). “Afghānī and Freemasonry in Egypt”. 《Journal of the American Oriental Society》 (American Oriental Society) 92 (1): 25–35. doi:10.2307/599645. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 599645. LCCN 12032032. OCLC 47785421.
In these efforts, Afghani was aided by some of his own disciples whom he persuaded to join Freemasonry [...] It was through this association, remarks Rida, that 'Abduh was able to establish contact with Tawfiq Pasha and other leaders of Egypt.
- “Urwat al-Wuthqa, al- - Oxford Islamic Studies Online”. 《www.oxfordislamicstudies.com》. 2020년 6월 6일에 확인함.
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