기독교 수도주의(Christian monasticism)는 기독교에서 나타난 수도주의로, 예배에 헌신하는 수도원이나 금욕적인 삶을 사는 사람들의 헌신된 실천을 말한다. 구약성서에서 성경적인 예와 개념은 나타나며 초기 기독교회에서 발전되었다. 수도원 제도를 최초로 만든사람은 이집트의 안토니우스(Anthony the Great)이다. 남성형 단어인 monk 라는 말은 헬라어 monahos에서 왔는데 수도사라는 말 monk를 의미하며, 이 단어는 혼자(alone)라는 monos에서 왔다.
로마 카톨릭 [편집]
- Benedictines, founded in 529 by Benedict at Monte Cassino, stresses manual labor in a self-subsistent monastery. They are an order of independent monastic communities.
- Bridgettines, founded in 1344 by Bridget of Sweden.
- Camaldolese, founded c.1000
- Carthusians, also known as the Order of Saint Bruno, founded 1084 by St. Bruno of Cologne. Open to both sexes; combines eremitical and cenobitic life.
- Celestines, founded in 1244 and originally called Hermits of St Damiano, or Moronites (or Murronites). Became known as Celestines after their founder was elected Pope and took the name Celestine V.
- Cistercians, also referred to as the Order of St. Bernard, founded in 1098 by Robert of Molesme
- Cluniacs, a movement with a height c.950-c.1130
- Hieronymites, founded in Spain in 1364, an eremitic community formally known as the Order of Saint Jerome
- Olivetans or the Order of Our Lady of Mount Olivet, founded in 1313 by Bernardo Tolomei (born Giovanni Tolomei) along with two of his friends from the noble families of Siena, Patrizio Patrizi and Ambrogio Piccolomini.
- Paulines, Founded in Hungary in 1225 by Blessed Eusebius.
- Trappists, began c. 1664.
- Vallombrosans, founded c. 1038 by Saint Gualberto Visdomini.
- Visitation Sisters. The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary or the Visitation Order is a Roman Catholic religious order for women. Members of the order are also known as the Salesian Sisters or, more commonly, as the Visitandines. The Order was founded in 1610 by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane Frances de Chantal in Annecy, Haute-Savoie, France.
루터란 교회 [편집]
- clasau, the early Welsh monasteries
- Consensoria Monachorum
- Coptic monasticism
- Intentional community
- 위대한 침묵| The award-winning documentary of life within the Carthusian monsastery of 'La Grande Chartreuse' by Philip Groning.
- List of monastic houses in England
- Order of Watchers: A French Protestant fraternity of Hermits.
- 파코미우스—초기 수도원 조직가
- 베네딕도 규칙서
- 하퍼, 더글러스. “monk”. 《온라인 어원 사전》.
- Corbishley, Mike.Monks lived a very strict and regulated life.Life in a monastery included prayer,manualwork, and this promoted the idea of the dignity and labour. Cultural Atlas for Young People The Middle Ages Revised Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004, page 38.