SARS-CoV-2 변이주: 두 판 사이의 차이

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
잔글 (ChongDae님이 SARS-CoV-2의 변종 문서를 SARS-CoV-2 변이 문서로 이동했습니다)
편집 요약 없음
1번째 줄: 1번째 줄:
[[코로나바이러스감염증-19]](코로나19)를 일으키는 [[SARS-CoV-2]]는 많은 변이가 있다. 일부는 전염성이 증가하거나, 독성이 늘거나, [[코로나19 백신|백신]]의 효과가 감소하기 때문에 특히 중요하다.
'''SARS-CoV-2의 변종'''은 여러 바이러스가 있다.


== 목록 ==
== 개괄 ==
=== 클러스터 5 ===
{{본문|클러스터 5}}
=== B.1.1.7 계통 ===
{{본문|B.1.1.7 계통}}
=== B.1.351 계통 ===
{{본문|B.1.351 계통}}


상대적 위험도: {{Legend inline|#faa|매우 높음}} {{Legend inline|#fc8|높음}} {{Legend inline|#fe8|보통}} {{Legend inline|#cfc|낮음}} {{Legend inline|#eee|모름}}
== 각주 ==
{| class="wikitable sortable"
{{각주}}
! colspan="4" |식별
! colspan="3" |출현
! colspan="4" |우한에서 처음 발견된 바이러스와의 차이
|-
![[국제 보건 기구|WHO]]<wbr /><ref name="who-variants"/>
!PANGO 계통<wbr /><ref name="pango-lineages" />
![[영국 공중 보건국|PHE]] 변종<wbr />{{efn-ua|The naming format was updated in March 2021, changing the year from 4 to 2 digits and the month from 2 digits to a 3-letter abbreviation. For example, VOC-'''2021'''''01''-02 became VOC-'''21'''''JAN''-02.<ref name="phe-voc" />}}
!Nextstrain clade<wbr /><ref name="nextstrain2">{{cite web|title=Nextstrain|url=https://nextstrain.org/|website=nextstrain.org|publisher=[[Nextstrain]]}}</ref><ref name="cdc-variants" />
!첫 발발
!초기 샘플
!Designated variant of concern
!주요 돌연변이
![[기초감염재생산수|감염성]]
!병독성
![[항원성]]
|-
|{{sort|1|[[SARS-CoV-2 알파 변이|알파]]}}
|B.1.1.7
|VOC‑20DEC‑01<wbr />
|20I/501Y.V1{{efn-ua|name=20B|Formerly 20B/501Y.V1.}}
|[[영국]]
|{{dts|2020|09|20|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite web |vauthors=Rambaut A, Loman N, Pybus O, Barclay W, Barrett J, Carabelli A, Connor T, Peacock T, Robertson DL, Volz E |display-authors=6 |date=2020-12-18 |title=Preliminary genomic characterisation of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in the UK defined by a novel set of spike mutations |url=https://virological.org/t/preliminary-genomic-characterisation-of-an-emergent-sars-cov-2-lineage-in-the-uk-defined-by-a-novel-set-of-spike-mutations/563 |access-date=2021-06-14 |website=Virological}}</ref><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|{{dts|2020|12|18|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite techreport |type=Briefing |title=Investigation of novel SARS-COV-2 variant, technical briefing 1 |institution=Public Health England |date=2020-12-21 |url=https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/959438/Technical_Briefing_VOC_SH_NJL2_SH2.pdf |format=PDF |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
|69–70del, N501Y, P681H<wbr /><ref name=":33">{{cite web|date=2021-01-28|title=Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/science-and-research/scientific-brief-emerging-variants.html|access-date=2021-01-04|website=CDC.gov|publisher=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|type=Science brief}} {{PD-notice}}</ref>{{sfnp|Chand ''et al.''|2020|p=6|loc=Potential impact of spike variant N501Y}}
|{{risk|level=high|align=ml|{{Estimate|+82|43|130|unit=%|type=cri|mini=auto}}<wbr/><ref name="pmid33658326">{{cite journal| author=Davies NG, Abbott S, Barnard RC, Jarvis CI, Kucharski AJ, Munday JD | display-authors=etal| title=Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England. | journal=Science | year= 2021 | volume= 372 | issue= 6538 | pages= | pmid=33658326 | doi=10.1126/science.abg3055 | pmc=8128288 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=33658326}}</ref>}}
|{{risk|level=high|align=ml|Lethality: {{Estimate|+61|42|82|unit=%|mini=auto}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Davies G, Jarvis C, Edmunds WJ, Jewell N, Diaz-Ordaz K, Keogh R |date=2021-03-15 |title=Increased mortality in community-tested cases of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03426-1 |journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]] |volume=593 |issue=7858 |pages=270–274 |type=Published |doi=10.1038/s41586-021-03426-1 |pmid=33723411 |access-date=2021-04-29|doi-access=free }}</ref>}}{{efn-ua|Another study<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = DChallen R, Brooks-Pollock E, Read J, Dyson L, Tsaneva-Atanasova K, Danon L|date=2021-03-10 |title=Risk of mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/1: matched cohort study|journal=[[The BMJ]] |volume=372 |pages=n579 |type=Published |doi=10.1136/bmj.n579 |pmid=33687922 |pmc=7941603 |doi-access=free}}</ref> has estimated that B.1.1.7 may be ~64% (32–104%) more lethal}}
|{{risk|level=low|align=ml|No change<wbr/><ref name="ECDC1" />}}
|-
|{{sort|2|[[SARS-CoV-2 베타 변이|베타]]}}
|B.1.351
|VOC‑20DEC‑02
|20H/501Y.V2
|[[남아프리카 공화국]]
|{{dts|2020|05|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|{{dts|2021|01|14|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite techreport |type=Note |title=NERVTAG paper: brief note on SARS-CoV-2 variants |institution=Public Health England |date=2021-01-13 |last1=Horby |first1=Peter |last2=Barclay |first2=Wendy |last3=Huntley |first3=Catherine |url=https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nervtag-brief-note-on-sars-cov-2-variants-13-january-2021 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
|K417N, E484K, N501Y<wbr /><ref name=":33"/>
|{{risk|level=high|align=ml|{{Estimate|+50|20|113|unit=%|type=cri|mini=auto}}<wbr/><ref name="ECDC1"/>}}
|{{risk|level=low|align=ml|No evidence of change}}<ref name="biotecnika">{{cite news | vauthors = Sruthi S |date=2021-02-10 |title=Notable Variants And Mutation Of SARS-CoV-2 |url=https://www.biotecnika.org/2021/02/variants-mutations-of-sars-cov-2-a-complete-list/ |work=BioTecNika |access-date=2021-03-22}}</ref>
|{{risk|level=veryhigh|align=ml|Significant reduction in neutralisation by antibodies<wbr/><ref>{{cite journal |vauthors=Planas D, Bruel T, Grzelak L, etal |date=2021-04-14 |title=Sensitivity of infectious SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants to neutralizing antibodies |journal=Nature Medicine |volume=27 |issue=5 |pages=917–924 |doi=10.1038/s41591-021-01318-5 |pmid=33772244 |doi-access=free}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/health-environment/article/3130355/coronavirus-sinovac-vaccine-gives-70-cent-less |title=Coronavirus: Sinovac vaccine gives 70 per cent less protection against South African variant, but Hongkongers urged to still get jab |website=South China Morning Post |date=20 April 2021 |access-date=20 April 2021}}</ref>}}
|-
|{{sort|3|[[SARS-CoV-2 감마 변이|감마]]}}
|P.1
|VOC‑21JAN‑02
|20J/501Y.V3
|[[브라질]]
|{{dts|2020|11|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|{{dts|2021|01|15|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite news |title=Confirmed cases of COVID-19 variants identified in UK |location=Friday 15 January |url=https://www.gov.uk/government/news/confirmed-cases-of-covid-19-variants-identified-in-uk |agency=Public Health England |publisher=GOV.UK |date=2021-01-15}}</ref><ref>{{cite techreport |last1=Horby |first1=Peter |last2=Barclay |first2=Wendy |last3=Gupta |first3=Ravi |last4=Huntley |first4=Catherine |type=Note |title=NERVTAG paper: note on variant P.1 |institution=Public Health England |date=2021-01-27 |url=https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nervtag-note-on-variant-p1-27-january-2021 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
|K417T, E484K, N501Y<wbr /><ref name=":33"/>
|{{risk|level=veryhigh|align=ml|{{Estimate|+161|145|176|unit=%|mini=auto}} <wbr/><ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Coutinho RM, Marquitti FM, Ferreira LS, Borges ME, da Silva RL, Canton O, Portella TP, Lyra SP, Franco C, Plucinski MM, Lessa FC |display-authors=6 |date=2021-03-23 |title=Model-based estimation of transmissibility and reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 P.1 variant |url=https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.03.21252706v3 |journal=[[medRxiv]] |type=[[Preprint]] |doi=10.1101/2021.03.03.21252706 |page=9 |s2cid=232119656 |quote=The new variant was found to be about 2.6 times more transmissible (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.4–2.8) than previous circulating variant(s). ... Table 1: Summary of the fitted parameters and respective confidence intervals considering the entire period, November 1, 2020-January 31, 2021 maintaining the same pathogenicity of the previous variant. Parameter: Relative transmission rate for the new variant. Estimate: 2.61. 2.5%: 2.45. 97.5%: 2.76. |access-date=2021-04-29}}</ref>{{efn-ua|Another study<ref name="cadde-p1"/> has estimated that P.1 may be {{Estimate|100|70|140|50|unit=%|type=cri|mini=auto}} more transmissible.{{efn-ua|name=low-confidence}}}}}}
|{{risk|level=medium|align=ml|Lethality: {{Estimate|+50|20|90|50|unit=%|type=cri|mini=auto}}<wbr/><ref name="cadde-p1" />}}{{efn-ua|name=low-confidence|The reported [[confidence interval|confidence]] or [[credible interval]] has a low probability, so the estimated value can only be understood as possible, not certain nor likely.}}{{efn-ua|Preliminary results from a study in the Southern Region of Brazil found P.1 much more lethal for healthy young people. In groups without pre-existing conditions, the variant was found to be {{Estimate|490|220|985|unit=%|mini=auto}} more lethal for men in the 20-39 age group, {{Estimate|465|190|1003|unit=%|mini=auto}} more lethal for women in the 20-39 age group and {{Estimate|670|401|1083|unit=%|mini=auto}} for women in the 40-59 age group.<ref>{{cite journal |vauthors=Freitas AR, Lemos DR, Beckedorff OA, Cavalcanti LP, Siqueira AM, Mello RC, Barros EN |display-authors=6 |date=2021-04-19 |title=The increase in the risk of severity and fatality rate of covid-19 in southern Brazil after the emergence of the Variant of Concern (VOC) SARS-CoV-2 P.1 was greater among young adults without pre-existing risk conditions |url=https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.13.21255281v1 |type=[[Preprint]] |via=medRxiv |doi=10.1101/2021.04.13.21255281 |quote=Female 20 to 39 years old, with no pre-existing risk conditions, were at risk of death 5.65 times higher in February (95% CI, 2.9-11.03; p <0.0001) and in the age group of 40 and 59 years old, this risk was 7.7 times higher (95% CI, 5.01-11.83; p <0.0001) comparing with November–December. ... The heterogeneity observed between the age groups was greater when we analyzed the subgroup of the population without preexisting risk conditions where we found that the CFR in the female sex in the second wave was 1.95 times (95% CI, 1.38-2.76) the CFR of the first wave in the population over 85 years old and was 7.7 times (95% CI, 5.01-11.83; p < 0.0001) in the population between 40 and 59 years old. In the male population without previous diseases, the CFR in the second wave was 2.18 (95% CI, 1.62-2.93) times the CFR of the first wave in the population over 85 years old and 5.9 (95% CI, 3.2-10.85; p < 0, 0001) higher in the range between 20 and 39 years old.}}</ref>}}
|{{risk|level=high|align=ml|Overall reduction in effective neutralisation<wbr/><ref name="ECDC1" />}}
|-
|style="text-align:center"|{{sort|25|—}}
|[[SARS-CoV-2 알파 변이#E484K 돌연변이|B.1.1.7 with E484K]]<wbr/><ref name="PHE2102">{{Cite web|last=Public Health England|date=16 February 2021|title=Variants: distribution of cases data|url=https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-variants-genomically-confirmed-case-numbers/variants-distribution-of-cases-data|url-status=live|access-date=2021-02-17|website=GOV.UK}}</ref>
|VOC‑21FEB‑02
|20I/501Y.V1{{efn-ua|name=20B}}
|[[영국]]
|{{dts|2021|01|26|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite techreport |type=Briefing |title=Investigation of novel SARS-CoV-2 variant 202012/01, technical briefing 5 |id=GW-1905 |institution=Public Health England |date=2021-02-02 |url=https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/959426/Variant_of_Concern_VOC_202012_01_Technical_Briefing_5.pdf |format=PDF |access-date=2021-06-14}}</ref>
|{{dts|2021|02|05|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref name="GW-1934">{{cite techreport |type=Briefing |title=Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in England, technical briefing 6 |id=GW-1934 |institution=Public Health England |date=2021-02-13 |url=https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/961299/Variants_of_Concern_VOC_Technical_Briefing_6_England-1.pdf |format=PDF |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
|69–70del, E484K, N501Y, P681H<ref name=":33"/>{{sfnp|Chand ''et al.''|2020|p=6|loc=Potential impact of spike variant N501Y}}
|{{risk|level=unknown|align=ml|''조사 중''}}
|{{risk|level=unknown|align=ml|''조사 중''}}
|{{risk|level=veryhigh|align=ml|Significant reduction in neutralisation by antibodies.<ref name="b117e484k">{{cite journal|vauthors= Collier DA, De Marco A, Gupta RK, et al|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03412-7|title=Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies.|doi=10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7|date=2021-05-06|access-date=2021-06-01|journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]] |volume=593 |pages=136–141 |type=Published |quote=We therefore generated pseudoviruses that carried the B.1.1.7 spike mutations with or without the additional E484K substitution and tested these against sera obtained after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine as well as against convalescent sera. After the second vaccine dose, we observed a considerable loss of neutralizing activity for the pseudovirus with the B.1.1.7 spike mutations and E484K (Fig. 3d, e). The mean fold change for the E484K-containing B.1.1.7 spike variant was 6.7 compared with 1.9 for the B.1.1.7 variant, relative to the wild-type spike protein (Fig. 3a–c and Extended Data Fig. 5). Similarly, when we tested a panel of convalescent sera with a range of neutralization titres (Fig. 1f, g and Extended Data Fig. 5), we observed additional loss of activity against the mutant B.1.1.7 spike with E484K, with fold change of 11.4 relative to the wild-type spike protein (Fig. 3f, g and Extended Data Fig. 5).|doi-access=free}}</ref>}}
|-
|{{sort|5|엡실론}}
|B.1.429, B.1.427
|style="text-align:center"|—
|20C/S:452R
|[[미국]]
|{{dts|2020|03|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|{{dts|2021|03|17|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite news |last=Azad |first=Arman |title=Coronavirus strains first detected in California are officially 'variants of concern,' CDC says |url=https://edition.cnn.com/2021/03/17/health/california-variants-of-concern-cdc/index.html |work=CNN |date=2021-03-17 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
|L452R<wbr /><ref name=":33" />
|{{risk|level=medium|align=ml|{{Estimate|+20|unit=%|mini=auto}} ({{val|19|-|24|u=%}})<wbr/><ref name="cdc-variants"/><ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Deng X, Garcia-Knight MA, Khalid MM, Servellita V, Wang C, Morris MK, Sotomayor-González A, Glasner DR, Reyes KR, Gliwa AS, Reddy NP, Sanchez San Martin C, Federman S, Cheng J, Balcerek J, Taylor J, Streithorst JA, Miller S, Kumar GR, Sreekumar B, Chen PY, Schulze-Gahmen U, Taha TY, Hayashi J, Simoneau CR, McMahon S, Lidsky PV, Xiao Y, Hemarajata P, Green NM, Espinosa A, Kath C, Haw M, Bell J, Hacker JK, Hanson C, Wadford DA, Anaya C, Ferguson D, Lareau LF, Frankino PA, Shivram H, Wyman SK, Ott M, Andino R, Chiu CY | display-authors = 6 | title = Transmission, infectivity, and antibody neutralization of an emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant in California carrying a L452R spike protein mutation | journal = MedRxiv | date = March 2021 | pmid = 33758899 | pmc = 7987058 | doi = 10.1101/2021.03.07.21252647 | type = [[Preprint]] }}</ref>}}
|{{risk|align=ml|''Under investigation''}}
|{{risk|level=high|align=ml|Moderately decreased sensitivity to neutralising antibodies<ref name="CaliNews">{{cite news | vauthors = Wadman M |date=2021-02-23 |title=California coronavirus strain may be more infectious – and lethal |url=https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/02/coronavirus-strain-first-identified-california-may-be-more-infectious-and-cause-more |doi=10.1126/science.abh2101 |work=[[Science (journal)|Science]] News |access-date=2021-03-17}}</ref>}}
|-
|{{sort|4|[[SARS-CoV-2 델타 변이|델타]]}}
|B.1.617.2
|VOC‑21APR‑02<wbr/>
|21A/S:478K<wbr/><ref name="who-update-latest"/><ref name="aci-variants"/>
|[[인도]]
|{{dts|2020|10|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|{{dts|2021|05|06|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr/><ref>{{cite techreport |type=Briefing |title=SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England, technical briefing 10 |id=GOV-8226 |institution=Public Health England |date=2021-05-07 |url=https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/984274/Variants_of_Concern_VOC_Technical_Briefing_10_England.pdf |format=PDF |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
|L452R, T478K, P681R<ref name=20A_617/>
|{{risk|level=veryhigh|align=ml|{{Estimate|+155|unit=%|mini=auto}}<wbr/>{{efn-ua|About 40% more transmissible than the Alpha variant.<ref>{{cite news |last=Walker |first=Peter |title=Covid Delta variant ‘about 40% more transmissible’, says Matt Hancock |url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jun/06/covid-delta-variant-about-40-more-transmissible-says-matt-hancock |access-date=2021-06-06 |work=The Guardian |date=2021-06-06}}</ref>}}<wbr/>{{Better source needed|date=May 2021|Vague metric which has no data to support it, based off an already more infectious variant with a wide margin of possible deviation. Besides that, despite coming from a legitimate source the metric is not entirely citable based on guidelines presented by WP:MEDRS.}}}}
|{{risk|align=ml|''Under investigation''}}
|{{risk|level=medium|align=ml|Slight reduction in effective neutralisation<ref name="B.1.617 neutralization">{{cite journal |vauthors=Yadav PD, Sapkal GN, Abraham P, Ella R, Deshpande G, Patil DY, Nyayanit DA, Gupta N, Sahay RR, Shete AM, Panda S, Bhargava B, Mohan VK |display-authors=6 |title=Neutralization of variant under investigation B.1.617 with sera of BBV152 vaccinees. |journal=Clinical Infectious Diseases |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2021-05-07 |doi=10.1093/cid/ciab411 |pmid=33961693 |url=https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cid/ciab411/6271524 |url-access=subscription |biorxiv=10.1101/2021.04.23.441101}}</ref>}}
|-
|{{sort|10|[[SARS-CoV-2 카파 변이|카파]]}}
|B.1.617.1
|VUI‑21APR‑01
|21A/S:154K<wbr/><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|[[인도]]
|{{dts|2020|10|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|—
|L452R, E484Q, P681R<ref>{{Cite news|last1=Nuki|first1=Paul|last2=Newey|first2=Sarah|date=2021-04-16|title=Arrival of India's 'double mutation' adds to variant woes, but threat posed remains unclear|language=en-GB|work=The Telegraph|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/arrival-indias-double-mutation-adds-variant-woes-threat-posed/|access-date=2021-04-17|issn=0307-1235}}</ref>
|{{risk|align=ml|''Under investigation''}}
|{{risk|align=ml|''Under investigation''}}
|{{risk|level=medium|align=ml|Slight reduction in effective neutralisation<ref name="B.1.617 neutralization"/>}}
|-
|{{sort|7|Eta}}
|B.1.525
|VUI‑21FEB‑03<wbr />{{efn-ua|Formerly UK1188.}}
|20A/S:484K
|[[Nigeria]]
|{{dts|2020|12|11|format=dmy|abbr=on}}<wbr /><ref>{{cite web |url=https://cov-lineages.org/global_report_B.1.525.html |title=B.1.525 international lineage report |website=cov-lineages.org |publisher=[[Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak Lineages|Pango]] team |access-date=2021-06-04}}</ref><ref name="qc-earliest">{{cite web |type=Software issue |title=Date mismatch between international report and lineage description - cov-lineages/pangolin |url=https://github.com/cov-lineages/pangolin/issues/243 |website=GitHub |date=2021-06-13 |access-date=2021-06-14}}</ref><ref name="who-update-latest"/>
|—
|E484K, F888L<wbr /><ref name="Pango B.1.525" />|E484K, F888L<wbr /><ref name="Pango B.1.5253">{{cite web|title=B.1.525|url=https://cov-lineages.org/global_report_B.1.525.html|access-date=2021-03-22|website=cov-lineages.org|publisher=[[Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak Lineages|Pango]] team}}</ref>
|{{risk|align=ml|''Under investigation''}}
|{{risk|align=ml|''Under investigation''}}
|{{risk|level=medium|align=ml|Possibly reduced neutralisation<wbr/><ref name="cdc-variants"/>}}
|}


{{토막글|질병}}



[[분류:SARS-CoV-2]]
[[분류: SARS-CoV-2]]

2021년 6월 15일 (화) 18:16 판

코로나바이러스감염증-19(코로나19)를 일으키는 SARS-CoV-2는 많은 변이가 있다. 일부는 전염성이 증가하거나, 독성이 늘거나, 백신의 효과가 감소하기 때문에 특히 중요하다.

개괄

상대적 위험도:   매우 높음   높음   보통   낮음   모름

식별 출현 우한에서 처음 발견된 바이러스와의 차이
WHO[1] PANGO 계통[2] PHE 변종[A] Nextstrain clade[4][5] 첫 발발 초기 샘플 Designated variant of concern 주요 돌연변이 감염성 병독성 항원성
알파 B.1.1.7 VOC‑20DEC‑01 20I/501Y.V1[B] 영국 2020/9/20[6][7] 2020/12/18[8] 69–70del, N501Y, P681H[9][10] +82% (43130%)[11] Lethality: +61% (4282%)[12][C] No change[14]
베타 B.1.351 VOC‑20DEC‑02 20H/501Y.V2 남아프리카 공화국 2020/5[7] 2021/1/14[15] K417N, E484K, N501Y[9] +50% (20113%)[14] No evidence of change[16] Significant reduction in neutralisation by antibodies[17][18]
감마 P.1 VOC‑21JAN‑02 20J/501Y.V3 브라질 2020/11[7] 2021/1/15[19][20] K417T, E484K, N501Y[9] +161% (145176%) [21][E] Lethality: +50% (50% CrI, 2090%)[22][D][F] Overall reduction in effective neutralisation[14]
B.1.1.7 with E484K[24] VOC‑21FEB‑02 20I/501Y.V1[B] 영국 2021/1/26[25] 2021/2/5[26] 69–70del, E484K, N501Y, P681H[9][10] 조사 중 조사 중 Significant reduction in neutralisation by antibodies.[27]
엡실론 B.1.429, B.1.427 20C/S:452R 미국 2020/3[7] 2021/3/17[28] L452R[9] +20% (19%–24%)[5][29] Under investigation Moderately decreased sensitivity to neutralising antibodies[30]
델타 B.1.617.2 VOC‑21APR‑02 21A/S:478K[7][31] 인도 2020/10[7] 2021/5/6[32] L452R, T478K, P681R[33] +155%[G]틀:Better source needed Under investigation Slight reduction in effective neutralisation[35]
카파 B.1.617.1 VUI‑21APR‑01 21A/S:154K[7] 인도 2020/10[7] L452R, E484Q, P681R[36] Under investigation Under investigation Slight reduction in effective neutralisation[35]
Eta B.1.525 VUI‑21FEB‑03[H] 20A/S:484K Nigeria 2020/12/11[37][38][7] E484K, F888L[40] Under investigation Under investigation Possibly reduced neutralisation[5]
  1. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; who-variants라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  2. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; pango-lineages라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  3. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; phe-voc라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  4. “Nextstrain”. 《nextstrain.org》. Nextstrain. 
  5. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; cdc-variants라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  6. Rambaut A, Loman N, Pybus O, Barclay W, Barrett J, Carabelli A, 외. (2020년 12월 18일). “Preliminary genomic characterisation of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in the UK defined by a novel set of spike mutations”. 《Virological》. 2021년 6월 14일에 확인함. 
  7. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; who-update-latest라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  8. 《Investigation of novel SARS-COV-2 variant, technical briefing 1》 (PDF) (Briefing). Public Health England. 2020년 12월 21일. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  9. “Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants”. 《CDC.gov》 (Science brief). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021년 1월 28일. 2021년 1월 4일에 확인함.  이 문서는 퍼블릭 도메인 출처의 본문을 포함합니다.
  10. Chand et al. (2020), 6쪽, Potential impact of spike variant N501Y.
  11. Davies NG, Abbott S, Barnard RC, Jarvis CI, Kucharski AJ, Munday JD; 외. (2021). “Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England.”. 《Science》 372 (6538). doi:10.1126/science.abg3055. PMC 8128288. PMID 33658326. 
  12. Davies G, Jarvis C, Edmunds WJ, Jewell N, Diaz-Ordaz K, Keogh R (2021년 3월 15일). “Increased mortality in community-tested cases of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7”. 《Nature》 (Published) 593 (7858): 270–274. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03426-1. PMID 33723411. 2021년 4월 29일에 확인함. 
  13. DChallen R, Brooks-Pollock E, Read J, Dyson L, Tsaneva-Atanasova K, Danon L (2021년 3월 10일). “Risk of mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/1: matched cohort study”. 《The BMJ》 (Published) 372: n579. doi:10.1136/bmj.n579. PMC 7941603. PMID 33687922. 
  14. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; ECDC1라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  15. Horby, Peter; Barclay, Wendy; Huntley, Catherine (2021년 1월 13일). 《NERVTAG paper: brief note on SARS-CoV-2 variants》 (Note). Public Health England. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  16. Sruthi S (2021년 2월 10일). “Notable Variants And Mutation Of SARS-CoV-2”. 《BioTecNika》. 2021년 3월 22일에 확인함. 
  17. Planas D, Bruel T, Grzelak L, 외. (2021년 4월 14일). “Sensitivity of infectious SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants to neutralizing antibodies”. 《Nature Medicine》 27 (5): 917–924. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01318-5. PMID 33772244. 
  18. “Coronavirus: Sinovac vaccine gives 70 per cent less protection against South African variant, but Hongkongers urged to still get jab”. 《South China Morning Post》. 2021년 4월 20일. 2021년 4월 20일에 확인함. 
  19. “Confirmed cases of COVID-19 variants identified in UK”. Friday 15 January: GOV.UK. Public Health England. 2021년 1월 15일. 
  20. Horby, Peter; Barclay, Wendy; Gupta, Ravi; Huntley, Catherine (2021년 1월 27일). 《NERVTAG paper: note on variant P.1》 (Note). Public Health England. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  21. Coutinho RM, Marquitti FM, Ferreira LS, Borges ME, da Silva RL, Canton O, 외. (2021년 3월 23일). “Model-based estimation of transmissibility and reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 P.1 variant”. 《medRxiv》 (Preprint): 9. doi:10.1101/2021.03.03.21252706. 2021년 4월 29일에 확인함. The new variant was found to be about 2.6 times more transmissible (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.4–2.8) than previous circulating variant(s). ... Table 1: Summary of the fitted parameters and respective confidence intervals considering the entire period, November 1, 2020-January 31, 2021 maintaining the same pathogenicity of the previous variant. Parameter: Relative transmission rate for the new variant. Estimate: 2.61. 2.5%: 2.45. 97.5%: 2.76. 
  22. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; cadde-p1라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  23. Freitas AR, Lemos DR, Beckedorff OA, Cavalcanti LP, Siqueira AM, Mello RC, 외. (2021년 4월 19일). “The increase in the risk of severity and fatality rate of covid-19 in southern Brazil after the emergence of the Variant of Concern (VOC) SARS-CoV-2 P.1 was greater among young adults without pre-existing risk conditions” (Preprint). doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.21255281 – medRxiv 경유. Female 20 to 39 years old, with no pre-existing risk conditions, were at risk of death 5.65 times higher in February (95% CI, 2.9-11.03; p <0.0001) and in the age group of 40 and 59 years old, this risk was 7.7 times higher (95% CI, 5.01-11.83; p <0.0001) comparing with November–December. ... The heterogeneity observed between the age groups was greater when we analyzed the subgroup of the population without preexisting risk conditions where we found that the CFR in the female sex in the second wave was 1.95 times (95% CI, 1.38-2.76) the CFR of the first wave in the population over 85 years old and was 7.7 times (95% CI, 5.01-11.83; p < 0.0001) in the population between 40 and 59 years old. In the male population without previous diseases, the CFR in the second wave was 2.18 (95% CI, 1.62-2.93) times the CFR of the first wave in the population over 85 years old and 5.9 (95% CI, 3.2-10.85; p < 0, 0001) higher in the range between 20 and 39 years old. 
  24. Public Health England (2021년 2월 16일). “Variants: distribution of cases data”. 《GOV.UK》. 2021년 2월 17일에 확인함. 
  25. 《Investigation of novel SARS-CoV-2 variant 202012/01, technical briefing 5》 (PDF) (Briefing). Public Health England. 2021년 2월 2일. GW-1905. 2021년 6월 14일에 확인함. 
  26. 《Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in England, technical briefing 6》 (PDF) (Briefing). Public Health England. 2021년 2월 13일. GW-1934. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  27. Collier DA, De Marco A, Gupta RK, 외. (2021년 5월 6일). “Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies.”. 《Nature》 (Published) 593: 136–141. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7. 2021년 6월 1일에 확인함. We therefore generated pseudoviruses that carried the B.1.1.7 spike mutations with or without the additional E484K substitution and tested these against sera obtained after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine as well as against convalescent sera. After the second vaccine dose, we observed a considerable loss of neutralizing activity for the pseudovirus with the B.1.1.7 spike mutations and E484K (Fig. 3d, e). The mean fold change for the E484K-containing B.1.1.7 spike variant was 6.7 compared with 1.9 for the B.1.1.7 variant, relative to the wild-type spike protein (Fig. 3a–c and Extended Data Fig. 5). Similarly, when we tested a panel of convalescent sera with a range of neutralization titres (Fig. 1f, g and Extended Data Fig. 5), we observed additional loss of activity against the mutant B.1.1.7 spike with E484K, with fold change of 11.4 relative to the wild-type spike protein (Fig. 3f, g and Extended Data Fig. 5). 
  28. Azad, Arman (2021년 3월 17일). “Coronavirus strains first detected in California are officially 'variants of concern,' CDC says”. 《CNN》. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  29. Deng X, Garcia-Knight MA, Khalid MM, Servellita V, Wang C, Morris MK, 외. (March 2021). “Transmission, infectivity, and antibody neutralization of an emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant in California carrying a L452R spike protein mutation”. 《MedRxiv》 (Preprint). doi:10.1101/2021.03.07.21252647. PMC 7987058. PMID 33758899. 
  30. Wadman M (2021년 2월 23일). “California coronavirus strain may be more infectious – and lethal”. 《Science News》. doi:10.1126/science.abh2101. 2021년 3월 17일에 확인함. 
  31. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; aci-variants라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  32. 《SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England, technical briefing 10》 (PDF) (Briefing). Public Health England. 2021년 5월 7일. GOV-8226. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  33. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; 20A_617라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  34. Walker, Peter (2021년 6월 6일). “Covid Delta variant ‘about 40% more transmissible’, says Matt Hancock”. 《The Guardian》. 2021년 6월 6일에 확인함. 
  35. Yadav PD, Sapkal GN, Abraham P, Ella R, Deshpande G, Patil DY, 외. (2021년 5월 7일). “Neutralization of variant under investigation B.1.617 with sera of BBV152 vaccinees.”. 《Clinical Infectious Diseases》 (Oxford University Press). bioRxiv 10.1101/2021.04.23.441101 |biorxiv= 값 확인 필요 (도움말). doi:10.1093/cid/ciab411. PMID 33961693. 
  36. Nuki, Paul; Newey, Sarah (2021년 4월 16일). “Arrival of India's 'double mutation' adds to variant woes, but threat posed remains unclear”. 《The Telegraph》 (영어). ISSN 0307-1235. 2021년 4월 17일에 확인함. 
  37. “B.1.525 international lineage report”. 《cov-lineages.org》. Pango team. 2021년 6월 4일에 확인함. 
  38. “Date mismatch between international report and lineage description - cov-lineages/pangolin”. 《GitHub》 (Software issue). 2021년 6월 13일. 2021년 6월 14일에 확인함. 
  39. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; Pango B.1.525라는 이름을 가진 주석에 텍스트가 없습니다
  40. “B.1.525”. 《cov-lineages.org》. Pango team. 2021년 3월 22일에 확인함. 


인용 오류: "upper-alpha"이라는 이름을 가진 그룹에 대한 <ref> 태그가 존재하지만, 이에 대응하는 <references group="upper-alpha" /> 태그가 없습니다