핼리팩스 대폭발

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
이동: 둘러보기, 검색
핼리팩스 대폭발
Halifax Explosion blast cloud.jpg
폭발 15~20초 이후, 폭발 지점인 베드포드 만의 남동부에 위치한, 현재 베드포드 해양 협회 소유 도크에서 바라본 폭발로 인한 화재적운.[1]
날짜 1917년 12월 6일
시간 9:04:35 (AST)
위치 캐나다 노바스코샤 주 핼리팩스
좌표 북위 44° 40′ 09″ 서경 63° 35′ 47″ / 북위 44.66917° 서경 63.59639° / 44.66917; -63.59639좌표: 북위 44° 40′ 09″ 서경 63° 35′ 47″ / 북위 44.66917° 서경 63.59639° / 44.66917; -63.59639
원인 선박 충돌 및 화재
사망자 2,000명 (추정치) (1,950명 식별)
부상자 9,000명 (추정치)

핼리팩스 대폭발(영어: Halifax Explosion)은 1917년 12월 6일 캐나다 노바스코샤 주 핼리팩스에서 일어난 폭발 사고이다. 이 사고는 전시에 이용할 화약을 가득 실은 프랑스 화물선 SS 몽블랑베드포드 만핼리팩스 항구 상부를 잇는 해협에서 노르웨이 화믈선 SS 이모와 충돌하여 발생한 사고이다.[2] 충돌 약 20분 후, 프랑스 화물선 갑판에 화재가 발생하고 이 화재가 폭발성 화물에 번져 점화되어 폭발해 리치몬드 도시가 거의 폐허로 되었다. 약 2천명의 사람이 건물 파편, 붕괴, 화재 등으로 인해 사망하고, 9천명 이상이 부상을 입었다.[3] 이 폭발은 핵무기가 개발되기 전 까지 가장 큰 규모의 인공폭발이었으며,[4] 폭발의 세기는 트라이나이트로톨루엔(TNT) 약 2.9킬로톤 정도의 화력으로 히로시마에 투하한 리틀 보이의 10분의 1 정도 화력이다.[5] 1918년 5월, 캐나다 왕립 학회 회의에서는 댈하우지 대학교의 교수 하워드 L. 브로슨이 이 대폭발은 고성능 폭약 일부인 2,400톤이 폭발했을 것이라고 추측했다.[6]

화물선 몽블랑은 프랑스 정부의 명령으로 해외에서 프랑스 보르도까지 가는 폭발성 화물을 운반하고 있었다. 대략 오전 8시 45분, 몽블랑은 뉴욕으로 구호 물자를 선적할려던 벨기에 구호위원회 소속의 아무것도 싣지 않은 전세선인 이모(Imo)와 1.6km/h에서 2.4km/h의 속도 정도의 느린 속도로 충돌했다. 그 결과 프랑스 선박 갑판에 화재가 일어나면서 급속도로 통제력을 잃기 시작했다. 적절하고 접근 가능한 소방 장비가 없어서 배의 선장, 승무원, 장병들은 사고 몇 분 만에 배를 포기해야만 했다. 약 20분 후인 오전 9시 4분 35초, 몽블랑은 엄청난 힘으로 폭발했다.[7] 리치몬드 지역 전체를 포함한 반경 800m의 모든 구조물이 파괴되었다. 공기중의 P파로 인해 나무가 부러지고, 철도 레일이 구부러졌으며, 건물이 붕괴되고 선박이 지상 위로 올리왔으며 몽블랑 함선의 조각들은 수 킬로미터까지 날라갔다. 도시의 거의 모든 창이 강한 진동으로 인해 파손되었다. 항구 맞은 편에 위치한 다트머스에도 광범위한 피해가 발생했다.[3] 충격파로 발생한 쓰나미로 인해 터프코브 지역에 살았던 미크마크인 1세대 공동체는 거의 전멸하였다. 쓰나미가 네빈코브에 도달하면서 5명의 아이들이 익사하는 등 베드포드 만 전역에서 사상자가 발생했다.[8]

전시의 핼리팩스[편집]

1900년도에 촬영한 아키디아 제당 회사 소속 곡물 수송 엘리베이터 앞에서 북쪽을 바라보고 찍은 모습. 사진의 모습이 1917년 대폭발로 폐허가 된 영역이다.

핼리팩스 항구는 세계에서 가장 깊은 유빙이 없는 항구이다.[9] 다트머스는 항구 북쪽 해안에 자리잡고 있고, 핼리팩스 도시는 남쪽 해안에 자리잡고 있다. 핼리팩스와 다트머스는 전쟁기 동안 번성하게 되었다. 이 항구는 영국 해군의 가장 중요한 해군기지 중 하나로, 미국 독립 혁명, 나폴레옹 전쟁, 1812년 전쟁 당시 사략선의 모항이자 전시 무역을 위한 항구로 이용했다.[10] 미국 남북 전쟁의 종전으로 캐나다와 미국 간 호혜 조약이 만료되었고, 이로 인해 미국으로 수출하는 제품에 대해 새롭게 관세가 붙여지게 되어 핼리팩스는 경제적 쇠퇴로 급락하였다.[11] 영국 수비군이 1905년 철수한 이후로 핼리팩스 항구는 캐나다 민병대가 방어를 맡게 되었다.[12] 영국 선원과 군인은 캐나다 민병대 및 국방부에게 장비 수 톤, 빈 막사, 퍼레이드 지대와 활기없는 조선소를 물려주었다. 도시 전체가 경제 침체에 빠지게 되었다.[13] 1906년 이후, 캐나다 정부는 영국 해군에게서 핼리팩스 영국 해군 조선소를 인수했다. 이곳은 CFB 핼리팩스로 개칭되었고 이후 1910년부터 캐나다 왕립 해군의 사령부 중심지가 되었다.

그러나, 제1차 세계 대전 직전 캐나다 정부는 뒤늦게 이 도시가 단순한 통과점이 아닌 많은 중요성이 있는 지역임을 알았고, 항구와 부두 시설을 개발하기 위해 많은 비용의 노력을 들였다. 전쟁 발발은 핼리팩스를 다시 부활하게 만들었다. 갓 만들어진 캐나다 왕립 해군은 사실상 항해에 적합한 배가 없었고, 영국 해군은 대서양 항로 방어를 위한 기지로 북미의 핼리팩스를 계속 기지로 이용하게 되었다.[14] 1915년, 항구 관리는 핼리팩스 항구 선장 관리인이자 수석 해군 장교, 선장 교육감, 캐나다 왕립 해군 대학(RNCC)의 공동 사령관인 은퇴 해군 장교 에드워드 해링턴 마틴 하의 캐나다 왕립 해군이 맡게 되었다.[15]

1917년에는 핼리팩스와 다트머스의 인구가 65,000명으로 증가했다.[16] 수송선단은 유럽 전장으로 군인, 인력, 동물, 보급품들을 운반했다. 또한, 1917년에는 시드니 동부 해안으로 향하는 호송선단(HMCS 랜즈도운)의 출발점은 핼리팩스 및 캐이프 브레턴이 되었다.[17] 병원선의 부상자들도 이 곳으로 데려왔다.

독일군은 연합국대서양을 횡단하는 호송선단에 대한 유보트 공격이 성공하여 유럽으로 향하는 제품 및 군인에 대한 수송이 줄어들고 있었다. 항구 북서쪽 끝에 위치한 베드포드 만화물선이 몰려 있었고, 캐나다 왕립 해군 소속 방잠망 2개와 순찰선으로 보호받고 있었다. 호송선단은 영국 해군 소속 순양함과 구축함으로 호위를 받으면서 출발했다.[18] 도시 및 항구는 포대와 방잠망으로 구성된 대형 주둔군이 보호하고 있었다. 도시에서 제조산업주택지 확장이 대형 군사 주둔을 불러오게 되었다.[19]항구를 거치는 물품의 중량은 거의 9배 증가했다.[20] SS 이모 같은 중립국 선박은 북아메리카 항구로 정박할 수 있었으며, 검사를 위해 핼리팩스로 향하고 있었다.

재앙[편집]

노르웨이 배인 SS 이모벨기에로 구호 물자를 보내기 위해 뉴욕에서 네덜란드 로테르담으로 항해하고 있었다. 이 선박은 중립 검사를 위해 12월 3일 핼리팩스에 도착했고 이틀 동안 베드포드 만에 있으면서 연료를 보급받았다. 12월 5일 세관 검사가 통과되어 항구를 떠났지만, 석탄 50톤 보급이 연기되어 오후 늦게까지 출발하지 못했다. 밤에 대잠망이 올라갈 때 까지 연료 보급을 받지 못했다. 따라서, 배는 다음날까지 닻을 올릴 수 없었다.[21] 프랑스 화물선 SS 몽블랑은 12월 5일 뉴욕에서 핼리팩스로 도착했다. 선박 적하 목록에 따르면,[22] 화물은 트라이나이트로톨루엔, 피크린산, 고농도의 벤졸, 니트로셀룰로오스 등 폭발물을 가득 채우고 있었다. 몽블랑은 유럽으로 출발하기 위해 베드포드 만 내로 진입하여 느린 호송선단에 합류하기 위해 준비하고 있었지만, 방잠망이 올라오기 전에 항구에 들어오지 못했다.[21] 전쟁 전에는 위험물을 운송하는 선박은 항구에 정박하지 못했지만 독일 잠수함의 위협 때문에 이 규정은 느슨해졌다.[23]

충돌과 화재[편집]

SS 이모와 SS 몽블랑의 충돌 지점과 폭발 지점.

베드포드 만 내의 내부 항구로 항해하기 위해서는 좁은 해협을 통과해야 했다. 1910년 국제해상충돌방지조약의 18조에 따르면, 선박이 통행할 것으로 예상되는 해협에서는 다가오는 배의 우현으로 통과할 것을 명시하고 있다. 다른 말로, 선박은 항구의 좌현 쪽으로 통과해야 했다. SS 이모는 12월 6일 선장 윌리엄 헤이즈가 갑판에 탑승한 이후 오전 7시 30분에 만을 떠날수 있는 허가를 받았다. 제독 관리자 에드워드 해링턴이 공표한 항공 공공교통 규칙에 따라서, 이모는 약 7노트을 최대로 한 제한된 속력으로 항해한 채 좁은 해협의 윗부분에 진입했다.[24] SS 이모는 미국 소속의 부정기선 SS 클라라를 만났고 이 때, 에드워드 레너가 잘못 조종하여 항구의 서현으로 틀어서 항해한다. 그러나 항해사들은 서로를 잘 알고 있었고 확성기를 통해 각각 함선의 우현으로 통과하자는 데 합의했다. 하지만, 이후 해협 근처에서 베드포드 만의 항구로 항해하는 예인선 스텔라 마리스가 SS 이모 근처를 통과하면서 이모는 다트머스 해안 쪽으로 뱃머리를 더 꺾게 된다. 스텔라 마리스의 선장인 호라시오 배넌(Horatio Brannen)은 이모가 과속하고 있다는 것을 발견하고 사고를 막기 위해 해안 서부로 배를 가까이 할 것을 명령했다.[25]

저녁이 되기 전에 24년 동안 도선사를 해온 45세의 프랭시스 맥키(Francis Mackey)는 몽블랑에 탑생했다. 그러나, 방잠망이 이미 떠올랐기 때문에 배는 출항 허가를 받았지만 항구를 떠날려면 새벽까지 기다려야 했다. 그래서, 맥키는 선장의 손님으로써 배 갑판 위에서 밤을 보냈다. 새벽에, 배는 조지 섬을 지나 베드포드 만 쪽을 향했다.[26] 배가 지나가면서 맥키는 핼리팩스-다트머스 지역의 페리들과 이 지역의 기타 작은 보트들에만 신경을 집중했다.[27] 맥키는 배를 제 9부두로 방향을 틀면서 이모를 발견했지만, 이 배의 경로는 이모 배의 우현 쪽으로 나타났기 때문에 배의 진로를 막고 있는 것처럼 보였다. 맥키는 배가 선로의 우측에 있음을 알리기 위해 짧게 호각 소리를 냈지만, SS 이모는 접근하는 선박에게 자신이 비켜줄 수 없다는 뜻의 2번 호각 소리를 냈다.[28] 선장 르 메디치(Le Médec)와 맥키는 SS 이모가 왜 해협의 잘못된 방향에 있는 지 이유에 대해 식별할 수 없었다. 몽블랑의 선장은 엔진을 정지하고 각도를 약간 우현으로 틀어 다트머스의 수로로 들어가라고 명령했다. 그가 다른 선박도 우현으로 이동하길 바란다는 호각을 울려 또 다른 소리를 냈지만, 반대쪽 선박에서는 부정이라는 뜻의 2번의 소리를 냈다.[29]

근처 선박에 있던 선원들이 두 선박 사이의 신호를 듣고, 이모와 몽블랑 간에 충돌이 임박한 것을 깨달았다.[30] 두 선박은 이 시점에서 엔진을 껐지만, 각각 느린 속도로 서로의 우현에 부딪히기 직전에 있었다. 폭발성 화물이 싣어 있었기 때문에 충격을 두려움으로 배의 닻을 내릴 수 없었고, 항구 방향으로 어렵게 조종했고(키를 우현으로 둠) 마지막 몇 초 동안 노르웨이 선박과 충돌을 피하기 위해 뱃머리를 통과하고자 했다. 두 선박은 거의 평행한 상태까지 오게 되었고, 이모가 갑자기 3번의 호각소리를 내자 엔진을 역전시켰다. 벨러스트와 우현 프로펠러의 횡방향 추력으로 인해 뱃머리가 갑작스럽게 몽블랑 방향으로 휘었다. 선박 이모가 몽블랑의 1번 갑판 우현을 2.5m나 밀어냈다.[31]

이 충돌은 오전 8시 45분에 일어났다.[32] 이모의 엔진이 효과가 나타나기 시작하면서, 신속하게 분리되었고 이로 인해 몽블랑의 선체에 불꽃을 만들어냈다. 이 불꽃은 피크린산의 증기를 불붙게 만들었다. 불이 홀수선에서 시작하여 배 측면으로 빠르게 번졌고, 벤젠이 몽블랑 갑판에 짓눌린 드럼에서 새어나와 밖으로 분출되었다. 이 화재는 곧 통제 불가능해졌다. 두꺼운 검은 연기를 만들어내며 배 폭발을 두려워해 선장은 승무원에게 배를 포기하라고 지시했다.[33] 핼리팩스 시민들은 길거리나 창문에서 불기둥을 보고 모여들었다.[34] 몽블랑에서는 구명보트 2척에 탄 승무원들이 몽블랑이 폭발하고 있다고 소리치며 다른 선박들에게 알리고 있었지만, 소음과 혼란상으로 인해 제대로 전달할 수 없었다.[35] 승무원들은 핼리팩스 해안에서 35m 떨어진 몽블랑 좌현으로 탈출했다. 구명보트는 다트머스 해안의 항구로 향했으며, 버려진 배는 조류와 함께 표류되어 6부두 근처의 리치몬드 거리까지 도달했다.[36]

폭발[편집]

폭발 이틀 후, 항구의 다트머스 방향으로 본 황폐한 핼리팩스의 모습. SS 이모가 항구 반대편에서 좌초된 것을 볼 수 있다.

오전 9시 4분 35초, 통제가 불가능했던 몽블랑 갑판의 화재로 인해 옮겨붙은 폭발성 화물이 폭발했다. 배가 완전히 폭발하면서 선박 잔해는 공중 약 300m까지 던져졌다.[37] 폭발 진동은 초당 1km를 움직였다. 폭발 당시 중심부는 온도가 5000℃에 달했으며 수천 기압의 압력이 형성되었다.[38] 철파편으로 이루어진 비가 다트머스와 핼리팩스에 내렸다.[39] 몽블랑의 포신 중 하나가 폭발 현장에서 북쪽으로 약 5.6km 떨어진 다트머스의 알브로 호수 근처에 떨어졌으며, 배의 앵커 부분은 남쪽으로 3.2km 떨어진 아르므델에 떨어졌다.[40]

폭발로 인한 연기가 고도 3,600m까지 올라갔다.[41] 폭발로 인한 충격파는 음속의 23배로 움직이면서 멀리 케이프브레턴 섬프린스에드워드아일랜드 주에도 느껴졌다.[42] 폭발로 인해 주변 160헥타르 지역이 완전히 파괴되었으며,[40] 폭발로 인해 순식간에 물이 증발하며 항구 바닥이 드러냈다. 이 빈 공간을 채우기 위해 쓰나미가 발생하면서[43] 항구의 핼리팩스 쪽에서는 약 18m 높이의 해일이 덮치게 되었다.[44] SS 이모는 쓰나미로 인해 다트머스 해안으로 밀려나게 되었다.[45]

이 폭발로 인해 즉시 1,600명 이상이 사망하고 9,000명이 부상을 입었다.[46] 반경 2.6km 내에 있는 모든 건물 12,000개 이상이 파괴되어 붕괴하거나 심각하게 손상을 입게 되었다.[43] 자신의 집에서 폭발을 보게 된 수백명의 사람들이 폭풍파가 창문을 덮쳐 깨지면서 실명하게 만들었다.[47] 폭발로 인한 충격으로 핼리팩스 전역의 스토브 및 램프가 뒤집어지면서 곳곳에서 화재가 발생했으며,[48] 특히 노스 앤드 도시 전체 블록이 화재로 뒤덮으면서 주민 대부분이 사망했다. 폭발로 인해 날아가서 떨어진 소방수 빌리 웰스는 살아남아서 다음과 같이 말했다. "보이는 모습은 죽은 사람이 창문에 매달려 있는 무서운 모습이었다. 몇몇의 시체는 머리가 없었고, 일부는 머리가 전신에 걸려져 있었다." 그는 소방차 '파트리샤'의 승무원 8명 중 유일하게 살아 남은 사람이었다.[49]

6부두 근처의 아카디아 제당, 힐스&선스 파운드리 같은 벽돌 공장은 잔해도 남지 않게 파괴되었고 근로자 대부분이 사망했다. 폭발 지점에서 1.5km 떨어져 있던 노바스코샤 방적 회사는 폭발로 인해 콘크리트 벽이 붕괴되었고 화재가 나 파괴되었다.[50]

캐나다 왕립 해군 대학도 심한 손상을 입고 생도 및 장교 대부분이 불구자가 되었다.[51]

폭발로 인해 유리창이 깨진 범위는 약 16km 떨어진 로어 새크빌윈드소르 정선에도 미쳐 몇몇 건물이 손상을 입었다. 폭발 현장에서 100km 떨어진 투르로뉴 글래슬로우에서는 건물이 흔들리고 선반 위의 물건이 떨어지는 피해가 있었다. 또한, 폭발은 북쪽으로 215km 떨어진 샬럿타운과 북동쪽으로 360km 떨어진 케이프브레턴 섬에서도 느낄 수 있었다. 당시 캐나다의 부총리였던 로버트 보든은 폭발 당시 샬럿타운에 있었고, 주변의 관료들과 함께 폭발을 느낄 수 있었다. 그는 이틀 후에 핼리팩스를 방문하여 구조 및 복구 활동을 감독했다.

폭발 며칠 후 리치몬드 구의 파괴된 설탕 정유 공장 지구의 서쪽 물가에서 바라본 모습. 폭발의 흔적이 남아 있는 6부두는 사진 맨 오른쪽에 있다.

1994년 핼리팩스 역사학자인 제이 화이트는 130개 주요 폭발 사고를 비교하면서 "핼리팩스 항구의 폭발은 사상자의 수, 폭발 힘, 파괴 반경, 폭발성 물질 양, 재산 피해 5가지 항목에서 어느 사고도 따라잡을 수 없는 매우 높은 수치를 가지고 있다"라는 결론을 내렸다.[52]

구조 노력[편집]

핼리팩스 대폭발 이후 파괴되어 좌초된 SS 이모.

First rescue efforts came from surviving neighbours and co-workers who pulled and dug out victims from buildings. The initial informal response was soon joined by surviving policemen, firefighters and military personnel who began to arrive, as did anyone with a working vehicle. A flood of victims soon began to arrive at the city's hospitals and soon grew to overwhelming numbers.[53]

British Royal Navy cruisers in port sent some of the first organized rescue parties ashore. The cruiser HMS Highflyer and the armed merchant cruisers HMS Changuinola, HMS Knight Templar and HMS Calgarian sent boats ashore with rescue parties and medical personnel and soon began to take wounded aboard.[48] An American coast guard cutter, USCG Morrill, in port for coal, also sent a rescue party ashore. Out at sea, the American cruiser USS Tacoma and armed merchant cruiser USS Von Steuben (formerly SS Kronprinz Wilhelm) were passing Halifax over 80 kilometres (50 mi) away, en route to the United States. Tacoma was rocked by the blast wave severely enough that her crew went to general quarters. Spotting the large and rising column of smoke, Tacoma altered course and arrived to assist rescue at 2 pm. Von Steuben arrived a half hour later.[54] The American steamship Old Colony, docked in Halifax for repairs, suffered little damage and was quickly converted to serve as a hospital ship, staffed by doctors and orderlies from the British and American navy vessels in the harbour.[55]

Dazed survivors immediately feared that the explosion was the result of a bomb dropped from a German plane.[54] Troops at gun batteries and barracks immediately turned out in case the city was under attack but within an hour switched from defence to rescue roles as the cause and location of the explosion were determined. All available troops were called in from harbour fortifications and barracks to the north end to rescue survivors and provide transport to the city's hospitals, including the two army hospitals in the city.[56]

Surviving railway workers in the railyards at the heart of the disaster carried out rescue work pulling people from the harbour and from under debris. The overnight train from Saint John, New Brunswick was just approaching the city when hit by the blast but was only slightly damaged. It continued into Richmond until the track was blocked by wreckage. Passengers and soldiers aboard used the emergency tools from the train to dig people out of houses and bandaged them with sheets from the sleeping cars. The train was loaded with injured and left the city at 1:30 with a doctor aboard, to evacuate the wounded to Truro.[57]

Adding to the chaos were fears that a second explosion was imminent. The rumour developed when a cloud of steam shot out of ventilators at the ammunition magazine at Wellington Barracks as naval and personnel extinguished a fire by the magazine. The fire was quickly put out, but the cloud of steam, seen from blocks away, quickly led to rumours of a second explosion.[58] Uniformed officers ordered everyone away from the area. As the rumour spread across the city, many families fled their homes. The confusion delayed efforts by over two hours until fears were dispelled by about noon.[59] However, many rescuers ignored the order and naval rescue parties continued working uninterrupted from the harbour.[60]

Led by Lieutenant Governor MacCallum Grant, leading citizens formed the Halifax Relief Committee, around noon. The committee organized members in charge of organizing medical relief for both Halifax and Dartmouth, transportation, supplying food and shelter, amongst other tasks.[59]

Rescue trains were dispatched from across Atlantic Canada, as well as the northeastern United States. The first left Truro around 10 am carrying medical personnel and supplies, arrived in Halifax by noon and returned to Truro with wounded and homeless by 3 pm. The track had become impassable at Rockingham, on the western edge of Bedford Basin. To reach the wounded, rescue personnel had to walk through parts of the devastated city until they reached a point where the military had begun to clear the streets.[61] By nightfall, a dozen trains had reached Halifax from the Nova Scotian towns of Truro, Kentville, Amherst and Stellarton and from the New Brunswick towns of Sackville, Moncton and Saint John.[62]

Relief efforts were hampered the following day by a blizzard that blanketed Halifax with 16 인치 (41 cm) of heavy snow. Trains en route from other parts of Canada and from the United States were stalled in snowdrifts, while telegraph lines that had been hastily repaired following the explosion were again knocked down. Halifax was isolated by the storm, and rescue committees were forced to suspend the search for survivors, though the storm aided efforts to put out fires throughout the city.[63]

인명 피해 및 재산 피해[편집]

Explosion aftermath: Halifax's Exhibition Building. The final body from the explosion was found here in 1919.

While the exact number killed by the disaster is unknown, a common estimate is 2,000. The Halifax Explosion Remembrance Book, an official database compiled in 2002 by the Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management identified 1,950 victims.[64] As many as 1,600 people died immediately in the blast, the tsunami, and collapse of buildings. The last body, a caretaker killed at the Exhibition Grounds, was not recovered until the summer of 1919.[65] An additional 9,000 were injured, 6,000 of them seriously; 1,630 homes were destroyed in the explosion and fires, with 12,000 more houses damaged. This disaster left roughly 6,000 people homeless and without shelter and 25,000 without adequate housing. The city's industrial sector was in large part gone, with many workers among the casualties and the dockyard heavily damaged.

The explosion was responsible for the vast majority of Canada's World War I-related civilian deaths and injuries, and killed more Nova Scotian residents than were killed in combat. Detailed estimates showed that among those killed, 600 were under the age of 15, 166 were labourers, 134 were soldiers and sailors, 125 were craftsmen, and 39 were workers for the railway.

Explosion aftermath: The St. Joseph's Convent, located on the southeast corner of Göttingen and Kaye streets.

Many of the wounds inflicted by the blast were permanently debilitating, with many people partially blinded by flying glass or by the flash of the explosion. Thousands of people had stopped to watch the ship burning in the harbour, with many people watching from inside buildings, leaving them directly in the path of flying glass from shattered windows. Roughly 600 people suffered eye injuries, and 38 of those lost their sight permanently. The large number of eye injuries led to better understanding on the part of physicians, and with the recently formed Canadian National Institute for the Blind, they managed to greatly improve the treatment of damaged eyes. The significant advances in eye care as a result of this disaster are often compared to the huge increase in burn care knowledge after the Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston. Halifax became internationally known as a centre for care for the blind, accounting for a large proportion of patients.

According to estimates, roughly $35 million Canadian dollars in damages resulted (in 1917 dollars; adjusted for inflation, this is about $틀:Inflation million Canadian dollars today).

영향을 받은 지역[편집]

핼리팩스 북쪽 끝의 도시인 리치몬드는 폭발 사건으로 인해 가장 많은 피해를 받았고, 이외에도 다양한 도시와 지역이 폭발의 영향을 받았다.

다트머스[편집]

항구의 다트머스쪽 지역은 핼리팩스 만큼 조밀하지 않고 폭발 당시에는 항구와는 거리가 떨어져 있었지만, 여전히 큰 피해를 입었다. 다트머스 지역에서만 약 100명이 사망한 것으로 추측하고 있다. 창문은 산산조각났고, 올렌드 맥주 공장 및 스타 제조회사 건물을 포함한 많은 건물들이 손상되거나 파괴되었다.[66] 노바스코샤 병원이 다트머스 지역의 유일한 병원이었기 때문에 피해자 대부분은 이 건물에서 치료를 받았다.

미크마크 정착지[편집]

There were small enclaves of Mi'kmaq in and around the coves of Bedford Basin (Elsipuktuk, "the big cove") on the Dartmouth (Punamuekati, "tomcod ground") shore. Directly opposite to Pier 9 on the Halifax (Ekjipuktuk, "the great bay") side, sat a community in Tuft's Cove (Maskawiekati, "birchbark place")[67] also known as Turtle Grove. The settlement, known to have dated back to the 18th century, was slated to be relocated on 6 November as reservations were established through Indian reserve status lobbying. Fewer than 20 families resided in this community and the move had not yet occurred before the time of the collision. The fire aboard Mont-Blanc drew the attention of many onlookers on both sides of the harbour. The settlement was completely obliterated by the tsunami. There is little information on the effects of the disaster on these Mi'kmaw First Nations people with the exception of the stories preserved within the Oral Tradition. A few of the casualties are listed in the Halifax Explosion Remembrance Book at the Public Archives of Nova Scotia.[68] Records show that 9 bodies were recovered, and the settlement was abandoned in the wake of the disaster.

아프리시빌[편집]

The black community of Africville, on the southern shores of the Bedford Basin, adjacent to the Halifax Peninsula, was spared the direct force of the blast by the shadow effect of the raised ground to the south. However Africville's small and frail homes were heavily damaged by the explosion and were described by a relief doctor as ruined but still standing.[69] Families recorded the deaths of five residents.[70] Although one person is known to have been compensated for the destruction of his home,[71] Africville received little of the $21,000,000 in donated relief funds and none of the progressive reconstruction invested into other parts of the city after the explosion.[72]

Heroism and rescue efforts[편집]

Many individuals, groups and organizations contributed to the rescue and relief in the days, months, and years following the disaster. Specific acts of heroism and bravery by individuals are detailed below.

빈스 콜먼[편집]

The death toll could have been worse if not for the self-sacrifice of an Intercolonial Railway dispatcher, Patrick Vincent (Vince) Coleman, operating at the Richmond Railway Yards about a quarter-mile away from Pier 6 where the explosion occurred. He and his co-worker, William Lovett, learned of the dangerous cargo aboard the burning Mont-Blanc from a sailor and began to flee. Coleman remembered, however, that an incoming passenger train from Saint John, New Brunswick was due to arrive at the rail yard within minutes. Coleman sent his Morse code message and left with Lovett. For unknown reasons, he returned to his post alone and continued to send out urgent telegraph messages to stop the train. Several variations of the message have been reported, among them this from the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic:

Hold up the train. Ammunition ship afire in harbor making for Pier 6 and will explode. Guess this will be my last message. Good-bye boys.[73]

Coleman's message may well have been responsible for bringing all incoming trains around Halifax to a halt. It was heard by other stations all along the Intercolonial Railway, helping railway officials to respond immediately.[74] Passenger Train No. 10, the overnight train from Saint John, New Brunswick, is believed to have heeded the warning and stopped a safe distance from the blast at Rockingham, saving the lives of about 300 railway passengers.[73] The rescued train was later used to carry injured and homeless survivors to Truro, Nova Scotia. Coleman was killed at his post as the explosion ripped through the city. He is honoured as a hero and fixture in Canadian history, notably being featured in a well-intentioned but historically inaccurate "Heritage Minute" one-minute movie[75] and a display at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic.

Tug Stella Maris[편집]

Towing two scows at the time of the collision, the tug Stella Maris responded immediately to the fire, anchoring the barges and steaming back towards Pier 6. The tug's captain, Horatio H. Brannen, and his crew realized they were not equipped to fight the fire with their one small hose and quickly backed off from the burning Mont Blanc. They were then approached by a whaler from HMS Highflyer. Acting Commander Tom Triggs asked for a tow part-way over to Imo in order to ascertain the stricken ship's status. Captain Horatio Brannen obliged. After this was accomplished, Stella Maris was approximately 200 yards (about 180 m) away from and facing Mont Blanc. At this juncture, they were hailed by a steam pinnace belonging to HMCS Niobe that emerged from the vicinity of Pier 6 with eight volunteers aboard. Warrant Boatswain Albert Mattison requested a hawser to secure a line to the French ship's stern so as to pull it away from the pier to prevent setting it on fire. The five-inch (127-millimetre) hawser initially produced was deemed too small and orders for a ten-inch (254-millimetre) hawser came down. It was in the midst of retrieving the larger rope that the explosion occurred. The blast killed all save one aboard the whaler, everyone aboard the pinnace and 19 of the 24 men aboard Stella Maris. She ended up on the Richmond shore, severely damaged. The captain's son, First Mate Walter Brannen, who had been thrown into the hold by the blast, the second mate, William Nickerson and three others survived.[76]

소방관[편집]

Firefighters were among the first to respond to the disaster, rushing to Mont-Blanc to attempt to extinguish the blaze before the explosion even occurred. They also played an instrumental role in regaining control of the devastated city after the blast, with members arriving to assist from across Halifax, and by the end of the day from as far away as Springhill (180 kilometres or 110 mi), Amherst, Nova Scotia (200 kilometres or 120 mi), and Moncton, New Brunswick (260 kilometres or 160 mi), on relief trains.

Halifax's Fire Department at the time comprised 8 fire stations, 122 members (36 of whom were fully employed), 13 apparatus (1 of which was motorized), and roughly 30 horses. West Street's Station 2 was the first to arrive at pier 6 with the crew of the American LaFrance-built Patricia, the first motorized fire engine in Canada.

They were responding to Box 83, the dockyard alarm at the corner of Roome Street and Campbell Road (now Barrington Street), as Mont-Blanc drifted toward its resting place at Pier 6. Although the dockyard alarms were routine for the department, today was different, as North End general storekeeper Constant Upham could see the serious nature of the fire from his home and called surrounding fire stations to advise them. Upham's store was on Campbell Road, directly in view of the burning ship, and as one of the few buildings at the time with a telephone, he placed his call sometime after 8:45 that morning. Despite this warning, none of the firemen knew that the ship carried munitions. It was believed however, that the vessel's crew was still on board, as West Street's Station 2, Brunswick Street's Station 1, Göttingen Street, and Quinpool Road's Station 5 responded to Upham's call.

Fire Chief Edward P. Condon and Deputy Chief William P. Brunt were next on the scene, arriving from Brunswick Street in the department's 1911 McLaughlin Roadster. The heat was so overwhelming, no one could look at the inferno. Chief Condon pulled the Box 83 alarm again. In the final moments before the explosion, hoses were being unrolled as the fire spread to the docks. Retired Hoseman John Spruin Sr. was on his way from Brunswick Street in a horse-drawn pumper, and Hoseman John H. E. Duggan was travelling from Isleville Street's Station 7 with another horse-drawn firefighting wagon.

None of the firemen knew the danger that they faced as 9:04 arrived and brought the explosion that obliterated the dockyard fire site. Fire Chief Edward Condon and Deputy Chief William Brunt were killed immediately along with the Patricia's crew members: Captain William T. Broderick, Captain G. Michael Maltus, Hoseman Walter Hennessey, and Hoseman Frank Killeen. Teamsters John Spruin and John Duggan were both struck and killed by shrapnel en route to the fire. Their horses were also killed instantly in the blast. Patricia hoseman Frank D. Leahy died on December 31, 1917, from his injuries. Nine members of the Halifax Fire Department lost their lives performing their duty that day.

The only surviving member at the scene was Patricia driver Billy (William) Wells, who was opening a hydrant at the time of the blast. He recounts the event for the Mail Star, October 6, 1967,

That's when it happened … The first thing I remember after the explosion was standing quite a distance from the fire engine … The force of the explosion had blown off all my clothes as well as the muscles from my right arm…

It is explained that Billy was standing again as the tsunami came over him. He managed to remain on land.

…After the wave had receded I didn't see anything of the other firemen so made my way to the old magazine on Campbell Road … The sight was awful … with people hanging out of windows dead. Some with their heads off, and some thrown onto the overhead telegraph wires … I was taken to Camp Hill Hospital and lay on the floor for two days waiting for a bed. The doctors and nurses certainly gave me great service

Notably, firefighter Albert Brunt also survived the blast, by chance, as he slipped while attempting to jump onto the Patricia as it rounded a corner on its way to the docks.

Efforts to subdue the blazes were hampered when firefighters arriving from nearby communities had difficulty connecting their hoses to the differently sized connections of Halifax's hydrants, a problem which inspired standardized hose fittings after the war.[77] A new pumper was purchased by the city and arrived just a few days after the explosion. The Patricia was later restored by the American LaFrance company for $6,000, who donated $1,500 to a fund for the families of the firemen. The families of firemen killed in the blast received $1,000 from the city (close to $15,000 in 2007 dollars), with the exception of one, who received $500.[출처 필요]

On the 75th anniversary of the Halifax Explosion, December 6, 1992, the Halifax Fire Department erected a monument at the current Station 4, at the corner of Lady Hammond Road and Robie Street, in honour of the fallen members who died fighting the fire on Mont-Blanc.

유명한 생존자[편집]

에릭 데이비슨[편집]

에릭 데이비슨은 폭발 당시 만 2세였다. 그가 창 문턱에서 장난감 기차를 가지고 놀 때, 그의 어머니와 여동생이 항구에서 나는 연기를 목격했다. 폭발로 인한 돌풍이 발생하면서, 창문이 에릭의 얼굴을 덮쳤고 양쪽 눈이 모두 실명되었다. 어린 나이에 장애를 가졌지만 데이비슨은 1980년 은퇴할 때 까지 핼리팩스 도시의 정비사로 근무했다.[78]

애시판 앙리[편집]

앤 M. 웰시(니에 리진)은 폭발 당시 23개월이었다. 베링턴 거리 북부에 위치한 그의 집에 돌풍이 덮쳐서 집이 날라가서 어머니 앤, 남동생 에드윈과 아버지가 사망했다. 앙리는 폭발 당시 난로 아래로 날라갔고, 난로 아래 재떨이에 떨어졌다. 12월의 추운 날씨 속에서도 따뜻했던 재 덕분에 계속 생존할 수 있었으며, 26시간 후 헨리베리라는 이름을 가진 군인에게 구조되었다.[79] 그녀의 할머니와 이모는 구조 이후 파인힐 병원에서 앙리를 찾았다.

빌 오웬[편집]

빌 오웬은 1917년 5월 16일에 태어났다. 그는 폭발 당시 생후 2개월이었다. 그는 아마도 자신이 폭발에서 구출된 마지막 생존자일 것이라고 말했다.[80]

비난[편집]

처음에 핼리팩스에 있던 많은 사람들은 폭발이 독일군의 공격에 의한 것이라고 생각했다. 구조활동 중에도 그러한 공포감은 존재했다. 등화관제와 같은 법이 그때 엄격하게 지켜졌기 때문에 사건의 원인을 찾으려는 노력을 방해했다. 핼리팩스 헤럴드(Halifax Herald)의 기사도 이러한 믿음을 지속해서 전파했다는 점에서 주목할만하다. 예를 들어 신문기사에서는 독일군이 폭발 피해자들을 무시했다고 보도했다.[81] SS 이모의 노르웨이인 키잡이인 욘 요한센(노르웨이어: John Johansen)이 폭발로 인해 얻은 심각한 부상을 치료받고 있을 때 헌병 쪽에서는 그가 수상한 행동을 하고 있다는 보고를 접수받았다. 요한센은 그가 몸에 지니고 있던 편지가 독일어로 추정된다는 조사를 받고 독일 스파이라는 혐의로 체포되었다. [82] 후에 그 편지는 노르웨이어로 쓰였음이 밝혀졌다.[81] Major General Thomas Benson, the commander of MD6, in a letter to Charles J. Burchell, "Imo" counsel, stated that Johansen had been mistaken for another man and was hereby exonerated (Imo vs. Mont Blanc, Appeal Book, Vol. II, p. 5). Immediately following the explosion, most of the German survivors in Halifax had been rounded up and imprisoned.[83][84] Eventually the fear dissipated as the real cause of the explosion became known, although the suspicion that Johansen had something to do with the explosion persisted for some time.[85]

The decision of the Wreck Commissioner's Inquiry placed blame for the collision between the two ships (and thus the explosion) squarely on the shoulders of Captain Aimé Le Médec and Pilot Francis Mackey of the French vessel as well as the port's CXO, Acting Commander F. Evan Wyatt (see "Investigation" section). However, the scapegoating of these three individuals can be viewed from an historical perspective as a convenient political manoeuvre to assuage public anger and fear. The actual objective of the government was to take over the Halifax Pilotage, which it eventually did by invoking the War Measures Act in March 1918. It is also important to remember that Jurisdiction issues prevented an accounting from British authorities in New York for sending the ship to Halifax with full knowledge of her cargo. Because of the continued sinking of ships by German U-Boats, the desperate French government had been forced to use older, inadequately maintained ships to carry highly explosive cargoes. Therefore, as no witnesses from the Royal Navy, the British Admiralty or owners of the French vessel could be called to the inquiry as witnesses, the facts surrounding the contributions by countless unnamed persons to the sequence of events leading up to the Halifax disaster remain obfuscated to this day.[86]

조사[편집]

A judicial inquiry known as the Wreck Commissioner's Inquiry was formed to investigate the causes of the collision. Proceedings began at the Halifax Court House on 13 December 1917. The inquiry's report of 4 February 1918 blamed Mont-Blanc's captain, Aimé Le Médec, the ship's pilot, Francis Mackey, and Commander F. Evan Wyatt, the Royal Canadian Navy's chief examining officer in charge of the harbour, gates and anti-submarine defences, for causing the collision. Soon after the fifteen-minute decision had been read, the pilot and captain were arrested. Wyatt was arrested the following morning. All three men were charged with manslaughter and criminal negligence at a preliminary hearing heard by Stipendiary Magistrate, Richard A. McLeod and bound over for trial. However, a Nova Scotia Supreme Court justice, Benjamin Russell found there was no evidence to support these charges. Mackey was discharged on a writ of habeas corpus and the charges dropped (15 March 1918). As the captain and pilot had been arrested on the same warrant, the charges against Le Médec were also dismissed. This left only Wyatt to face a grand jury hearing. On 17 April 1918, a jury acquitted him in a trial that lasted less than a day.

Justice Arthur Drysdale, the judge at the inquiry, oversaw the first civil litigation trial. His decision (27 April 1918) found Mont-Blanc entirely at fault. Subsequent appeals to the Supreme Court of Canada (19 May 1919), and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, England (22 March 1920), determined Mont-Blanc and Imo were equally to blame for navigational errors which led to the collision.[87]

Captain Le Médec returned to France to resume his career with the French Lines. Commander Wyatt, his reputation and career ruined, left Halifax for the Boston area with his wife, Dorothy and continued for several more years working as a merchant mariner. Francis Mackey, on the other hand, remained in Halifax. Although he had voluntarily turned in his pilot's licence after being arrested, its return was denied by C. C. Ballantyne, the minister of marine and fisheries, even after the charges were dropped. Mackey spent his life savings and four years fighting for reinstatement. His licence was finally returned by the newly elected minister, The Hon. Ernest LaPointe on Valentine's Day, 1922. Francis Mackey and his family were forced to endure the stigma of his being the pilot of Mont-Blanc even after his death on 31 December 1961.[88]

재건[편집]

The North End Halifax neighbourhood of Richmond bore the brunt of the explosion. In 1917, Richmond was considered a working-class neighbourhood and had few paved roads and irregular garbage pick-up.[89] After the explosion, the Halifax Relief Commission approached the reconstruction of Richmond as an opportunity to improve and modernize the city’s North End.[90] English town planner, Thomas Adams, and Montreal architect, George Ross were recruited to design a new housing plan[91] for Richmond. Adams, inspired by the Victorian Garden City Movement, aimed to provide public access to green spaces and to create a low-rise, low-density and multifunctional urban neighbourhood.[92] The planners designed 324 large homes that each faced a tree-lined, paved boulevard. Ross and Adams specified that the homes be built with a new and innovative fireproof material, blocks of compressed cement called Hydro-stone.[90] The two planners designed the construction of over 300 new homes using Hydro-stone for the hundreds of North End residents who had been rendered homeless after the explosion.

Once finished, the Hydrostone neighbourhood consisted of homes, businesses and parks, which helped create a new sense of community in the North End of Halifax. Adams and Ross were revolutionary in their enlightened approach to the reconstruction of the working-class, poor neighbourhood. The construction of this new and cutting-edge urban neighbourhood was criticized by many upper-class Haligonians who thought the Hydrostone was too extravagant for its working-class residents.[90] Nevertheless, the Hydrostone remains a unique neighbourhood and continues to serve as a valuable example of a modern urban-planning concept.

유산[편집]

For many years afterward, the Halifax Explosion was the standard by which all large blasts were measured. For instance, in its report on the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Time wrote that the explosive power of the Little Boy bomb was seven times that of the Halifax Explosion.[4]

The Halifax North Memorial Library was built in 1966 to commemorate the victims of the explosion. The library entrance featured the first monument built to mark the explosion, the Halifax Explosion Memorial Sculpture, created by artist Jordi Bonet. However, the sculpture was dismantled by the Halifax Regional Municipality in 2004 and some parts have been scattered and lost.[93] The Halifax Explosion Memorial Bells were built in 1985, relocating memorial carillon bells from a nearby church to a large concrete sculpture on Fort Needham Hill, facing the "ground zero" area of the explosion, to serve as a memorial to the lives lost or changed forever by the Halifax Explosion.[94] The Bell Tower is the location of an annual civic ceremony at 9:00 am every December 6. A memorial at the Halifax Fire Station on Lady Hammond Road honours the firefighters killed in their response to the explosion. Fragments of Mont-Blanc have been mounted as neighbourhood monuments to the explosion at Albro Lake Drive in Dartmouth, Regatta Point in Armdale, and the Convoy Place Park in the North End of Halifax. Simple monuments mark the mass graves of explosion victims at the Fairview Lawn Cemetery and the Bayers Road Cemetery. A Memorial Book listing the names of all the known victims was created in 2001. Copies of the book are displayed at the Halifax North Memorial Library and at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, which has a large permanent exhibit about the Halifax Explosion.

The Halifax Explosion Memorial Bell Tower

The canonical novel Barometer Rising (1941) by the Canadian writer Hugh MacLennan is set in Halifax at the time of the explosion and includes a carefully researched description of its impact on the city. Following in MacLennan's footsteps, journalist Robert MacNeil penned Burden of Desire (1992) and used the explosion as a metaphor for the societal and cultural changes of the day. MacLennan and MacNeil exploit the romance genre to fictionalize the explosion, similar to the first attempt by Lieutenant-Colonel Frank McKelvey Bell, a medical officer who penned a short novella on the Halifax explosion shortly after the catastrophic event. His romance was A Romance of the Halifax Disaster (1918), a melodramatic piece that follows the love affair of a young woman and an injured soldier. There is also a young adult fictional story in the Dear Canada series, named No Safe Harbour, whose narrator tries to find the other members of her family after the blast.

More recently, the novel Black Snow (2009) by Halifax journalist Jon Tattrie followed an explosion victim's search for his wife in the ruined city,[95] and A Wedding in December (2005) by Anita Shreve has a story-within-the-story set in Halifax at the time of the explosion. The explosion is also referred to in some detail in John Irving's novel Until I Find You (2005) as well as Ami McKay's The Birth House (2006) in which protagonist Dora Rare travels to Halifax to offer her midwifery skills to mothers who go into labour after the explosion. In the 2009 novel, Inherent Vice by Thomas Pynchon, the shadowy schooner Golden Fang is revealed as a reoutfitted Preserved, a vessel said to have survived the explosion. In 2011, Halifax writer Jennie Marsland published her historical romance Shattered, which is set before the explosion and in its aftermath. An award-winning play entitled "Shatter"[96] by Trina Davies is set in the explosion and explores the racial profiling of German-speaking citizens after the event.

Keith Ross Leckie scripted a miniseries entitled Shattered City: The Halifax Explosion (2003), which took the title but has no relationship to Janet Kitz's acclaimed non-fiction book Shattered City: The Halifax Explosion and the Road to Recovery (1989). The miniseries follows soldier Charlie Collins through a romantic affair and his recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder. The movie exploited computer technology in order to achieve impressive special effects on a budget. However, the film was panned by critics and criticized by historians for distortions and inaccuracies. Aspects criticized were the representation of German spies in the city and countless other distortions of historical fact. Jim Lotz's The Sixth of December (1981) also toys with the fictional idea that Halifax was home to a network of enemy spies during the war.

In 1918, Halifax sent a Christmas tree to the City of Boston in thanks and remembrance for the help that the Boston Red Cross and the Massachusetts Public Safety Committee provided immediately after the disaster.[97] That gift was revived in 1971 by the Lunenburg County Christmas Tree Producers Association, who began an annual donation of a large tree to promote Christmas tree exports as well as acknowledge Boston's support after the explosion. The gift was later taken over by the Nova Scotia Government to continue the goodwill gesture as well as to promote trade and tourism.[98] The tree is Boston's official Christmas tree and is lit on Boston Common throughout the holiday season. Knowing its symbolic importance to both cities, the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources has specific guidelines for selecting the tree.[99]

더 보기[편집]

주석[편집]

  1. Several locations have been attributed to this image but comparisons of direction, land elevation and the foreground vessel mostly strongly suggest Bedford Basin Joel Zemel, "Halifax Explosion - The Anatomy Of A Disaster: An Analysis of Two 1917 Halifax Explosion Blast Cloud Photographs"
  2. The ship had been named with the initials - JMO - after the senior owner of the company, Johan Martin Osmundsen (aka Jurgens M. Osmond), but people started calling her Imo and the name stuck. Source: Methods of Disaster Research by Robert A. Stallings (International Research Committee on Disasters ©2002), pp. 281-282.
  3. CBC - Halifax Explosion 1917. CBC.ca (2003년 9월 19일). 2011년 2월 25일에 확인.
  4. (2012) 《Time: Disasters that Shook the World》. New York City: Time Home Entertainment, 5 6쪽. ISBN 1-60320-247-1
  5. Ruffman, Alan and Howell, Colin D. (edited by). Ground Zero: A Reassessment of the 1917 Explosion in Halifax Harbour (1994, Nimbus Publishing), p.276.
  6. John Griffith Armstrong, The Halifax Explosion and the Royal Canadian Navy: Inquiry and Intrigue (2004, UBC Press), pp. 41-42
  7. Ruffman & Howell 1994, p. 275 & p. 306.
  8. Kitz, Janet F., Shattered City - The Halifax Explosion and the Road to Recovery (1989, Nimbus Publishing), p.26; As told in the Oral Tradition by Mi'kmaw historian, Don "Byrd" Awalt.
  9. Mac Donald (2005), p. 3
  10. Mac Donald (2005), p. 5
  11. MacDonald (2005), p. 6
  12. Armstrong (2002)
  13. Bird, Michael J.. The Town That Died, The story of the world’s greatest man-made explosion before Hiroshima (1962, McGraw-Hill Ryerson), p. 36
  14. Michael J. Bird (1962), p. 37-38.
  15. Preston, Adrian W. and Dennis, Peter (eds), Swords and Covenants (1976, Croom Helm Ltd.), p. 166.
  16. The 1911 Census showed a population in Halifax of 46,619 people. Thomas Raddall noted that this was increase of 14.1% from the 1851 population of 20,749, Halifax, Warden of the North, p. 233; The population of Halifax/Dartmouth listed at 65,000 in McAlpine’s Halifax City Directory, 1917, p. 39 is based on the number of names in Halifax (23,542) and Dartmouth (3,010) times 2.45 in order to get an approximate number. Source: microfilm roll 3412, Public Archives of Nova Scotia (PANS).
  17. "Sydney, Nova Scotia and the U-Boat War, 1918" by Brian Tennyson and Roger Sarty, Canadian Military History, Volume 7, Number 1, Winter 1998, pp. 29-41.
  18. Mac Donald (2005), pp. 9–10.
  19. Armstrong (2002), pp. 10–11
  20. Mac Donald (2005), p. 8
  21. Kitz & Payzant (2006), p. 16
  22. Manifest_12_percent.jpg. Wikimedia. 2013년에 확인.
  23. Kitz & Payzant (2006), p. 15
  24. Appeals Book, Imo vs. Mont Blanc: In the Privy Council on appeal from the Supreme Court of Canada between the ship "Imo" (Southern Pacific Whaling Company, Limited, Owners) (Defendant), appellant and La Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (plaintiff), respondent record of proceedings, volume 1 Constant & Constant ... appellant's solicitors, William A. Crump & Son ... respondent's solicitors, Vol. II, Traffic Rules and Regulations, Vol. II, pp. 40-44, 15 May 1915. The seven knot rule was added 9 June1917, p. 40, Library and Archives Canada (LAC)
  25. Kitz & Payzant (2006), p. 17; Mac Donald (2005), p. 33; (Appeals Book: Imo vs. Mont Blanc, Vol. I - Testimony of Edward Renner (pilot, Clara), pp.441-450, William Nickerson (second mate, Stella Maris), pp. 370-382 and Walter Brannen (1st. mate, Stella Maris, pp. 480-497.
  26. Mac Donald (2005), p. 27
  27. Appeals Book: Imo vs. Mont Blanc, Vol. I, Testimony of Francis Mackey, pp. 132 & 174; Mac Donald (2005), p. 32
  28. Kitz (1989), p. 15
  29. Mac Donald (2005), p. 38
  30. Mac Donald (2005), p. 39
  31. Mac Donald (2005), pp. 40–41
  32. Appeals Book: Imo vs Mont Blanc, Vol I, Testimony of Aimé Le Médec and Francis Mackey.
  33. Kitz (1989), p. 19
  34. Kitz, p. 22-23
  35. Mac Donald (2005), p. 49
  36. Appeals Book: Imo vs Mont Blanc, Vol I, Testimony of Edward McCrossan, p. 65, Herbert Whitehead p. 657, Aimé Le Médec, p. 39 and Francis Mackey, p. 131
  37. The Halifax Explosion
  38. Ruffman and Howell (eds.) 1994, p. 277.
  39. Mac Donald (2005), p. 62
  40. Kitz (1989), p. 25
  41. The height of the blast at its peak was measured at 3,600 metres (11,811 feet or 2.25 miles) on a sextant by Captain W. M. A. Campbell of the inbound Canadian merchant ship, Acadian, approximately 28 km (18 mi) from the harbour approaches. Ruffman and Howell (1994), p. 323.
  42. Mac Donald (2005), p. 63
  43. Mac Donald (2005), p. 66
  44. The CBC Explosion Site. CBC. 2013년에 확인.
  45. Kitz (1989), p. 26
  46. Virtual Archives. Nova Scotia Archives. 2013년에 확인.
  47. Gilmour (2001), p. 119
  48. Kitz & Payzant (2006), p. 21
  49. Mac Donald (2005), p. 71
  50. Kitz & Payzant (2006), p. 43
  51. Chaplin, Charmion, "The Royal Naval College of Canada Closes", 《Forces.gc.ca》, 2006년 6월 14일 작성. 2009년 12월 6일 확인.
  52. Ruffman & Howell (1994), p. 266
  53. Kitz (1989), p. 53
  54. Mac Donald (2005), p. 70
  55. USS Old Colony. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. 2012년 1월 21일에 확인.
  56. Armstrong (2002), pp. 57–58
  57. MacMechan & Metson (1978), pp. 42–43
  58. Armstrong (2002), pp. 58–59
  59. The Halifax Explosion – At city hall. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2012년 1월 20일에 확인.
  60. Bird, p. 89-92 and Armstrong (2002), p. 60
  61. Kitz (1989), pp. 64–65
  62. MacMechan & Metson (1978), p. 42
  63. "Injured dying in snowbound relief trains", 1917년 12월 8일 작성, 1면. 2012년 1월 21일 확인.
  64. Nova Scotia Archives & Records Management - Halifax Explosion Remembrance Book. Gov.ns.ca (2009년 11월 26일). 2009년 12월 6일에 확인.
  65. Janet Kitz, December 1917: Revisiting the Halifax Explosion, Halifax: Nimbus (2006) p. 62
  66. "Starr Manufacturing Company."
  67. The Francis-Smith Orthography was developed by Bernard Francis and Douglas Smith in 1974.
  68. Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance. PANS.
  69. "Personal Narrative Dr. W.B. Moore", The Halifax Explosion December 6, 1917, Graham Metson, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 1978, p. 107
  70. Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance. Gov.ns.ca (2010년 12월 2일). 2011년 2월 25일에 확인.
  71. PANS Senior Archivist Garry Shutlak notes that Charles Andrews received compensation.
  72. Michelle Hebert Boyd, Enriched by Catastrophe: Social Work and Social Conflict after the Halifax Explosion (Halifax: Fernwood Publishing 2007)
  73. Vince Coleman and the Halifax Explosion. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic (1917년 12월 6일). 2013년에 확인.
  74. Dan Conlin, "Vincent Coleman and the Halifax Explosion", Maritime Museum of the Atlantic web page
  75. Halifax Explosion. Histori.ca (1917년 12월 6일). 2009년 12월 6일에 확인.
  76. "Stella Maris", Ships of the Halifax Explosion, Maritime Museum of the Atlantic website. Museum.gov.ns.ca (2003년 10월 17일). 2011년 2월 25일에 확인., Appeals Book: Imo vs Mont Blanc, Volumes 1 & 2, Testimony of Walter Brannen, pp.480-497 and William Nickerson, pp. 370-382.
  77. The Halifax Explosion – Devastation. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2012년 1월 20일에 확인.
  78. Mr. John "Eric" Davidson 1915-2009 (Obituary)
  79. "Halifax explosion survivor 'Ashpan' Annie dead at 95", 《CTV News》, July 18, 2010 작성. 20 July 2010 확인.
  80. Joanne, Josh. Oostveen. 《Interview》. Halifax News Net. 26 December 2011에 확인.
  81. (1978) 《The Halifax explosion: December 6, 1917》. McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 143쪽
  82. "HELMSMAN OF SHIP THAT HIT MONT BLANC, HELD AS SPY (영어)", 《하트퍼드 신문》, December 14, 1917 작성, 1면.
  83. Armstrong (2002), p. 113
  84. "Elements Still Scourge Desolated City of Halifax, 1050 Bodies at Morgues; All Germans Being Arrested", December 10, 1917 작성, 1면.
  85. Macdonald, Laura (2005). 〈Appendix A: Accident or Sabotage?〉, 《Curse of the Narrows》. London: HarperCollins, 284, 342–341쪽. ISBN 0-00-200787-8
  86. Zemel, Joel (2012). 〈Chapter 6: Setting Legal Parameters; Chapter 18: Epilogue/Comments and Conclusions〉, 《Scapegoat, the extraordinary legal proceedings following the 1917 Halifax Explosion》. Halifax: SVP Productions, 81–87; 305쪽. ISBN 978-0-9684920-9-3
  87. Donald A. Kerr, “Another Calamity: The Litigation,” Ruffman & Howell (1994), p. 369; Joel Zemel. Scapegoat, the extraordinary legal proceedings following the 1917 Halifax Explosion (2012), Chapters 15 & 16, pp. 235-277; "Halifax Explosion Infosheet", Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Halifax. Museum.gov.ns.ca. 2011년 2월 25일에 확인.
  88. *Maybee, Janet, "The Persecution of Pilot Mackey", The Northern Mariner/Le marin du nord, XX No. 2, (April 2010), 149-173.
  89. Robert Noble, Dorothy Clemens, Maudie Upham. What I Think of the Hydrostone.
  90. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Digital Archives. “Halifax Today, Clip 10,” http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/first_world_war/topic/971. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  91. "A Vision of Regeneration, Reconstruction After the Halifax Explosion, 1917-1921, blueprint, August 10, 1918", http://www.gov.ns.ca/nsarm/virtual/explosion/archives.asp?ID=77, published 2010.
  92. Ernest Clarke, “The Hydrostone Neighborhood”, in The Halifax Explosion, December 6, 1917, ed. and comp. Graham Metson (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 1978), 170.
  93. "Precious Metals: N.S. group tries to bring memorial sculpture back to life", Globe and Mail, August 9, 2011
  94. "Halifax Explosion Memorial Bells", HRM Halifax Explosion Monuments accessed 2012-05-03
  95. Jon Tattrie. Pottersfield Press. 2009년 12월 6일에 확인.
  96. Davies, Trina, Shatter, Playwrights Canada Press
  97. Beam, Alex, "Tree's roots get lost in this flap", 《Boston.com》, 2005년 11월 29일 작성. 2009년 12월 6일 확인.
  98. Mark Campbell, "Tree Expert Picks Province's Annual Gift to Boston", Nova Scotia Magazine, November 1993, p.12
  99. Hana Janjigian Heald. "Nova Scotia's Christmas Tree gift to Boston has a Dedham connection", December 15, 2006 작성, 3면.

서지[편집]

  • Armstrong, John (2002). 《The Halifax Explosion and the Royal Canadian Navy》. Vancouver: UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0891-0
  • Bird, Michael J. (1962). 《The Town That Died》. McGraw-Hill Ryerson. ISBN 0-7700-6015-3
  • Gilmour, Don (2001). 《Canada: A People's History》. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd.. ISBN 0-7710-3340-0
  • Kitz, Janet (1989). 《Shattered City: The Halifax Explosion and the Road to Recovery》. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 0-921054-30-0
  • Kitz, Janet (2006). 《December 1917: Revisiting the Halifax Explosion》. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 1-55109-566-1
  • Mac Donald, Laura (2005). 《Curse of the Narrows: The Halifax Explosion of 1917》. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-200787-8
  • MacMechan, Archibald (1978). 《The Halifax Explosion: December 6, 1917》. Michigan: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. ISBN 0-07-082798-2
  • (1994) 《Ground Zero: A Reassessment of the 1917 Explosion in Halifax Harbour》. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 1-55109-095-3
  • Zemel, Joel (2012). 《Scapegoat, the extraordinary legal proceedings following the 1917 Halifax Explosion》. Halifax: SVP Productions. ISBN 978-0-9684920-9-3

전체 인용[편집]

추가 읽기[편집]

바깥 고리[편집]