코플리 메달

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
이동: 둘러보기, 검색

코플리 메달(영어: Copley Medal)은 과학 업적에 대해 수여되는 가장 오래된 상이다. 영국 왕립 협회에 의해 1731년 창립되어 매년 수여되고 있다.

17세기 유복한 지주로 왕립 협회의 회원인 고드프리 코플리 경의 기부한 기금을 토대로 설립되었다. 물리학, 생물학 분야의 연구자에게 수여되며, 수상자는 자동적으로 협회의 회원으로 선출된다.

수상자[편집]

아래의 문단에 한국어로 번역되지 않은 내용이 담겨 있습니다. 번역되지 않은 부분은 번역을 마치거나 삭제해주어야 합니다.

This section needs to be translated into Korean. Untranslated parts of the section should be rewritten in Korean or eliminated.

연도 이름 수상 이유 주석
1731 그레이, 스티븐스티븐 그레이(Stephen Gray) 그의 새로운 전기 실험을 기리고, 이 자연 과학 분야에 발견과 발전을 거듭해 우리 학회에 공헌하였으므로
For his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge
[1]
1732 그레이, 스티븐스티븐 그레이(Stephen Gray) 1732년에 행한 실험을 기리기 위하여
For the Experiments he made for the year 1732
[1]
1733 (없음)
1734 데이재귤리에이, 존 시오필러스존 시오필러스 데이재귤리에이(영어: John Theophilus Desaguliers) 우리 학회원들에게 보여진 여러 실험을 기리기 위하여
In consideration of his several Experiments performed before the Society
[2]
1735 (없음)
1736 데이재귤리에이, 존 시오필러스존 시오필러스 데이재귤리에이(영어: John Theophilus Desaguliers) 올해 행해진 실험을 기리기 위하여
For his experiments made during the year
[2]
1737 Belchier, JohnJohn Belchier 꼭두서니를 섭취한 동물의 뼈가 붉게 물드는 것에 대한 실험을 기리기 위하여
For his Experiment to show the property of a Diet of Madder Root in dyeing the Bones of living animals of a red colour
[3]
1738 Valoue, JamesJames Valoue 웨스트민스터에 세워질 다리의 기초를 다지기 위해 말뚝을 박는 엔진의 발명을 기리기 위하여. 엔진 모형은 우리 학회원들에게 전시되었다.
For his invention of an Engine for driving the Piles to make a Foundation for the Bridge to be erected at Westminster, the Model whereof had been shown to the Society
1739 헤일스, 스티븐스티븐 헤일스(Stephen Hales) 결석을 녹이는 약의 발견 및 장거리 항해를 위한 육류 방부제의 발견을 기리기 위하여
For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long voyages at Sea
[4]
1740 스튜어트, 알렉산더알렉산더 스튜어트(영어: Alexander Stuart) For his Lectures on Muscular Motion. As a further addition for his services to the Society in the care and pains he has taken therein [5]
1741 데이재귤리에이, 존 시오필러스존 시오필러스 데이재귤리에이(영어: John Theophilus Desaguliers) 전기의 성질에 대한 실험을 기리기 위하여. 올해 큐레이터로서의 연봉에 추가.
For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year.
[2]
1742 미들턴, 크리스토퍼크리스토퍼 미들턴(영어: Christopher Middleton) For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay [6]
1743 트렘블리, 에이브러햄에이브러햄 트렘블리(Abraham Trembley) 히드라에 대한 실험을 기리기 위하여
For his Experiments on the Polypus
1744 베이커, 헨리헨리 베이커(영어: Henry Baker) For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum [7]
1745 왓슨, 윌리엄윌리엄 왓슨 On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments [8]
1746 로빈스, 벤저민벤저민 로빈스(Benjamin Robins) On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles [9]
1747 나이트, 가윈가윈 나이트(영어: Gowin Knight) "On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets" [10]
1748 브래들리, 제임스제임스 브래들리 "On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion" [11]
1749 해리슨, 존존 해리슨 "On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time" [12]
1750 에드워즈, 조지조지 에드워즈(영어: George Edwards) "On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. – containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects." [13]
1751 캔턴, 존존 캔턴 "On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones" [14]
1752 프링글, 존존 프링글(John Pringle) "On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society" [15]
1753 프랭클린, 벤저민벤저민 프랭클린 "On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity" [16]
1754 루이스, 윌리엄윌리엄 루이스(영어: William Lewis) "For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: – which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials" [17]
1755 Huxham, JohnJohn Huxham "For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society" [18]
1756 (없음)
1757 캐번디시, 찰스찰스 캐번디시(영어: Charles Cavendish) "On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer" [10]
1758 돌론드, 존존 돌론드(영어: John Dollond) "On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society" [19]
1759 스미턴, 존존 스미턴(영어: John Smeaton) "On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills" [20]
1760 윌슨, 벤저민벤저민 윌슨(영어: Benjamin Wilson) "For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year" [21]
1761 ~ 1763 (없음)
1764 캔턴, 존존 캔턴 "For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids" [14]
1765 (없음)
1766 브라운리그, 윌리엄윌리엄 브라운리그(영어: William Brownrigg), "For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit." [22]
Edward Delaval "For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations."
캐번디시, 헨리헨리 캐번디시 "For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air."
1767 엘리스, 존존 엘리스(영어: John Ellis) "For his Papers of the year 1767, On the animal nature of the Genus of Zoophytes called Corallina, and the Actinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower, lately found on the sea coasts of the new-ceded Islands" [23]
1768 울프, 피터피터 울프(영어: Peter Woulfe) "For his Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, and other substances" [24]
1769 휴슨, 윌리엄윌리엄 휴슨(영어: William Hewson) "For his Two Papers, entitled, An Account of the Lymphatic System in Amphibious Animals, – and An Account of the Lymphatic System in Fish"
1770 해밀턴, 윌리엄윌리엄 해밀턴(영어: William Hamilton) "For his Paper, entitled, An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna" [25]
1771 레이퍼, 매슈매슈 레이퍼(Matthew Raper) "For his paper entitled, An Enquiry into the value of ancient Greek and Roman Money"
1772 프리스틀리, 조지프조지프 프리스틀리 "On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations"
1773 월시, 존존 월시(John Walsh) "For his Paper on the Torpedo" [26]
1774 (없음)
1775 매스컬린, 네빌네빌 매스컬린(영어: Nevil Maskelyne) "In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, – on Schehallien" [27]
1776 쿡, 제임스제임스 쿡 "For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public" [28]
1777 머지, 존존 머지(John Mudge) "On account of his valuable Paper containing directions for making the best Composition for the metals of Reflecting Telescopes; together with a description of the process for grinding, polishing, and giving the best speculum the true parabolic form"
1778 허턴, 찰스찰스 허턴(Charles Hutton) "For his paper, entitled, The force of Fired Gunpowder, and the initial velocity of Cannon Balls, determined by Experiments" [29]
1779 (없음)
1780 빈스, 새뮤얼새뮤얼 빈스(영어: Samuel Vince) "For his paper, entitled, An investigation of the Principles of Progressive and Rotatory Motion, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [30]
1781 허셜, 윌리엄윌리엄 허셜 "For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this start has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers" [31]
1782 커원, 리처드리처드 커원 "As a reward for the merit of his labours in the science of Chemistry. For his chemical analyses of Salts" [30]
1783 구드릭, 존존 구드릭 "For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol." [30]
허친스, 토머스토머스 허친스(영어: Thomas Hutchins) "For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation."
1784 웨어링, 에드워드에드워드 웨어링 "For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series" [32]
1785 윌리엄 로이(William Roy) "For his Measurement of a Base on Hounslow Heath" [33]
1786 (없음)
1787 헌터, 존존 헌터(영어: John Hunter) "For his three Papers, – On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787" [34]
1788 찰스 블래그든(영어: Charles Blagden) "For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions" [35]
1789 모건, 윌리엄윌리엄 모건(영어: William Morgan) "For his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [36]
1790 (없음)
1791 레넬, 제임스제임스 레넬(영어: James Rennell) "For his Paper on the Rate of Travelling as performed by Camels, printed in the last (81st) volume of the Philosophical Transactions." [37]
드 뤼크, 장앙드레장앙드레 드 뤼크(프랑스어: Jean-André De Luc) "For his Improvements in Hygrometry."
1792 톰프슨, 벤저민벤저민 톰프슨 "For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat" [38]
1793 (없음)
1794 볼타, 알레산드로알레산드로 볼타 "For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani"
1795 램스든, 제시제시 램스든(영어: Jesse Ramsden) "For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates" [39]
1796 애트우드, 조지조지 애트우드(영어: George Atwood) "For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies" [40]
1797 (없음)
1798 Shuckburgh-Evelyn, GeorgeGeorge Shuckburgh-Evelyn "For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions." [41]
해칫, 찰스찰스 해칫(영어: Charles Hatchett) "For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions."
1799 헬린스, 존존 헬린스(영어: John Hellins) "For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers" [42]
1800 하워드, 에드워드에드워드 하워드(영어: Edward Howard) "For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury" [43]
1801 쿠퍼, 애스틀리 패스턴애스틀리 패스턴 쿠퍼(영어: Astley Paston Cooper) "For his Papers – on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness" [44]
1802 울러스턴, 윌리엄 하이윌리엄 하이 울러스턴 "For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [45]
1803 Chenevix, RichardRichard Chenevix "For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [46]
1804 테넌트, 스미스슨스미스슨 테넌트(영어: Smithson Tennant) "For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [47]
1805 데이비, 험프리험프리 데이비 "For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions" [48]
1806 나이트, 토머스 앤드루토머스 앤드루 나이트(Thomas Andrew Knight) "For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [49]
1807 홈, 에버라드에버라드 홈(영어: Everard Home) "For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1808 헨리, 윌리엄윌리엄 헨리 "For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1809 Troughton, EdwardEdward Troughton "For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [50]
1810 (없음)
1811 Brodie, Benjamin CollinsBenjamin Collins Brodie "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons" [51]
1812 (없음)
1813 브랜드, 윌리엄 토머스윌리엄 토머스 브랜드(영어: William Thomas Brande) "For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1814 아이보리, 제임스제임스 아이보리(영어: James Ivory) "For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [52]
1815 브루스터, 데이비드데이비드 브루스터 "For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies" [53]
1816 (없음)
1817 케이터, 헨리헨리 케이터(영어: Henry Kater) "For his Experiments on the Pendulum" [54]
1818 세핑스, 로버트로버트 세핑스(Robert Seppings) "For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1819 (없음)
1820 외르스테드, 한스 크리스티안한스 크리스티안 외르스테드 "For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries" [55]
1821 에드워드 서빈(영어: Edward Sabine) "For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions."
허셜, 존존 허셜 "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions." [56]
1822 버클랜드, 윌리엄윌리엄 버클랜드(William Buckland) "For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale" [57]
1823 폰드, 존존 폰드(John Pond) "For his various Communications to the Royal Society"
1824 브링클리, 존존 브링클리(영어: John Brinkley) "For his various Communications to the Royal Society" [58]
1825 아라고, 프랑수아프랑수아 아라고(프랑스어: François Arago "For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree." [59]
발로, 피터피터 발로(영어: Peter Barlow) "For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism."
1826 사우스, 제임스제임스 사우스(James South) "For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions" [60]
1827 프라웃, 윌리엄윌리엄 프라웃(영어: William Prout) "For his Paper entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general." [61]
포스터, 헨리헨리 포스터(Henry Foster) "For his magnetic and other observations made during the Arctic expedition to Port Bowen."
1828 ~ 1830 (없음)
1831 에어리, 조지 비델조지 비델 에어리 "For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, – On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society" [62]
1832 패러데이, 마이클마이클 패러데이 "For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year." [63]
푸아송, 시메옹시메옹 푸아송 "For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire."
1833 (없음)
1834 플라나, 조반니조반니 플라나(이탈리아어: Giovanni Plana) "For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune" [64]
1835 해리스, 윌리엄 스노윌리엄 스노 해리스(영어: William Snow Harris) "For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834" [48]
1836 베르셀리우스, 옌스 야코브옌스 야코브 베르셀리우스, "For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works."
키어넌, 프랜시스프랜시스 키어넌(영어: Francis Kiernan) "For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. "
1837 베크렐, 앙투안 세자르앙투안 세자르 베크렐(Antoine César Becquerel) "For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires." [65]
대니얼, 존 프레더릭존 프레더릭 대니얼(영어: John Frederic Daniell) "For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836."
1838 가우스, 카를 프리드리히카를 프리드리히 가우스 "For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism." [66]
패러데이, 마이클마이클 패러데이 "For his researches in specific electrical induction."
1839 브라운, 로버트로버트 브라운 "For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation" [67]
1840 리비히, 유스투스 폰유스투스 폰 리비히 "For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals." [68][69]
스튀름, 자크 샤를 프랑수아자크 샤를 프랑수아 스튀름 "For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835."
1841 옴, 게오르크게오르크 옴 "For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet" [70]
1842 MacCullagh, JamesJames MacCullagh "For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy" [71]
1843 뒤마, 장바티스트장바티스트 뒤마(Jean-Baptiste Dumas) "For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements"
1844 마테우치, 카를로카를로 마테우치(Carlo Matteucci) "For his various researches in animal electricity" [72]
1845 슈반, 테오도어테오도어 슈반 "For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen"
1846 르베리에, 위르뱅위르뱅 르베리에 "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation" [73]
1847 허셜, 존존 허셜 "For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825" [56]
1848 애덤스, 존 쿠치존 쿠치 애덤스 "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto" [74]
1849 머치슨, 로더릭로더릭 머치슨(영어: Roderick Murchison) "For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains"
1850 한센, 페테르 안드레아스페테르 안드레아스 한센 "For his researches in physical astronomy" [48]
1851 오언, 리처드리처드 오언 "On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works" [75]
1852 훔볼트, 알렉산더 폰알렉산더 폰 훔볼트 "For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years" [76]
1853 Dove, Heinrich WilhelmHeinrich Wilhelm Dove "For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth"
1854 뮐러, 요하네스 페터요하네스 페터 뮐러 "For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin" [77]
1855 푸코, 레옹레옹 푸코 "For his various researches in experimental physics" [48]
1856 Milne-Edwards, HenriHenri Milne-Edwards "For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology"
1857 슈브뢸, 미셸 외젠미셸 외젠 슈브뢸(Michel Eugène Chevreul) "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours" [48]
1858 라이엘, 찰스찰스 라이엘 "For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology" [48]
1859 베버, 빌헬름 에두아르트빌헬름 에두아르트 베버 "For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics" [78]
1860 분젠, 로베르트로베르트 분젠 "For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches" [48]
1861 아가시, 루이루이 아가시 "For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse" [48]
1862 그레이엄, 토머스토머스 그레이엄 "For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861" [79]
1863 세지윅, 애덤애덤 세지윅 "For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire" [80]
1864 다윈, 찰스찰스 다윈 "For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology" [48]
1865 샬, 미셸미셸 샬(프랑스어: Michel Chasles) "For his historical and original researches in pure geometry" [81]
1866 플뤼커, 율리우스율리우스 플뤼커 "For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis" [82]
1867 베어, 카를 에른스트 폰카를 에른스트 폰 베어 "For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology" [48]
1868 휘트스톤, 찰스찰스 휘트스톤 "For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism" [48]
1869 르뇨, 앙리 빅토르앙리 빅토르 르뇨(프랑스어: Henri Victor Regnault) "For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaries au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours" [48]
1870 줄, 제임스 프레스콧제임스 프레스콧 줄 "For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat" [48]
1871 마이어, 율리우스 로베르트 폰율리우스 로베르트 폰 마이어 "For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: – 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat" [48]
1872 뵐러, 프리드리히프리드리히 뵐러 "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones" [48]
1873 헬름홀츠, 헤르만 폰헤르만 폰 헬름홀츠 "For his researches in physics and physiology" [83]
1874 파스퇴르, 루이루이 파스퇴르 "For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine" [48]
1875 호프만, 아우구스트 빌헬름 폰아우구스트 빌헬름 폰 호프만 "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia" [84]
1876 베르나르, 클로드클로드 베르나르 "For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology" [48]
1877 Dana, James DwightJames Dwight Dana "For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published" [48]
1878 부생고, 장바티스트장바티스트 부생고(프랑스어: Jean-Baptiste Boussingault) "For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry" [85]
1879 클라우지우스, 루돌프루돌프 클라우지우스 "For his well-known researches upon heat" [86]
1880 실베스터, 제임스 조지프제임스 조지프 실베스터 "For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics" [87]
1881 뷔르츠, 샤를아돌프샤를아돌프 뷔르츠(프랑스어: Charles-Adolphe Wurtz) "For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry"
1882 케일리, 아서아서 케일리 "For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics" [88]
1883 제1대 켈빈 남작 윌리엄 톰슨 "For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics" [89]
1884 루트비히, 카를카를 루트비히 "For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science"
1885 케쿨레 폰 슈트라도니츠, 프리드리히 아우구스투스프리드리히 아우구스투스 케쿨레 폰 슈트라도니츠 "For his researches in organic chemistry" [48]
1886 노이만, 프란츠 에른스트프란츠 에른스트 노이만 "For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics" [90]
1887 후커, 조지프 돌턴조지프 돌턴 후커 "For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller" [48]
1888 헉슬리, 토머스토머스 헉슬리 "For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years" [48]
1889 새먼, 조지조지 새먼(George Salmon) "For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author" [91]
1890 뉴컴, 사이먼사이먼 뉴컴(영어: Simon Newcomb) "For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy" [92]
1891 칸니차로, 스타니슬라오스타니슬라오 칸니차로(이탈리아어: Stanislao Cannizzaro) "For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory" [48]
1892 피르호, 루돌프루돌프 피르호 "For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology" [48]
1893 스토크스, 조지 가브리엘조지 가브리엘 스토크스 "For his researches and discoveries in physical science" [93]
1894 프랭클랜드, 에드워드에드워드 프랭클랜드 "For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry" [94]
1895 바이어슈트라스, 카를카를 바이어슈트라스 "For his investigations in pure mathematics" [95]
1896 게겐바우어, 카를카를 게겐바우어(Karl Gegenbaur) "For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc"
1897 쾰리커, 알베르트 폰알베르트 폰 쾰리커(Albert von Kölliker) "In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist"
1898 허긴스, 윌리엄윌리엄 허긴스 "For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies" [48]
1899 제3대 레일리 남작 존 윌리엄 스트럿 "In recognition of his contributions to physical science" [96]
1900 베르틀로, 마르슬랭마르슬랭 베르틀로(프랑스어: Marcellin Berthelot) "For his brilliant services to chemical science" [48]
1901 기브스, 조사이어 윌러드조사이어 윌러드 기브스 "For his contributions to mathematical physics" [97]
1902 리스터, 조지프조지프 리스터 "In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery" [98]
1903 쥐스, 에두아르트에두아르트 쥐스(독일어: Eduard Suess) "For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'" [98]
1904 크룩스, 윌리엄윌리엄 크룩스 "For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects" [98]
1905 멘델레예프, 드미트리드미트리 멘델레예프 "For his contributions to chemical and physical science" [98]
1906 메치니코프, 일리야 일리치일리야 일리치 메치니코프 "On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology" [98]
1907 마이컬슨, 앨버트 에이브러햄앨버트 에이브러햄 마이컬슨 "On the ground of his investigations in optics" [98]
1908 월리스, 앨프리드 러셀앨프리드 러셀 월리스 "On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection" [98]
1909 힐, 조지 윌리엄조지 윌리엄 힐 "On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy" [98]
1910 골턴, 프랜시스프랜시스 골턴 "On the ground of his researches in heredity" [98]
1911 다윈, 조지 하워드조지 하워드 다윈 "On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects" [98]
1912 클라인, 펠릭스펠릭스 클라인 "On the ground of his researches in mathematics" [99]
1913 랭케스터, 레이레이 랭케스터(영어: Ray Lankester "On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him" [100]
1914 톰슨, 조지프 존조지프 존 톰슨 "On the ground of his discoveries in physical science" [98]
1915 파블로프, 이반이반 파블로프 "On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system" [98]
1916 듀어, 제임스제임스 듀어 "For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases" [98]
1917 루, 에밀에밀 루(Emile Roux) "On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy" [101]
1918 로런츠, 헨드릭헨드릭 로런츠 "On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics" [98]
1919 베일리스, 윌리엄윌리엄 베일리스(William Bayliss) "On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics" [98]
1920 브라운, 호러스 태버러호러스 태버러 브라운 "On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c" [102]
1921 라모어, 조지프조지프 라모어 "For his researches in mathematical physics" [103]
1922 러더퍼드, 어니스트어니스트 러더퍼드 "For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure" [98]
1923 램, 호러스호러스 램 "For his researches in mathematical physics" [104]
1924 Sharpey-Schafer, Edward AlbertEdward Albert Sharpey-Schafer "For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences"
1925 아인슈타인, 알베르트알베르트 아인슈타인 "For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory" [98]
1926 홉킨스, 프레더릭 가울랜드프레더릭 가울랜드 홉킨스 "For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry" [105]
1927 셰링턴, 찰스 스콧찰스 스콧 셰링턴 "For his distinguished work on neurology" [106]
1928 파슨스, 찰스 앨저넌찰스 앨저넌 파슨스 "For his contributions to engineering science"
1929 플랑크, 막스막스 플랑크 "For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory" [107]
1930 브래그, 윌리엄 헨리윌리엄 헨리 브래그 "For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity" [108]
1931 슈스터, 아서아서 슈스터(영어: Arthur Schuster) "For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism" [109]
1932 헤일, 조지조지 헤일 "For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory" [110]
1933 스미스, 시어볼드시어볼드 스미스(영어: Theobald Smith) "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man" [111]
1934 홀데인, 존 스콧존 스콧 홀데인(John Scott Haldane) "In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering" [112]
1935 윌슨, 찰스 톰슨 리스찰스 톰슨 리스 윌슨 "For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties" [113]
1936 에번스, 아서아서 에번스 "In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age" [114]
1937 데일, 헨리 핼릿헨리 핼릿 데일 "In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems" [115]
1938 보어, 닐스닐스 보어 "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure" [116]
1939 모건, 토머스 헌트토머스 헌트 모건 "For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution" [117]
1940 랑주뱅, 폴폴 랑주뱅 "For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics" [118]
1941 루이스, 토머스토머스 루이스(영어: Thomas Lewis) "For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart" [119]
1942 로빈슨, 로버트로버트 로빈슨(영어: Robert Robinson) "For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry" [120]
1943 바크로프트, 조지프조지프 바크로프트(Joseph Barcroft) "For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood" [121]
1944 테일러, 제프리 잉그럼제프리 잉그럼 테일러(영어: Geoffrey Ingram Taylor) "For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications" [122]
1945 에이버리, 오즈월드오즈월드 에이버리 "For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases" [123]
1946 에이드리언, 에드거 더글러스에드거 더글러스 에이드리언(영어: Edgar Douglas Adrian) "For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions" [124]
1947 하디, 고드프리 해럴드고드프리 해럴드 하디 "For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years" [125]
1948 힐, 아치볼드 비비언아치볼드 비비언 힐(Archibald Vivian Hill) "For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues" [126]
1949 헤베시, 죄르지죄르지 헤베시 "For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes" [127]
1950 채드윅, 제임스제임스 채드윅 "For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron" [128]
1951 케일린, 데이비드데이비드 케일린(영어: David Keilin) "For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes" [129]
1952 디랙, 폴폴 디랙 "In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics" [130]
1953 클라위버르, 알버르트알버르트 클라위버르(네덜란드어: Albert Kluyver) "For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology"
1954 휘터커, 에드먼드 테일러에드먼드 테일러 휘터커(Edmund Taylor Whittaker) "For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics" [131]
1955 피셔, 로널드로널드 피셔 "In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology" [132]
1956 블래킷, 패트릭 메이너드 스튜어트패트릭 메이너드 스튜어트 블래킷 "In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism"
1957 플로리, 하워드 월터하워드 월터 플로리 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine" [133]
1958 리틀우드, 존 이든저존 이든저 리틀우드 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations" [134]
1959 버넷, 프랭크 맥팔레인프랭크 맥팔레인 버넷 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology" [135]
1960 제프리스, 해럴드해럴드 제프리스(Harold Jeffreys) "In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy" [136]
1961 크레브스, 핸스 애돌프핸스 애돌프 크레브스 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles" [137] s
1962 힌셜우드, 시릴 노먼시릴 노먼 힌셜우드 "In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy" [138]
1963 Fildes, PaulPaul Fildes "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology."
1964 채프먼, 시드니시드니 채프먼(Sydney Chapman) "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis" [139]
1965 호지킨, 앨런앨런 호지킨(Alan Hodgkin) "In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology"
1966 브래그, 윌리엄 로런스윌리엄 로런스 브래그 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction" [98]
1967 카츠, 버나드버나드 카츠 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction"
1968 라이히슈타인, 타데우시타데우시 라이히슈타인 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids"
1969 Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar "In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance" [98]
1970 토드, 알렉산더 로버터스알렉산더 로버터스 토드(Alexander Robertus Todd) "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types" [98]
1971 피리, 노먼노먼 피리(영어: Norman Pirie) "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses"
1972 모트, 네빌 프랜시스네빌 프랜시스 모트 "In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics" [98]
1973 헉슬리, 앤드루앤드루 헉슬리 "In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction"
1974 호지, 윌리엄 밸런스 더글러스윌리엄 밸런스 더글러스 호지 "In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals" [140]
1975 크릭, 프랜시스프랜시스 크릭 "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology" [98]
1976 호지킨, 도로시도로시 호지킨 "In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin" [98]
1977 생어, 프레더릭프레더릭 생어 "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids" [98]
1978 우드워드, 로버트 번스로버트 번스 우드워드 "In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry" [98]
1979 페루츠, 막스막스 페루츠 "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject" [98]
1980 바턴, 데릭데릭 바턴(영어: Derek Harold Richard Barton "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and , in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry" [98]
1981 미첼, 피터 데니스피터 데니스 미첼(Peter Dennis Mitchell) "In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction" [98]
1982 콘포스, 존존 콘포스(John Cornforth) "In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules" [141]
1983 포터, 로드니 로버트로드니 로버트 포터 "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins"
1984 찬드라세카르, 수브라마니안수브라마니안 찬드라세카르 "In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity" [142]
1985 클루그, 에런에런 클루그 "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them"
1986 파이얼스, 루돌프루돌프 파이얼스 "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials"
1987 힐, 로버트로버트 힐(영어: Robert Hill) "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis"
1988 아티야, 마이클마이클 아티야 "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics" [143]
1989 밀스테인, 세사르세사르 밀스테인(스페인어: César Milstein) "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response"
1990 살람, 압두스압두스 살람 In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces [144]
1991 브레너, 시드니시드니 브레너 In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project
1992 포터, 조지조지 포터(George Porter) In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology [145]
1993 왓슨, 제임스 D.제임스 D. 왓슨 In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome [146]
1994 프랭크, 프레더릭 찰스프레더릭 찰스 프랭크(Frederick Charles Frank) In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems
1995 페너, 프랭크프랭크 페너(Frank Fenner) In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease
1996 코트렐, 앨런앨런 코트렐(Alan Cottrell) In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects [147]
1997 헉슬리, 휴휴 헉슬리(Hugh Huxley) In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology
1998 라이트힐, 제임스제임스 라이트힐(James Lighthill) In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics – analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying – and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing [148]
1999 메이너드 스미스, 존존 메이너드 스미스 In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth [149]
2000 배터스비, 앨런앨런 배터스비(Alan Battersby) In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12
2001 Miller, JacquesJacques Miller For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells
2002 포플, 존존 포플(John Pople) For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology [150]
2003 거든, 존존 거든 For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology
2004 크로토, 해럴드해럴드 크로토 in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science [151]
2005 너스, 폴폴 너스 세포생물학에 대한 전반적인 기여 및 세포 분할의 조절에 대한 연구를 기리기 위하여
for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division.
2006 호킹, 스티븐스티븐 호킹 이론물리학과 이론우주론에 대한 뛰어난 기여를 기리기 위하여
For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology.
[28]
2007 May, RobertRobert May for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance.
2008 펜로즈, 로저로저 펜로즈 for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang.
2009 에번스, 마틴마틴 에번스 for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics.
2010 콕스, 데이비드데이비드 콕스(영어: David Cox) 순수·응용 통계학에 대한 획기적인 기여를 기리기 위하여
For his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics.
[152]
린달, 토마스토마스 린달(스웨덴어: Tomas Lindahl) For his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair. [152]
2011 매켄지, 댄댄 매켄지(영어: Dan McKenzie) For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates.
2012 워커, 존 E.존 E. 워커(영어: John E. Walker) 미토콘드리아에서의 ATP 합성 메커니즘의 발견을 비롯한, 생체 에너지론(bioenergetics)에서의 획기적인 연구를 기리기 위하여
For his ground-breaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion.
[152]
2013 가임, 안드레안드레 가임 2차원 원자 결정의 인공 이종접합구조(heterostructure)에 대한 연구를 비롯한 수많은 과학적 공로를 기리기 위하여
For his numerous scientific contributions and, in particular, for initiating research on two‐dimensional atomic crystals and their artificial heterostructures.

주석[편집]

  1. Oxford DNB article:Gray, Stephen (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  2. Oxford DNB article:Desaguliers, John Theophilus (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  3. Oxford DNB article:Belchier, John (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  4. Oxford DNB article:Hales, Stephen (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  5. Oxford DNB article:Stuart, Alexander (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  6. Oxford DNB article:Middleton, Christopher (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  7. Oxford DNB article:Baker, Henry (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  8. Oxford DNB article:Watson, Sir William (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  9. Robins biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  10. Jungnickel, Christa (1996). 《Cavendish》. DIANE publishing. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  11. Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Timeline – James Bradley. Florida State University. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  12. Jungnickel, Christa (1996). 《Cavendish》. DIANE publishing. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  13. RCP Heritage – George Edwards. Royal College of Physicians. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인. [깨진 링크]
  14. Jungnickel, Christa (1996). 《Cavendish》. DIANE publishing. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  15. Oxford DNB article:Pringle, Sir John (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  16. Franklin_Benjamin biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  17. (1969) 《Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution》. Manchester University Press. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  18. Oxford DNB article:Huxham, John (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  19. Oxford DNB article:Dollond family (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  20. Engineering Timelines – John Smeaton. Engineering Timelines. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  21. Oxford DNB article:Wilson, Benjamin (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  22. The British Society for the History of Mathematics. British Society for the History of Mathematics. 2009년 2월 6일에 확인.
  23. AIM25 text-only browsing: Royal College of Surgeons of England Ellis, John (c 1710–1776). Aim25. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  24. Oxford DNB article:Woulfe, Peter. Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  25. Making and circulating knowledge through Sir William Hamilton's Campi Plhegraei (PDF). The British Society for the History of Science. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  26. Berkshire History: Biographies: Lieut-Col. John Walsh (1726–1795). Nash Ford Publishing (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  27. Maskelyne biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  28. Stephen Hawking wins Copley Medal. Trinity College, Cambridge. 2009년 2월 7일에 확인.
  29. Hutton summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  30. Digital Collections – Manuscripts – Item 15a – 15z, 15(1) – 15(20): Addresses to the Royal Society, London the first on being appointed to the Chair and later addresses on presentations of the Copley Medal, 1778–1796.. National Library of Australia. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  31. Friedrich William Herschel. Florida State University. 2009년 2월 7일에 확인.
  32. Waring summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  33. William Roy. Electric Scotland. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  34. John Hunter: ‘Founder of Scientific Surgery’ – HemOnc Today. HemOnc Today. 2009년 2월 8일에 확인.
  35. Oxford DNB article:Blagden, Charles (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  36. Oxford DNB article:Morgan, William (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  37. http://royalsociety.org/awards/copley-medal/ Royal Society - Copley Medal 2011
  38. Oxford DNB article: Thompson, Sir Benjamin (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 8일에 확인.
  39. Ramsden summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  40. Attwood summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  41. Oxford DNB article:Hatchett, Charles (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  42. British Society for the History of Mathematics. University of Warwick. 2009년 1월 29일에 확인.
  43. Sears, Derek. Edward Charles Howard (PDF). University of Arkansas. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  44. Cooper, Sir Astley Paston (1768–1841). Aim25. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  45. Wollaston. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 2009년 2월 8일에 확인.
  46. Griffith, WP. PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals. Platinum Metals Review. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  47. Griffith, WP. PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals. Platinum Metals Review. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  48. Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  49. Darrow, GM. Early Breeding in Europe. United States National Agricultural Library. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  50. Troughton Summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 30일에 확인.
  51. Buchanan, W.W.. Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (1783–1862). British Society for Rheumatology. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  52. Ivory summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 30일에 확인.
  53. Sir David Brewster (1781–1868). University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  54. Henry Kater (1777–1835), Scientist. National Portrait Gallery. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  55. SpringerLink – Book Chapter. SpringerLink. 2009년 2월 8일에 확인.
  56. Herschel summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 30일에 확인.
  57. William Buckland & Reliquae Diluvianae. University of Minnesota. 2009년 2월 8일에 확인.
  58. The British Society for the History of Mathematics. The British Society for the History of Mathematics. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  59. Arago summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 30일에 확인.
  60. Lake County Astronomical Society. Lake County Astronomical Society. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인. [깨진 링크]
  61. The Gentleman's Magazine》. The Gentleman's Magazine. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  62. Airy summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 30일에 확인.
  63. Poisson summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 1월 30일에 확인.
  64. Plana biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  65. Chambers Search Chambers. Chambers Harrap. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  66. (영어) O’Connor, John J.; Edmund F. Robertson. 코플리 메달. 《MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive》. 세인트앤드루스 대학교.
  67. Oxford DNB article:Brown, Robert (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  68. Brock, William H. (2002). 《Justus Von Liebig: The Chemical Gatekeeper》. Cambridge University Press. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  69. Sturm summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  70. Ohm biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  71. MacCullagh summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  72. (1984) 《Amedeo Avogadro, a Scientific Biography》. Springer. ISBN 978-90-277-1624-8. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  73. Le Verrier biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  74. Adams summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  75. Own, Richard: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Wiley InterScience. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  76. Humboldt – Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander – von – 1769–1859 – Baron – German naturalist, geologist and explorer. University of Edinburgh. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  77. BjS: Academic Lineage. Yale University. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  78. Weber summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  79. Darwin and the Copley Medal (PDF). American Philosophical Society. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인. [깨진 링크]
  80. Adam Sedgwick Collection. American Philosophical Society. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인. [깨진 링크]
  81. Chasles summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  82. Plucker summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  83. Helmholtz summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  84. Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science》. Journal of Industrial Science. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  85. Jean Baptiste Boussingault (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  86. Clausius summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  87. Sylvester summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  88. Cayley summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  89. Thompson summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  90. Neumann_Franz summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  91. Salmon summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  92. Newcomb summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  93. Stokes summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  94. Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, c 1863–1883.. Science and Society Picture Library. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  95. Weierstrass summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  96. Rayleigh summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 3일에 확인.
  97. Gibbs summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  98. Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal. Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  99. Klein summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  100. Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester (PDF). National Marine Biological Laboratory. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  101. Notes and Records of the Royal Society. Royal Society Publishing. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  102. Obituary notice: Horace Tabberer Brown (PDF). Biochemical Journal. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  103. Larmour summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  104. Lamb summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  105. Oxford DNB article: Hopkins, Sir Frederick (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  106. Sir Charles Sherrington – Biography. Nobel Foundation. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  107. Planck summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  108. William Bragg – Biography. Nobel Foundation. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  109. Sir Arthur Schuster. doi:10.1086/143618. Bibcode1935ApJ....81...97H.
  110. George Ellery Hale: Acknowledgements. Franklin Institute. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  111. Award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society to Professor Theobald Smith. doi:10.1126/science.78.2035.598. Bibcode1933Sci....78R.598..
  112. Oxford DNB article: Haldane, John Scott (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  113. C.T.R.Wilson – Biography. Nobel Foundation. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  114. Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S: Abstract. Nature. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  115. Sir Henry Dale – Biography. Nobel Foundation. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  116. Bohr_Niels summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  117. Thomas H. Morgan – Biography. Nobel Foundation. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  118. Medal Awards of the Royal Society. Nature. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  119. Thomas Lewis. Cardiology Journal. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인. [깨진 링크]
  120. Sir Robert Robinson – Biography. nobelprize.org. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  121. Sir Joseph Barcroft of Cambridge. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  122. Taylor_Geoffrey summay. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  123. The Oswald T. Avery Collection: Biographical Information. United States National Library of Medicine. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  124. Oxford DNB article:Adrian, Edgar Douglas (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  125. Hardy summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  126. Oxford DNB article:Hill, Archibald Vivian (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  127. Royal Society: Anniversary Address By Sir Robert Robinson, O.M., F.R.S. Nature. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  128. Oxford DNB article:Chadwick, James (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  129. Oxford DNB article:Keilin, David (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  130. Oxford DNB article:Dirac, Paul(subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  131. Whittaker summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  132. Fisher summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  133. Oxford DNB article:Florey, Howard (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  134. Littlewood summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  135. Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet – Biography. nobelprize.org. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  136. Jeffreys summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  137. Sir Hans Adolf Krebs. nobel-winners.com. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  138. Oxford DNB article:Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  139. Oxford DNB article:Chapman, Sydney (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  140. Hodge summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  141. Emeritus Professor Sir John Cornforth – Alumni & Friends. University of Sydney. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  142. Chandrasekhar biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  143. Atiyah biography. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  144. Oxford DNB article:Salam, Abdus (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  145. Oxford DNB article:Porter, George (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  146. Copley Medal. 《Royal Society website》. The Royal Society. April 19 2013에 확인.
  147. MRS Website: Award Presentations. Materials Research Society. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  148. Lighthill summary. University of St Andrews. 2009년 2월 5일에 확인.
  149. John Maynard Smith January 6, 1920 – April 19, 2004. Genetics. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  150. Obituary: John A. Pople. The Observer. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  151. FSU highlights. Florida State University. 2009년 2월 15일에 확인.
  152. Two medals were awarded to celebrate the Society's 350th anniversary: Recent award winners 2010. The Royal Society. 2010년 10월 6일에 확인. “"”