브라질의 대통령 목록
위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.
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구 공화국 (1889-1930)[편집]
|1||데오도루 다 폰세카||1891년 2월 26일 (1889년 11월 15일 임시 정부 대통령에 취임)||1891년 11월 23일 ||플로리아누 페이쇼투||무소속 (군부 출신)|
|2||플로리아누 페이쇼투||1891년 11월 23일||1894년 11월 14일||없음||무소속 (군부 출신)|
|3||프루덴치 드 모라이스||1894년 11월 15일||1898년 11월 14일||마누에우 비토리누||상파울루 공화당|
|4||캄포스 살레스||1898년 11월 15일||1902년 11월 14일||로자 이 시우바||상파울루 공화당|
|5||호드리게스 알베스||1902년 11월 15일||1906년 11월 14일||실비아누 브란당
|6||아폰수 페나||1906년 11월 15일||1909년 6월 14일||닐로 페사냐||미나스제라이스 공화당|
|7||닐로 페사냐||1909년 6월 14일||1910년 11월 14일||없음||리우데자네이루 공화당|
|8||에르메스 다 폰세카||1910년 11월 15일||1914년 11월 14일||벤세슬라우 브라스||보수공화당 (군부 출신)|
|9||벤세슬라우 브라스||1914년 11월 15일||1918년 11월 14일||우르바누 산토스||미나스제라이스 공화당|
|–||호드리게스 알베스||–||–||델핑 모레이라||상파울루 공화당|
|10||델핑 모레이라||1919년 1월 16일 (1918년 11월 15일 대통령 권한 대행 취임)||1919년 7월 28일 ||없음||미나스제라이스 공화당|
|11||에피타시우 페소아||1919년 7월 28일||1922년 11월 14일||델핑 모레이라
부에누 드 파이바
|12||아르투르 베르나르데스||1922년 11월 15일||1926년 11월 14일||에스타시우 코임브라||미나스제라이스 공화당|
|13||와싱톤 루이스||1926년 11월 15일||1930년 10월 24일 ||멜루 비아나||상파울루 공화당|
|–||줄리우 프레스테스||–||–||비탈 소아레스||상파울루 공화당|
바르가스 시대 (1930-1946)[편집]
- 정당의 자유가 크게 억압된 시기이다.
|#||대통령||사진||임기 시작||임기 종료||부통령||정당|
이사이아스 드 노로냐,
|1930년 10월 24일 (임시 군사 정부)||1930년 11월 3일 (임시 군사 정부)||없음||무소속 (군사 정부)|
|14||제툴리우 바르가스||1934년 7월 20일 (1930년 11월 3일 임시 정부 대통령 취임)||1945년 10월 29일||없음||자유동맹|
|15||조제 리냐레스||1945년 10월 29일||1946년 1월 31일||없음||무소속 (브라질 연방 대법원장 겸임)|
|16||Gaspar Dutra||1946년 1월 3일||1951년 1월 30일||Nereu Ramos||Social Democratic Party (military)|
|17||제툴리우 바르가스||31 January 1951||24 August 1954||Café Filho||Brazilian Labour Party|
|18||Café Filho||24 August 1954||1956년 1월 30일 (under leave of absence from 9 November 1955)||없음||Brazilian Labour Party|
|19||Carlos Luz||9 November 1955 (Acting President)||11 November 1955 (Acting President)||없음||Social Democratic Party|
|20||Nereu Ramos||11 November 1955 (Acting President)||30 January 1956 (Acting President)||없음||Social Democratic Party|
|21||주셀리누 쿠비체크||1956년 1월 31일||1961년 1월 30일||João Goulart||Social Democratic Party|
|22||Jânio Quadros||1961년 1월 31일||1961년 8월 25일||João Goulart||National Labour Party|
|23||Ranieri Mazzilli||25 August 1961 (Acting President) ||7 September 1961 (Acting President)||없음||Social Democratic Party|
|24||João Goulart||7 September 1961 ||1 April 1964||없음||Brazilian Labour Party|
군사 독재 (1964-1985)[편집]
- 다음과 같은 정당을 제외한 나머지 정당들이 해산된 시기이다.
|#||President||Picture||Took office||Left office||Vice President(s)||Political Party|
|25||라니에리 마찌이||1 April 1964||15 April 1964||없음||Social Democratic Party|
|26||움베르투 지 알렌카르 카스텔루 브랑쿠||15 April 1964||14 March 1967||호세 마리아 알크민||National Renewal Alliance Party (military)|
|27||아르투르 코스타 에 시우바||15 March 1967||31 August 1969 (suspended due to ill health) 14 October 1969 (removed)||페드루 알레이후||National Renewal Alliance Party (military)|
아우렐리우 지 리라 타바레스,
and 마르시우 멜루
|31 August 1969 (military junta)||30 October 1969 (military junta)||없음||None (military junta composed of general officers on active service in the Armed Forces)|
|28||에밀리우 가라스타주 메디시||30 October 1969||14 March 1974||아우구스투 라지마케르||National Renewal Alliance Party (military)|
|29||에르네스투 게이세우||15 March 1974||14 March 1979||아달베르투 페레이라 두스 산투스||National Renewal Alliance Party (military)|
|30||주앙 피게이레두||15 March 1979||14 March 1985||아우렐리아누 샤베스||Democratic Social Party (military)|
신 공화국 (1985년-현재)[편집]
|–||탄크레두 네베스||–||–||조제 사르네이||브라질 민주운동당|
|31||조제 사르네이||1985년 4월 21일 (1985년 3월 15일부터 대통령 권한 대행)||1990년 3월 14일||없음||브라질 민주운동당|
|32||페르난두 콜로르 지 멜루||1990년 3월 15일||1992년 12월 29일 (1992년 10월 2일 탄핵)||이타마르 프랑쿠||국가재건당|
|33||이타마르 프랑쿠||1992년 12월 29일 (1992년 10월 2일부터 대통령 권한 대행)||1994년 12월 31일||없음||브라질 민주운동당|
|34||페르난두 엔히크 카르도주||1995년 1월 1일||2002년 12월 31일||마르쿠 마시에우||브라질 사회민주당|
|35||루이스 이나시우 룰라 다 시우바||2003년 1월 1일||2010년 12월 31일||조제 알렝카르||노동당|
|36||지우마 호세프||2011년 1월 1일||--||미셰우 테메르||노동자당|
- In a coup d'état, he shut down the National Congress and ruled by decree for a few days. There was a reaction of those loyal to the Constitution and Deodoro was forced to resign the presidency. His dissolution of Congress and his acts since the coup were considered null and void.
- Died in office.
- Rodrigues Alves, who had been the 5th President of Brazil (1902-1906), was elected to serve as the 10th President in 1918 but fell ill with the Spanish Flu before his inauguration, so that he was not able to attend it. His running-mate, Delfim Moreira took office as Vice-President and became Acting President. Rodriges Alves never took the oath of office to become the 10th President, as he did not recover from his illness and died. Delfim Moreira succeeded to the Presidency upon the President-elect's death in January 1919.
- Vice-President Delfim Moreira succeded to the Presidency upon the death of President-elect Rodrigues Alves, but, in accordance with the constitutional provisions then in force, since the vacancy of the presidency occurred in the first half of the four-year presidential term, new elections were summoned and Delfim Moreira served only until an elected President was chosen and inaugurated to finish the 1918-1922 presidential term.
- Deposed by the 1930 Revolution
- Júlio Prestes, elected on 1 March 1930, never took office due to the 1930 coup that deposed his predecessor Washington Luís.
- Getúlio Vargas was de facto President of Brazil from 3 November 1930 to 20 July 1934, as head of the provisional government. On July 17, 1934, he was elected President of Brazil by the National Constituent Assembly, taking office three days later. On 10 November 1937, he led a coup d'état and proclaimed the Estado Novo dictatorship, extending his term until 29 October 1945, when he was deposed by the military.
- The office of Vice-President was abolished during Vargas' tenure.
- José Linhares, President of the Supreme Court, took office after he was summoned by the Armed Forces, once his predecessor had been deposed.
- Committed suicide.
- Declared himself unable to govern for medical reasons. His self declared incapacity led to the assumption of the presidency by Carlos Luz (who was President of the Chamber of Deputies) as Acting President. Carlos Luz was seen as hostile to the inauguration of the then-president elect, Juscelino Kubitschek. Fearing that Carlos Luz would lead a coup to prevent the inauguration of the president-elect, a section of the military deposed him, and installed the President of the Senate, Nereu Ramos, as Acting President of the Republic in his stead. Upon the deposition of Carlos Luz from the post of Acting President, President Café Filho attempted to terminate his self-declared incapacity, but was prevented from resuming the powers and duties of the presidency by the same military faction that had installed Nereu Ramos as Acting President.
- President of the Senate. Summoned by the Minister of the Army, Marshall Henrique Teixeira Lott, who led the coup to overtrow Carlos Luz, Senator Nereu Ramos assumed the presidency after Luz's deposition.
- resigned from office.
- Acting president following Quadros' resignation. Vice-President João Goulart was on an official visit to China, and only took office on September 7.
- Goulart was on an official visit to China when Quadros resigned the presidency. While the Vice-President was still abroad, there was an attempt on the part of the Vice-President's opponents, who controlled Congress, to prevent him from being inaugurated, but that movement failed, due to resistance by the Governor of the State Rio Grande do Sul and a split in the military. However, Congress only allowed the inauguration of Goulart to proceed after a compromise was reached, whereby a Constitutional Amendment severely limiting the powers of the presidency was passed on 2 September 1961. Under that Constitutional Amendment, the presidential Executive, that had existed since the proclamation of the Republic, was abolished and replaced with a parliamentary system, in which a prime minister was the head of the Government, and the President retained only the role of head of State. The Amendment however stipulated that the constitutional change would only become permanent if confirmed by the people in a referendum. On 6 January 1963 that referendum was held, and a majority of the voters rejected the Amendment, backing the restoration of the presidential Executive instead. According to the result of the referendum, on 23 January 1963 a new Constitutional Amendment was promulgated, reppealing the 1961 Amendment and re-establishing the presidential Executive as it existed immediately prior to that Amendment. Thus, from 7 September 1961 until 23 January 1963 President Goulart served as head of State only, in a parliamentary system of Government, and, from 23 January 1963 onwards, he served as both Head of State and Head of Government.
- deposed by the military coup of 1964
- Following the 1964 military coup, the President of Congress, Senator Auro de Moura Andrade convened a joint session of Congress and summarily announced that President João Goulart was deposed. Moura Andrade then declared Ranieri Mazzilli (who then was the President of the Chamber of Deputies and the first person in the presidential line of succession) to have succeeded to the office of President of the Republic. Accordingly, Mazzili assumed the office of President on 1 April, 1964. On 9 April 1964, a body known as the Supreme Command of the Revolution, composed of the leaders of the military coup (the commanders of the three branches of the Armed Forces), issued an Institutional Act summoning the National Congress to elect a new President in 48 hours. The military then put forward the name of Marshall Castelo Branco. Ranieri Mazzili, therefore, remained as President only up to the election and inauguration of Castelo Branco.
- A military junta composed of the Ministers in charge of the three brances of the Armed Forces assumed the powers of the presidency on 31 August 1969 after President Costa e Sliva suffered a cerebral trombosis that left him completely incapacitated. The military junta seized power so as to prevent the Vice-President, a civilian, from becoming Acting President. In the initial stage of the President's disease, the junta hoped that he would recover. Realizing that he would not, the military junta issued an institutional act on 14 October 1969 removing the incapacitated President from office and summoning new elections. It remained in place until a new President was sworn-in.
- Died before taking office. Tancredo Neves became gravely ill on the eve of his own inauguration, so that he could not attend it. José Sarney, his running mate, took office as Vice-President and served as Acting President from the day of Neves' would-be inauguration to the day he died. Upon Neves' death on 21 April 1985, Acting President Sarney succeeded to the presidency.
- Impeached by the Chamber of Deputies. Upon the acceptance of the charges of impeachment, President Collor was suspended from office for 180 days in accordance with the Constitution and the Vice-President became Acting President. On the final day of his trial of impeachment before the Brazilian Federal Senate, Collor resigned the presidency, in an attempt to stop the process. Acting President Itamar Franco was then sworn-in as President. The trial of impeachment continued in spite of Collor's resignation and he was found guilty of the charges and disqualified for holding public office for eight years.